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Analtmr '" "(' Marim Biiltpral Lahtrtilirj at CoiJ 

String Harttr, Lnng IilanJ 



A. C. McCLURG & CO. 


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A. C. McClurg & Co. 


Publiflhed September, 1916 

Copyrighted in Great Britain 



EuQoIf JUuckatt 




This manual has been written to supply the need which has been felt 
in this country for a long time of a book containing descriptions of the 
common invertebrate animals, by means of which their names and affinities 
can be determined. Excellent general manuals with analytical keys for 
the identification of the common insects already exist, but a person wishing 
to identify animals belonging to most of the other invertebrate groups 
must usually have recourse to technical papers and treatises which are 
for the most part inaccessible except to specialists. The book is intended 
more particularly for use in the eastern and central portions of the United 
States and Canada, and the endeavor has been made to include in it most 
of the common invertebrates except insects occurring in this region. In 
addition to these^ representative species occurring in the western states and 
on the Pacific slope are included, as are also other species to which some 
special interest attaches and which are found in other parts of the world. 
Animals which inhabit the deep sea have not been included except in special 
eases where they are representative of their particular groups. 

The general plan of the book is similair to that of Leunis' Zoologie, 
a standard German work which has for two generations supplied the need 
of a general synopsis of animals in Europe, and has been extensively 
used elsewhere throughout the world. As in that work, the analytical 
tables and descriptions of species of each of the larger groups of animals 
are preceded by a morphological description of the group together with 
some account of the habits and distribution of the animals. In these 
descriptions all the technical terms appearing in the tables are explained. 
References to the principal authorities upon which the descriptions are 
based are given in footnotes, as are also references to important treatises 
and monographs which have appeared on the animals described. 

A knowledge of the historical basis of zoological names adds greatly 
to their significance and the author has consequently given a history 
of the nomenclature of each of the larger subdivisions of the animal 
kingdom in connection with the morphological description of it. A history 
of the general development of the system of classification since the pub- 
lication of the tenth edition of linnieus' Sy sterna Naturae land a brief 
survey of the progress of zoological studies in America are added in the 


An important object aimed at in these historical notes is to give the 
student of American animals a background for his knowledge of zoological 
names. In order to attain this object still more fully, brief biographical 
notices of the authors of these names, in so far as they appear in this work, 
have been introduced at the end of the book. 

In the choice of the scientific names of the animals described the author 
has endeavored to follow the best usage. He has usually conformed to 
the laws of priority established by the International Commission of Nomen- 
clature, and has adopted the rulings of the Commission where such have 
been made. In a few cases, however, these laws have been disregarded, as, 
for instance, in the case of Amceha, Holothuria, and Physalia, and for the 
reason that it seems probable that in such cases the scientific names of the 
animals which are now in common use will by common consent be retained. 
The author has no desire to be an innovator in this book in the use of 
zoological names, but wishes only to use those which will probably in the 
future be the names of the animals described. 

The name of the author of each species and genus follows the first 
mention of it in the descriptions, as is customary, and in those cases in 
which the author originally placed his species in some other genus than 
the one here employed, his name is in parentheses. Wherever an author's 
name appears more than once in the same genus it is usually abbreviated 
after the first occurrence. No other abbreviations occur in the text except 
in the case of linnffius. In all cases where his name appears as the author 
of a generic or specific name it is abbreviated to *'L." 

The illustrations which have been introduced have been copied mostly 
from textbooks, special treatises, and monographs, for the use of which 
hearty thanks are here extended to their authors, whose names appear in 
parentheses after the titles of the figures. Thanks are also due to the 
following publishers for permission to make these copies: Doubleday, 
Page & Company, Gustav Fischer, Ginn & Company, Henry Holt & Com- 
pany, The Macmillan Company, and The Whitaker & Ray-Wiggin Company. 

In compiling this book the author has utilized every source of informa- 
tion within his reach and is consequently under obligations to very many 
people and their published works. His personal obligation to all those 
friends who have given valuable advice and assistance, often at the expendi- 
ture of much time and labor, is very great indeed. The following are those 
to whom he feels a special indebtedness: Mr. Nathan Banks, Dr. H. L. 
Clark, Prof. W. R. Coe, Dr. C. B. Davenport, Prof. J. H. Gerould, Prof. 
L. von Graff, Prof. C. W. Hargitt, Prof. G. T. Hargitt, Prof. J. S. Kingsley, 
Prof. R. von Lendenfeld (deceased), Prof. A. Looss, Dr. M. M. Metcalf, 
Prof. E. L. Mark, Prof. S. 0. Mast, Prof. J. P. Moore, Dr. T. Odhner, 
Dr. A. E. Ortmann, Prof. R. C. Osbum, Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, Prof. A. A. 


Schaeffer, Mr. E. L. Shaffer, Dr. C. W. Stiles, Dr. F. B. Sumner, Prof. 
A. L. Treadwell, Dr. T. W. Vaughan, Prof. D. D. Whitney, Prof. H. H. 
Wilder, Prof. S. R. Williams, Prof. H. V. Wilson, and Prof. R. H. Wolcott. 
The author wishes to thank Prof. J. P. Givler of Southwestern College 
for assistance in revising the proof sheets, he having read a large part of 
the text and made many corrections and useful suggestions. He also wishes 
to acknowledge his indebtedness to Prof. Ludwig von Graff of the University 
of Graz, Austria, who extended to him the use of his laboratories and 
extensive library during a residence of two semesters in that city, and whose 
unfailing courtesy and kindness will ever be gratefully remembered. His 
greatest obligation, however, in preparing this work is to Dr. Charles B. 
Davenport of Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, at whose suggestion it 
was undertaken in the first place, and without whose constant cooperation 
from year to year during its progress it would not have been completed. 

H. S. P. 
Haverford, Penn. 




1. The Linnaean system of classifying animals 1 

2. The study of animals in America 5 


Class 1. Sarcodina .14 

Class 2. Mastigophora 24 

^ Class 3. Sporozoa 42 

Class 4. Infusoria 48 


Subphylum 1. Spongiaria 71 

Class 1. Calcarea 75 

Class 2. Hexactinellida 77 

Class 3. Demospongiae 78 

Subphylum 2. Cnidaria 86 

Class 1. Hydrozoa 90 

Class 2. Scyphozoa 125 

Class 3. Anthozoa 132 

Subphylum 3. Ctenophora 150 

^ Class 1. Tentaculata 151 

'' Class 2. Nuda 154 

3. VZBMES 155 

Subphylum 1. Plathelminthes 156 

Class L Turbellaria 157 

Class 2. Trematodes 171 

Class 3. Cestodes 189 

Class 4. Nemertea 203 

Subphylum 2. Nemathelminthes 213 

Class 1. Nematoda 214 

*^ Class 2. Gordiacea 225 

Class 3. Acanthocephala 228 

Subphylum 3. Trochelminthes 230 

Class 1. Rotif era 230 

Class 2. Gastrotricha 243 

Class a Einoihyncha 244 



Subphylum 4. Biyozoa 245 

^^ Class 1. Entoprocta 246 

Class 2. Ectoprocta 248 

Subphylum 6. Brachiopoda 264 

Subphylum 6. Phoronidea 270 

Subphylum 7. Chaetognatha 271 

Subphylum 8. Sipunculoidea 272 

Class 1. Sipunculida 273 

Class 2. Priapulida 276 

Phtluk 4. Ahvelida 277 

Class 1. Archiannelida 280 

Class 2. Chastopoda 281 

Class 3. Hirudinea 315 

Class 4. Myzostomida 321 

Phtluic 5. Abtebopoda 323 

Class 1. Crustacea 326 

.^ Class 2. Arachnoidea 400 

Class 3. Tracheata 461 

Phtluk 6. Mollitbca 478 

Class 1. Amphineura 482 

Class 2. Scaphopoda 490 

Class 3. Gastropoda 492 

Class 4. Pelecypoda 563 

Class 5. Cephalopoda 602 


Class 1. Crinoidea 619 

Class 2. Asteroidea 623 

Class 3. Ophiuroidea 633 

Class 4. Echinoidea 638 

Class 5. Holothurioidea 646 

PsTLinc 8. Ohobdata 652 

Subphylum 1. Enteropneusta . • 652 

Subphylum 2. Tunicata 655 

Class 1. Larvacea 657 

Class 2. Thaliacea 660 

Class 3. Ascidiacea 663 

Subphylum 3. Leptocardia 671 

LiBT OF Authors 675 

Globbabt 693 

Index 705 






L The lAnnaan system of classifying animals, — The foundation of 
the modem system of classifying animals was laid by Carolus Linnnus 
in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae, published in 1758. In this 
epoch-making work he first applied his fully developed binomial method 
of classification to the animal kingdom and arranged all the animals 
then known to science according to its rules into classes, orders, genera, 
and species. 

The essential feature of this ^stem and that which was new at the 
time was the giving of two names to each species of animals, instead of 
one, or several, one of which was the specific name and the other the 
name of the next higher subdivision in the classification, the genus. The 
other important features were the precisions of the terminology employed, 
which enables the author to characterize a species in & few words, and 
the natural arrangement of the classification in which the position of 
each species indicates the degree of its genetic relationship to all the 

It is true that predecessors of Linnaras had anticipated many features 
of his S3rstem. The idea of a species was already well fixed before his 
time, and efforts were made to characterize those then known and the new 
ones which were constantly being discovered. But the names given were 
often complex and cumbersome and no uniformity existed between the 
systems of terminology of different authors. Also the custom of giving 
two or more Latin names to a species was frequently in vogue, but a 
binomial ssrstem, with the definite relation of the specific to the generic 
name, was new. The genus, which gives the clue to the natural affinities of 
the animal, was peculiarly Linnieus' invention. 

Attempts had also been made by Ray and Ellein and other advanced 
thinkers to form a system which should express the natural relationships 



of animals, but such attempts were not generally understood or followed, 
and most authors still employed unnatural methods of arranging them. 
Many still followed Pliny and grouped animals according to their environ- 
mental conditions, placing those together having similar methods of life, 
as land animals, fresh-water animals, marine animals, flying animals, 
etc. Within each group the species were often arranged in alphabetical 

Linnaeus' system was very quickly accepted by the scientific world 
and went into universal use, and modem zoology may, in a very real sense, 
be said to begin with the year 1758. 

So radical, however, was Linnaeus' reform that neither the superiority 
of his system nor the simplicity of his terminology would probably have 
been sufScient thus to procure its instant adoption if they had not been 
proposed by a man of his great fame and commanding position in the 
world. Linnaeus was considered by his contemporaries, because of his 
numerous and important contributions to science and his eminence as a 
teacher in the University of Upsala, as the greatest naturalist of all time. 
His importance was indicated by the phrase in vogue: Deus creavit; 
lAnfkBtM diapoauit. 

The immediate acceptance of the Linnaean classification had the same 
effect upon the study of animals and plants in his day as that of Darwin's 
theoiy of natural selection had almost exactly one hundred years later. 
It gave a tremendous impetus to every branch of biological investigation 
and started a new era. Systematic zoology, morphology, physiology, and 
experimental zoology all attracted able investigators, who studied them 
with feverish activity. Comparative studies first became possible as now 
the facts of the science were for the first time arranged in something like 
an orderly and natural manner, and the next generation saw the rise of the 
sciences of comparative anatomy, paleontology, and comparative embry- 
ology, and also the first modem speculations on the blood relationships and 
the evolution of living things. 

All these things gave a new importance to zoology and raised it from 
the position it had occupied of a mere annex to medicine to the dignity of 
an independent science. 

Linnaeus divided the animal kingdom into six classes: MammaUa, 
Avea, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta, and Vermes. The knowledge of this last 
class, which included all invertebrate animals except the arthropods, was 
in a very confused state and one of the chief objects of the many able 
zoologists of the generation immediately following him was to remedy this 
condition. The men whose services were greatest in this direction were 
0. F. Miiller, Lamarck, and Cuvier. In 1794 Lamarck first distinguished 
the vertebrates from the invertebrates and divided the Linnaean class 


Vermes into the five classes of Mollusca, Insecta, Vermes, Echinodermata, 
and Polypi. Thus a long step was taken towards modernizing the system, 
and this early effort of Lamarck may be said to be the first modem classi- 
fication of animals. He, in his later works, further subdivided the inver- 
tebrate types until he had ten, the fundamental idea at the basis of his 
classification being that the various groups of animals constitute a single 
ascending series which begins with the lowest and ends with the highest. 
This principle of the unity of the type found a wide acceptance among the 
naturalists of that time and was based upon the law: Natura non facit 

In 1812 Cuvier published his subdivision of the animal kingdom into 
four branches or types and in 1817 his great work Le Bigne Animal, which 
established the second great reform of the system, and was destined to 
exert an influence only second to that of LinnaBus' Systema Naturae 
upon the study of animals and the development of the system. In these 
works Cuvier controverted the principle of the unity of type among ani- 
mals and taught that, instead of one, four distinct and permanent types 
prevail. It was upon these four types that he based his four fundamental 
branches of the animal kingdom: Vertebrata, Articulata, Mollusca and 
Zoopkyta or Radiata. 

A comparison of this classification vnth that of Linnaeus will show 
what a tremendous advance had been made in the development of the sys- 
tem in the half-centuiy separating them. The group of animals which 
had benefited most in this general advance was probably the Mollusca, 
which was Cuvier's special field of research. The lowest group in Cuvier's 
system, as in that of Linnaeus, was the one about which the least was 
known, the Zoophyta or Radiata, being made up of several distinct and 
heterogeneous groups of animals which bore no near relationships to one 

This condition led to an active investigation during the generation 
immediately following of all the lower animals, and a very large number 
of works of fundamental importance appeared. Rudolphi studied the 
parasitic worms, Tiedemann and L. Agassiz the anatomy and Johannes 
Mailer the development of echinoderms, Ehrenberg the microscopic ani- 
mals, Efichscholtz, Sars, and others jellyfish and polyps. The knowledge 
of these two latter groups was also very much extended as the result of 
various scientific expeditions which were sent out by the French, English, 
Russian, and American governments to different parts of the world, espe- 
cially to the tropical oceans. Of these voyages perhaps the most inter- 
esting were that of the Russian ship Rurik from 1815 to 1818 in which 
ChamissQ and Eschscholtz went as naturalists and discovered the alterna- 
tion of generations of Salpa, that of the English ship Beagle between 1831 


and 1835 with Darwin as naturalist, and the American expedition under 
Captain Wilkes between 1838 and 1842 with James Dwight Dana as the 
principal naturalist 

The influence of all these investigations, and also that of the newly 
established cellular theoiy of the structure of plants and animals, on the 
development of the zoological system, led to the third great reform of the 
latter. In 1845 von Siebold subdivided Cuvier's fourth type, the Zoophyta 
or BadiatOy into three types or phyla, the Protoeoa, Zoophyta, and Vermes, 
confining thus the term Zoophyta to the truly radiate animals. He also 
broke up Cuvier's second type Articulata, removing the AnneUda to the 
new phylum Vermes and creating another new phylum for the CnMtacea, 
Araehnida, Myriapoda, and Insecta which he called the Arthropoda, Two 
years later B. Leuckart broke up the phylum Zoophyta, subdividing it 
into the phyla Echinodermata and Ccslenterata, and emphasized the iso- 
lated position of the Protoaoa, Milne-Edwards also formed still another 
new type or phylum, the Molluscoidea, in which he included the Bryozoa 
and Tunicata, The animal kingdom was thus in 1850 subdivided into 
eight phyla, the Protozoa, Coslenterata, Echinodermata, Vermes, Arthro- 
poda, Molluscoidea, MoUusca, and Vertehrata, an arrangement which is 
still found in many textbooks. 

Darwin's Origin of Species was published in 1859 and the fourth 
and last important reform of the zoological fiystem of classification was the 
direct consequence of the doctrines therein promulgated. The theoiy of 
the common descent and blood relationship of all ftwiinRlfl which Darwin 
taught was at variance with Cuvier's theoiy of fixed types and in harmony 
with Lamarck's theory of the essential unity of the animal kingdom, )and 
was first employed by Haeckel as the basis of a system of classification. 
In 1877 he called attention to the need of placing the entire system on an 
evolutionary basis and at the same time subdivided the animal kingdom 
into the two great groups of the Protozoa and the Metazoa, and the 
latter into the two great groups of the Ccslenterata and the Calomata. In 
still more recent times other authors, notably Hatschek, following Haeckel's 
lead, have carried the subdivision still further on the same basis. The old 
idea of types, however, has a veiy tenacious life and is still the basis of 
the classification of animals in most textbooks— and probably rightly so. 
For animals can, as a matter of fact, notwithstanding their ultimate 
relationships with one another, be grouped in a nund>er of distinct types 
or phyla, each of which has a characteristic plan of structure. Cuvier's 
belief, however, that these types are fixed and isolated creations has long 
since been abandoned. 

Very important has been the formation in recent times of the phylum, 
Chordoma or Chordata, which brings under the same subdivision all the 


MiimalB poflsessmg the essential characteristics of the vertebrate type. 
The formation of this phylum has been due to the fundamental researches 
of Kowalevsky, who in 1866, 1867, and 1871 gave the first detailed and 
aeenrate descriptions of the anatomy of Balanoglosaua and also the first 
detailed account of the embryology of ascidians and of Amphioxua, show- 
ing that these animals are related to one another and to vertebrates. The 
term Chordoma was introduced in 1874 by Haeckel to include the Tuni- 
eaUij Amphioxus, and the Vertehrata, and the terms Urochorda and 
CephaHockorda by Lankester in 1878 for the Tunicata and Amphioxua. 
In 1884 Bateson, on the basis of his researches on the American form 
Balanoglo88U8 auraniiacua, added the Enteropneuata to the Chordata and 
proposed the term Hemichorda. 

The system of zoological classification was thus fixed some twenty or 
thirty years ago and has undergone no important changes in its larger 
features since. This is not true, however, of many of the subordinate and 
smaller of its groups, the arrangement of which changes from time to 
time as the knowledge of the relationships of the animals composing them 
increases. We find this to be especially true of certain low animals 
whidi seem to be isolated side branches of the ancestral tree, the origin 
of which from the main stem is still obscure. 

2. The atudy of ammala in America.*— The earliest notices of Amer- 
ican animals are to be found in the numerous descriptions of the country 
and books of travel in America which were published in Europe during 
the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. In Linnnus' twelfth 
edition over 500 species of North American animals were described, of 
which 78 were mammals and 260 were birds. Of the authors quoted 
in these descriptions perhaps the most important were Mark Catesby and 
Peter Kalm. The former was an Englishman who lived in the southern 
English colonies of America for about ten years between 1712 and 1726 
and published a large illustrated work on the natural history of the 
r^on. The latter was one of Limueus' pupils who spent the years 
between 1747 and 1751 in Canada and the central English colonies col- 
lecting and studying the native animals and plants for him. IdnnsBus 
also obtained much information by correspondence with American nat- 
uralists, especially Dr. Alexander Garden of Charleston, Dr. John Mitchell 
of Virginia, and John Bertram of Philadelphia. Thus in 1766 probably 
most of the larger and more conspicuous animals of the eastern part of 
the country were known to science, as well as many insects and other 
smaller ones. 

• See "A Century's Progress In American Zoology," by A. S. Packard, Jr., Am. 
Nat Vot 10, p. 591, 1876. "The Beginnings of American Science," by G. B. Goode, 
Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1897, Pt. 2, p. 409. 


Important among the native authors of the period immediately follow- 
ing the Revolution were Thomas Jefferson, who has the distinction of 
being the only American President besides Theodore Roosevelt who has 
been interested in scientific pursuits, Benjamin Smith Barton, and William 
Bartram, the son of John, both of Philadelphia. 

One of the first general works of importance on American animals 
was Wilson's Ornithology (1808-1814). Other similar works belonging to 
nearly the same period were Bonaparte's continuation of Wilson's 
Ornithology (1825-1833), Dr. Richard Harlan's Fauna Americana (1825), 
Dr. John D. Godman's American Natural History (1826-1828), which was 
specially devoted to Mammals, and Audubon's Birds of North America 

During the second and third decades of the century occurred a 
remarkable scientific awakening in the country, an evidence of which was 
the publication of so many works of general interest during this time 
and also the foundation of a large number of scientific societies and 
periodicals. At the beginning of the century there were three promi- 
nent scientific societies in the country, the American Philosophical Society, 
which was founded in Philadelphia in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin, the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, founded in Boston in 1780 by 
John Adams, and the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, which 
was founded in New Haven in 1799. During the first quarter of the 
century many others were founded in various parts of the country, 
and in 1826 no fewer than twenty-five scientific societies were in exist- 
ence, more than half of which were interested principally in natural 

In 1812 the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences was founded, 
and exercised an important influence from the start. The first volume of 
its journal appeared in 1817. Its importance in the first years of its 
existence was due largely to the labors of a single one of its members, 
Thomas Say. This talented young man joined the Academy shortly after 
its foundation and for twelve years, under its auspices, devoted himself 
exclusively to the study of the native animals, the papers he contributed 
to its journal and to other periodicals during this period being funda- 
mental for the study of American moUusks, insects, and crustaceans. 
Another brilliant member of the Academy during this period was Charles 
Alexander Lesueur, a Frenchman who joined it in 1817 and, during the 
seven years that he was a resident of Philadelphia, published many papers 
in its journal on fishes, reptiles, and marine invertebrates. 

Belonging to the same period was another remarkable man, Constan- 
tine Rafinesque. This brilliant and versatile man came to this country 
in 1802 and lived for many years in Philadelphia and in Lexington, 


Koitacky. He was a pioneer botanist and zoologist and is now remem- 
bered by the large number of new species of mollusks and of fishes, as 
well as of plants, which he described. He is also remarkable as being the 
first American who clearly enunciated the principle of the transformation 
of species. 

Philadelphia was during this period the most important scientific 
center of the country, but it was not the only one. The interest in natural 
history was widespread and eveiy city had its public museum of natural 
curiosities and its scientific society. The Philadelphia Museum, which was 
established by Charles Wilson Peale, and the Baltimore Museum estab- 
li^ed by Rembrandt Peale were especially famous. In the South the 
eminent Georgian Dr. Lewis Le Conte, father of Professor Joseph Le 
Conte, and Stephen Elliott of Charleston were prominent as naturalists, 
and in the west Dr. Robert Best had founded the Western Museum in 
Cincinnati and given the initial impulse to those scientific activities which 
have ever since distinguished that city. 

In New England the principal scientific interest was in geology and 
mineralogy. The most influential scientist was Benjamin Silliman of 
New Haven, a geologist and a ch^nist. In 1818 he founded the American 
Journal of Science and Art which at once became and has since remained 
one of the most influential in the country. 

The fourth and most of the fifth decades were not a period of marked 
activity in the study of American animals. The remarkable development 
of the zoological and physiological sciences in Europe under the leader- 
ship of von Baer, Johannes Miiller, Owen, Milne-Edwards and others 
apparently awakened little interest on this side of the Atlantic and the 
most important investigators were chiefiy occupied with descriptions of 
filiells and insecta In 1838, however, occurred an event important to 
the development of American science, for in that year the United States 
Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes started on its four years' 
voyage, taking as one of its naturalists James Dwight Dana. 

It was in 1846 that light at length began to appear in the general 
darkness and the way to be prepared for the important advances of later 
years in the field of natural science, for in this year the Smithsonian 
Institution, which was to become the center of most important scientific 
activities, was founded under the secretaryship of Joseph Henry, and in 
this year also Louis Agassiz came to America. 

The modem study of animals in America may be said to begin with 
the arrival of Agassiz on our shores. His great reputation and attractive 
and inspiring personality brought him at once into prominence and drew 
to him a large number of brilliant young men who wished to study animals 
under his leadership, and Cambridge and Boston soon became the most 


important center of zoological investigation in the country. Agaasiz ele- 
vated these studies to a much higher plane than they had occupied by 
placing them in close touch with European scholarship and also by broad- 
ening and extending them by the introduction of comparative embryology 
and physiology. He also founded and built up the first great zoological 
museum in the country. 

The Cambridge school did not, however, contain all the zoologists in 
the country. In 1846 James Dwight Dana, who had become a Professor 
in Tale and is now remembered rather as a geologist and a mineralogist, 
published his Beport on the Zoophytes, and in 1852 his Bepori on the 
Cruetacea of the Wilkes Expedition, both epoch-making zoological works 
and the most extensive works of a monographic nature which up to that 
time had been published by an American. In 1854 appeared the remainder 
of his report on the zoology of this Expedition. Joseph Leidy also, in 
Philadelphia, was beginning his brilliant studies of parasitic worms and 
other small animals. 

The study of shells was followed assiduously in this country during 
this period. Dr. A. A. Gould of Boston, who published the Beport of 
the Mollusks of the Wilkes Expedition and also the Invertebrata of 
Massachusetts, Isaac Lea of Philadelphia and A. and W. G. Binney being 
among the most important of the many authors. The study of insects 
was likewise making important advances and T. W. Harris produced his 
Forest Insects, one of the earliest works on economic entomology. 

The most important zoological work of the sixth, seventh, and eighth 
decades of the century was undoubtedly the study of the marine animals 
of our coast by Louis Agassiz and his pupils and followers, of whom 
James McCrady, William Stimpson, Theodore Lyman, Alexander Agassiz, 
Alpheus Hyatt, H. J. Clark, and A. E. Verrill are particularly to be 
mentioned. During the same period J. L. Le Conte, Samuel Scudder, 
C. Y. Riley, and A. S. Packard were engaged in the study of insects and 
in laying the foundation of the influential American school of systematic 
and economic entomology, and J. H. Comstock established the department 
of entomology at Cornell which has become a leading factor in the devel- 
opment of the science in this country. Vertebrates were also being 
studied assiduously by E. D. Cope, who in the study of fishes, amphib- 
ians, reptiles, and mammals, and by S. F. Baird and Elliott Coues, 
who, in that of birds and mammals, all produced work of fundamental 

In December, 1873, Louis Agassiz died and with his death ended an 
important era in the history of American zoology— but only to give way 
to another more important. The distinctive school of zoological investi- 
gation which he founded continued to flourish, not only in Cambridge 


under the leadership of Alexander Agassiz and E. L. Mark^ but ftlso in 
Baltimore where Lonis Agassiz's pupil W. K. Brooks taught in the newly 
founded Johns Hopkins University. From these two centers the scientific 
study of animals has spread to almost aU the universities and other institu- 
tions of learning of the countiy, and the men who have gone out from them 
aU year by year in ever increasing numbers have maintained the high stand- 
ards which Agassiz represented and have today placed American scholar- 
ship in this field in the fore rank of the world's achievement. 

Yeiy important in the history of American zoology was the estab- 
lishmenty a few years after the death of Louis Agassiz, of the Woods 
Hole Marine Biological Laboratory (1887), The Journal of Morphology 
(1888), and the Morphological Society (1890). These enterprises were 
due very largely to the initiative of C. O. Whitman and brought about a 
solidarity of interest of the scientific zoolog^ists of the country to which 
the greftt advances made by zoological investigation in America in recent 
years and the high rank it has attained in the world are largely due. 

Important also has been the part taken by the various scientific de- 
partmoits of the United States government in furthering the study of 
animails. This work was begun by the Smithsonian Institution in 1846 
and has been continued directly by it and the United States National 
Museum, the Bureau of Fisheries, the (Geological and Coast Surveys, the 
Marine Hospital, and the various Bureaus in the Department of Agri- 
culture. The important scientific work carried on by these institutions 
and the great collections they have accumulated have made Washington 
today the most important scientific center in the country. 

3. Suhdivinons of the animal hingdom.^The animal kingdom con- 
tains in this book eight subkingdoms or phyla. Several of these are sub- 
divided into subphyla, and all the phyla and subphyla into classes. The 
classes are made up of orders, although they are sometimes first sub- 
divided into subclasses and these into orders. The orders, and the sub- 
orders into which some of them are subdivided, are made up of families, 
and often subfamilies. Each family and subfamily is composed of one 
or more genera and each genus of one or more species. The combination 
of its generic with its specific name constitutes the scientific name of an 

The whole number of species of animals* which make up the animal 
kingdom is not known but probably amounts to several million. The 
number which has been described in scientific publications and given 
names in the Linnsan system of classification is considerably over half 
a million. 

• See "On the Number of Known Species of Animals,** by H. S. Pratt, Science, 
N. 8., Vol. 35, p. 467. Ml 2. 


The following estunates have been made of the number of the 
described species in each phylum: 

Phylum I. Protozon 8,000 

Phylum II. CoBlenterata 7,000 

Phylum III. Vermes 9,000 

Phylum IV. Annelida 4,000 

Phylum V. Arthropoda 400,000 

Phylum VI. MoUusca 61,000 

Phylum VTI. Echinodermata 4,000 

Phylum VIII. Chordata 37,000 

Key to the phyla of the Animal Kingdom: 

Oi Single-celled animals, aquatic and microscopic 1. Protozoa 

o. Many-celled animals. 
bi Body radially symmetrical. 

Oi Body with 2, 4, 6 or more, or without, definite radii 2. Gcelentkrata 

Ct Body with 5 radii 7. EcHiNODEaMATA 

&t Body bilaterally symmetrical. 
0| Respii'atory organs not "pharyngeal. 
di Body without a calcareous shell (with rare exceptions). 

ei Body not externally segmented (except in tapeworms) 3. Vebmbs 

6^ Body externally segmented. 

ft No segmented locomotory appendages. . . . ^ 4. Annelida 

ft Paired segmented appendages present 5. Abthbopoda 

da Body with a calcareous shell 6. Mollusca 

Ct R^Mipiratory organ s internal and pharyngeal 8. Chobdata 



Tha Prototoa are miDiite, aquatic animals which consist each of a dngle 
cell The body, like any other animal cell, is a mass of protoplasm eon- 
taining oce or more nuclei. Distinct organs, in the ordinary sense, are not 
present, bnt certain specialized structures are usually found in the body 
whidi perform certain special functions. The Protozoa perform all the 

TIE. 1 Flf . 2 

ms.l^-Amaba Kmaa (Codd). F1(C. Z~AM(r»a vratm (CoaD) 
vooHole,' eo, acIo»aro; en, entotarc: ex, txr"'" ■ " — 
p, pamdopadliiiii. 

esecntial functions which characterise the animal body. The superficial 
layer of the protoplasmic body is usually byalme and distinct and is called 
the eetosarc (Fig. 2). It secretes in most forms a cuticula or even a hard 
shell which gives the body definite form. In the simplest cases, locomotion 
is accomplished by the thrusting out of projections called psendopodia 
(Fig. 2) in the direction of movement. In the bigfaest forms, however, cilia 

• See "Protoioa," b; O. Bfltscbli. BniDD'i "KlaBWn n, OtA. des Tblerrelcbs," 
ToL 1, 1S80-18SS. "A Llat o( the ProtoioB and Botlfera Found In tbe lUlnoU Blrer," 
etcL, b7 A. Hempel, Ball. 111. Bt. Lab.. Vol. B, p. 301, 1898. "A Beport on tbe Pro- 
toioa of Lake Brie," etc., by H. 8. Jeontngs, BnlL C, S. FIsb. Com.. 1S99, p. 105. 
"Tlie PiotovM." by O. N. CbUIdb, 1901, "Harine Protoioa of Wooda Hole," by umc, 
BalL U. 8. ITlBh. Com., ISOl, p. 413. "The Protoma of the Freab Waters of 
CoDDecUcDt," by H. W. Conn, Bull. No. 2. State Geol. and Nat. Hlat. Surrey. "The 
Protoxo* o( lowB," by C. H. BdmondsOD, Proc. Acad. Scl., Daienport, 1906. "The 
ProtoBoa of Saadniky Bay." by F, L. Laadacre, Proc Ohio St. Acad. Sd., Vol. 4, 
p. 421, 1908 (containing a full bibliography). "Protoioology," by Q. N. Calklna, 
1900. "Lebrbocta der Protoioeiikande," by F. Doflela, 3d Ed., 1911. "The Protoaoan 
Parasites ot Domeitlc Animals," by H. Crawley, Cite 194, Bar. An. lad., Dep. of 
As„ 1912. 



(Fig. 87) or flagella (Fig. 35), which are projections of the ectosarCi are 
present and are permanent oigans of locomotion. In a few ciliates true 
muscle fibres are present. Sensation is exercised by the entire surface of 
the body and its projections. 

The inner portion of the body is called the entosarc (Fig. 2) ; in it 
nutrition is carried on. Food in solid form may be taken into the mass of 
the entosarc, where it is usually surrounded by a watery fluid forming the 
f ood-vacuole, and digested and absorbed. In the lower Protozoa the food 
particles are taken in through the outer surface by a simple process of 
engulfing, no mouth being present, but in most Infusoria a definite month 
is present in the ectosarc from which a gullet leads into the entosarc. 
Indigestible portions of the food are thrown out through an anal opening 
in the ectosarc which in the higher forms alone is a permanent structure. 
Many protozoans lead parasitic lives and absorb the vital fluids of their 
hosts through the outer surface of the body. Great numbers of the flagel- 
lates also closely resemble plants in their habits of nutrition. Respiration 
is carried on through the entire outer surface of the body, as is also 
excretion in most marine and parasitic Protozoa, In the majority of 
Protozoa, however, a special excretory organ, the contractile or pulsating 
vacuole (Fig. 2, cv), is present in the form of ia minute globule of clear, 
excretory fluid which collects periodically and is then discharged to the 
outside through a temporary opening in the ectosarc. The contractile 
vacuole probably exercises a respiratory as well as an excretory function, 
carbon-dioxide being eliminated by its discharges. 

The characteristic method of reproduction is by equal division. The 
nucleus takes the lead in the process and is quickly followed by the body 
of the cell, and two new individuals are thus formed from a single old 
one. In many Protozoa the new individuals are not completely separated 
from each other, but remain connected together, and a colony is thus 
formed, while in some a physiological division of labor occurs among the 
members of such a colony and an important step towards the development 
of a metazoan animal is taken. Still another modiflcation of simple 
division is the formation of spores, which characterize the Sporozoa and 
occur occasionally in the other Protozoa. Spore formation may be pre- 
ceded by the encystment of the animal and a period of rest; the animal 
draws itself together into as small a compass as possible and then secretes 
a firm membrane or shell within which it lies while spore formation is 
being accomplished. Later the cyst breaks and the spores being liberated 
each becomes a new individual. 

Of universal occurrence among Protozoa is conjugation, or the tem- 
porary or permanent fusion of individuals, which in some of its phases 
resembles the process of fertilization in the higher animals. The two 


individaals which conjugate may be either (1) similar foll-siised animalsy 
(2) full-grown animals of dissimilar size, (3) reduced individuals of similar 
size (similar swarm-spores), or (4) reduced individuals of dissimilar size 
(specialized gametes). In the last mentioned case the gametes resemble 
tiie male and female reproductive cells of the Metasoa, 

Ccnjugation was formerly thought to be a process of rejuvenation by 
iHiich the vital energies of the animals are renewed after the appearance 
of senile changes and a decrease in size and strength. It is now believed 
to be rather a method for the introduction of variation into a race or 
species, and to have thus a meaning similar to that of sexual reproduction 
among the Metazoa, a variable race being better fitted to adapt itself 
to a changing environment and to overcome unfavorable life-conditions. 

The Protozoa are all, with a few exceptions, aquatic animals. When 
the water in which they are living dries up and at certain other times 
they encyst themselves, and in this condition can withstand complete 
desiccation a long time. Protozoa are easily transported by the wind, 
especially when encysted, and many species have a world-wide distri- 

Protozoa teed upon organic matter in every form. Certain species 
are carnivorous; others feed exclusively on plants; many feed on decaying 
substances; and many are parasitic. Of this latter kind many, especially 
among the Sporozoa, are the cause of disease both in man and animals. 
Many contain chlorophyll and live like plants and are consequently near 
the border line between plants and animals. 

History,— MieroBcopic animals were first studied in 1675 by the Dutch 
naturalist Leeuwenhoek, who first used the microscope in the study of living 
organisms. About a hundred years later Otto Friedrich Miiller described 
a laige number of them, adopting the binomial nomenclature, and thus 
hid the foundation of the present classification. The name Protozoa 
originated with Goldfuss in 1820, who, however, included in the group 
jellyfish, hydroids, and all of the lowest animals. In 1838 Ehrenberg 
published his epoch-making work on Infusoria, including in this term all 
the microscopic animals, the significance of his work consisting in the fact 
that he brought together accurate descriptions of great numbers of these 
OEganisms. Ehrenbeig was followed by Dujardin and others and in 
1845 von Siebold, interpreting these simple creatures in the light of the 
newly established cell-theory, separated them from the Radiata, with 
vhieh they were classed, and applied to them the name Protozoa. 
Butsehli (1880-1889) gave the classification of the group its present 

The Protozoa contain 4 classes and about 8,000 spedea, of which the 
usjority are radiolarians. 


Key to the classes of Protozoa: 

Oi Cilia or flagella absent. 

hi Pseudopodia present, sometimes with rigid, axial filaments...!. Sabcodina 

5j Pseudopodia absent, as well as all other locomotory organs, in the adult 

animal 3. Sfobozoa 

o. Cilia or sucking tentacles, or flagella present. 

&x Flagella present 2. Mastigofhoba (Flagellaia) 

fts Cilia or sucking tentacles present 4. Infusoria 

Glass 1. SABOODINA.* 

The most primitive Protozoa, in which the body is usually with- 
out definite form, but in most cases possesses rigid skeletal structures. 
Locomotion is effected by means of pseudopodia, which are more or less 
temporary projections of the body. In the Heliozoa and Badiolaria these 
are much less changeable in form than in the Bhizopoda and are usually 
supported by a central skeletal filament. Contractile vacuoles are present 
except in the marine forms. Encystment and conjugation characteruse all. 
The majority of the Sarcodina are marine animals and they are often 
present in such large numbers in the sea that the empty shells form 
important deposits at the bottom {Foraminifera). The affinities of the 
Sarcodina are with the flagellates : the young of certain forms are flagellate 
and in Maatigammha and others the adult form has both pseudopodia and 
flagella. The class was first called the Bhizopoda, but in 1880 Biitschli 
substituted the term Sarcodina for Bhizopoda, giving the latter name to one 
of the orders. The class contains 6,000 species, most of which are 
Badiolaria and Foraminifera, grouped in 3 orders. 

Key to the orders of Sarcodina: 

Oi No central capsule present ; animals in both salt and fresh water, 
fti Body naked or with shell, with very changeable pseudopodia which contain 

no central axial filament 1. Bhizopoda 

fta Body naked or with shell, usually of spherical and relatively permanent form 
with delicate ray-like pseudopodia, each of which contains a central 

. filament 2. Heliozoa 

o. Central capsule present; marine animals of relatively permanent form with 
ray-like pseudopodia 3. Raoiolabia 

Ordeb 1. BHIZOPODA. 

Body usually covered externally by a shell (but sometimes without) 
which is a secretion of the ectosarc, and in many cases is covered with 
sand or other foreign objects; pseudopodia variable in form: 2 suborders 
and about 1,500 species, of which 200 live in fresh and 1,300 in salt water. 

Key to the suborders of Bhizopoda: 

Oi Rhisopoda with simple pseudopodia and with or without a shell. .1. Ak(EBIDa 

d, Bhizopoda with branching and anastomosing pseudopodia and with or without 

a shell 2. Betioulabuda 

• See "Freshwater Bhiiopoda of North America,** by J. Leidy, Bep. U. 8. GeoL 
Bar., etc. Vol. 12, 1879. 


Suborder 1. AMCEBIDA. 

Shigopoda having loboee pseudopodia which may be finger-shaped or 
pointed, but are nsnally not reticulate; shell of chitin or silica usually 
present, to which sand or other foreign bodies may be attached : 3 families. 

Key to the families of Amabida: 

Ox Naked Am<Bbida 1. Amcebzdab 

a, Amcebida with a shell, 
fti Shell membranous, often with sand and other foreign bodies imbedded in 

it 2. Abcellidab 

ftt Shell composed of regular plates of silica or chitin ; pseudopodia sharp and 
often branching and sometimes slightly anastomosing. . . .3. ESugltvhidab 

Family 1. AMCEBIDAE. 

Shell-leas Rhizopoda, whose pseudopodia are not reticulate; body 
without definite form and under ordinary conditions constantly changing 
its shape by throwing out pseudopodia, although covered by a cuticula of 
greater or less delicacy: about 19 genera, with numerous species in both 
freeh and salt water. 

Key to the genera of Atncehidae here described : 

Ox Nucleus absent 1. Pbotamcbba 

Os Nucleus present and usually distinct. 

6t Numerous nuclei, vacuoles, and retractile bodies present 2. Peloictxa 

&k Numerous nuclei, vacuoles, and retractile bodies not present. 

Ct Pseudopodia membrane-like, ectosarc reddish 3. Plakofus 

Cs Pseudopodia not membrane-like. 
di Pseudopodia more or less lobose, sometimes slender and spine-like. 

Ci Animals not parasitic 4. Akcbba 

e^ Animals parasitic 5. Entamosba 

da Pseudopodia very long, radiating spine-like from body. 


L PxoTAicsBA Haeckel. Minute forms without nucleus or con- 
traetile vacuole, in constant motion, with short pseudopodia: 4 species; 
in salt and fresh water. 

P. primitiTa Haeckel. In fresh and salt water. 

2. PsLOMTXA Greeff. Very large forms constantly flowing by 
means of short pseudopodia; body with numerous nuclei, vacuoles and 
hyaliiie rods; diameter up to 2 mm.: 4 species; in fresh water. 

P. palnatriB OreefC. Without projections at hinder end. 

P. TiUoaa Leidy. Possesses numerous posterior projections; about 
1 mm. in length; body dark and opaque. 

P. carolinensis H. V. Wilson. No rods present, but numerous 
ndnute eiystals; 1 mm. in diameter. 

3. Plakopub F. E. Schulze. Body changes slowly in form and with 
pointed pseudopodia which are often joined together by a broad mem- 
brane: 2 species; in fresh water. 


P. rnber F. E. Sehnlse. Color reddish : in fresli water. 

4. AmiBA Ehrenberg. Body may assume a variety of forms, twing 
often more or less spherical while at rest; pseudopodia either slender or 
lobose; nnclens and contractile vaonole present: about 12 epeoies; in 
fresh and salt water. 

A. Umax Dnjardin (Fig. 1). Body small, elongate, without 
definite psead<^)odia and moves by slowly flowing along: in fresh 

A. pntens (Pallas) (Fig. 2). Diameter np to .5 mm.; pseudopodia 
long and nsoally blnnt ; movements often active : in f redi water. 

A. xadiOM £hr. Pseudopodia slender and radiatii^; body more or 
less Btar^haped ; diiuneter about .04 mm. : on water plants. 

Fic- s Fig. i Tig. s 

ns- 8 — AnmAs iwraeeM (Codd). FIs. 4 — BntamtA* mH (Dolleln), 

Fig. 11 — S»tamaba dyienferiae (Dofleln). 

A. vamicosa Ehr. (Fig. 3). Diameter up to .2 mm.; pseudopodia 
short; surface folded; movements slu^ish. 

B. EMTAXOBa Casagrandi and Borbagallo. Bimilar to Amteha, bnt 
parasitic in mamroals ; size minute; pseudopodia short and sluggish: 
several epecies. 

E. coll (Loesch) (Fig. 4). Form roundish or elongate with a dis- 
tinct nucleus and an indistinct ectosarc; pseudopodia short and slug- 
gish; diameter .06 mm.: in boman colon; formerly supposed to be a 
cause of dysentery. 

E. dyBentoriae (Councilman and Lafleur) (E. \istoIytica Schandion) 
(Fig. 5). Similar to E. coU but with a distinct eotos&ro: in the hunuu 
eolon; the cause of dysentery. 

6. DAOTTXoaFBJBBm Hertw^ and Lesser. Small round forms 
with often nameroue long,ray-like pseudopodia, which sometimes vibrate 
slightly; short and blunt pseudopodia also present when the animal 
moves: in fresh water. 

D. radlognm (Ehrenberg). Three or 4 long spine-like pseudopodia; 
diameter .02 mm. 

D. polypodia F. E. Bchnlze. Numerous flnger>like psendopodia 


Faiolt 2. /tttfrvmTnxv. 
Shell membraDoaa and consiBting of a aingU chamber, the surface 
of which is either smooth or covered with sand or other foreign par- 
ticles; aingle opening nsually present from whioh blunt pseadopodia 
protrade: fresh-water animals of minnte size; 10 genera and aboat 30 

Key to the genera of Areellidat here described: 

a. Shell corered with laud or other foreign bodies 1. DOTLUOIA 

a. Shell not covered with foreisu bodies. 

i. Shell composed of quadrilateral plates 2. Qitadbuklla 

\ Sh«ll of one piece, not composed of plates. 
c^ Shell flexible and more or lees dIsc-Uke ; 1 to 3 openings. .8. GocHUOFfHHDH 
1^ Shell disc-shaped and not flexible. 

d. Rim of shell withont spine* 4. AaOEU^ 

d. Rim of shell with spines 6. Centboptxib 

1. Dmxtrsta Leclerc. Shell covered with sand-grains or other 
foreign bodies, pear-shaped or spherical, frequently with spines at the 
sides or hinder end, and with a largo opening at the other end from 

Wis.9—D{»uoia lotottoma (Conn). Pig. T— Otfltwto oorcma (Leiily). 
rig. B— gHtxtmsIIo Ji/imnelrtoa (Leid;). 

whidb a nnmber of blttnt psendopodia may project; nneleus and con- 
traetile vaouoles always present : about 20 species, which are very vari- 
able in form; in fresh-water pools, usually on plants or on the bottom. 
D. lobostoau Leidy (Fig. 6). Bhell spherical or ovate, the oral pole 
tmneated; month nsnally 3 to 6 lobed; aboral end rounded; length J2 

D. pyriformis Perty. Shell bottle-shaped with a cylindrical neck 
more or less distinct ; length np to .6 mm. : common. 

D. mceolata Carter. Shell jug-shaped with short neck and often a 
rim; hinder end pointed or rounded; length up to .52 mm. 

D. GOttftricta Ehrenberg. Shell ovoid; month oblique; aboral end 
nranded, often with spines; length up to .3 mm. 

D. dolnlosa Dnjardin. Shell spheroidal or oval; mouth circular; 
length .2 mm. or less: rather common. 

D. aenmiaaU Ehr. Shell oval; aboral end acnte, often prolonged, 
rarely with 2 or 3 points; length .4 mm. 



D. coronft Wallich (Fig. 7). Shell spheroid with a nomher of long 
spines at hinder end; length up to 32 mm: very common. 

2. QVASKUXLI.A Cockerell. Shell 
pear-shaped and composed of quad- 
rilateral BiliciouB plates, with oe- 
caBional spines at the hinder end: 
several species; in fresh water. 

Q. symmetrica (F. E. Schulze) 
(Fig. 8). Length up to .14 mm.: 
" m swamps. 

3, OooaLiOFODlUlE Hertwig and Lesser. Shell minute, spheroid or 
diBc-like, without foreign bodies, and flexible, changing in shape: 3 
species; in fresh water. 

C. bilimbosnm Auerbaeh (Fig. 9). Diameter 
np to .05 mm.; opening large, the acute pseudopodia 
protruding: among a^e, etc., in freah water. 

0. dlgltatnm Calkins. Several openings through 
which peendopodia protrude. 

4. Akcblla Ehrenberg. Shell yellow or brown 
and smooth, not being covered with sand, convex 
on one side, and flat or concave on the other, in 
the middle of which is the opening; nuclei and 
contractile vacuoles 2 or more: several species; in ' 
fresh water, also in moist sand and moss. 

A. TnlgariB Ehr. (Fig. 10). Diameter about .15 i 
scalloped: very common. 

A. dmtftta Ehr. (Fig. U). Diameter abont .18 mm.; margin scal- 

Fig. 10 

B, aide fl«w. 
un.; maigin not 

6. OEHTBOPTzn Stein. Shell similar to AtctOa, but with spines, 
variable in number, and sometimes elongate: in ditches and pools. 
\ Stein (Fig. 12). Diameter of shell .2 mm. 



Shell membranoae and composed of pistes of chitin or silica 
snelosing s single chamber with a single large opening; psendopodift ' 
filiform and sometimes somewhat anastomoBing; size minate: 5 genera; 
mostly in fresh water. 

1. BosLTTEA Dojardin. Shell elongate, ovate, often with spines 
at binder end and composed of oblique rows of round plates whose 
edges overlap, making hexagonal areas; opening denticulate; pseudo- 
podia fine, often branching but not reticulate: in fresh water; 4 

E. alTMlata Duj. (Fig. 13). Shell colorless, elongated 
and cylindrical; binder end broader, usually with a few 
long spines ; plates composing it are round or oval ; length 
J5 mm.: common. 

E. dliata Leidy. Shell elongate and elliptical in 
eroas section ; binder end and sides with numerous short 
spines ; plates six-sided ; length J. mm. : common in 
sphagnum moss. 

2. Otphodxxu Sehlumberger. Shell retort-sbaped 

and eompoaed of minute plates; opening turned to one p^ 14 
mde; forward half of body contains numerous oontractile Cvp^odeHo 
vacuoles, and binder half the nucleus; color yellowish: (Lddr). 
2 speciee; in fresh and salt water. 

0. ampnUa (Ehrenberg) (Fig. 14). Length .17 mm.: in ponds and 


Pseudopodia filiform and reticulate; calcareous shell usually pres- 
ent which has either one or more lai^ openings or many minute ones, 
throng which the pseudopodia project: 3 divisions. 

Kcry to the divisions of Reticulariida: 

0, No Bbell present 1. Nm>A 

B, Sbell with one or more U^e and no minnte openings 2. iMPXarOBlNA 

a. No larse but nnmeroiw minnte openings 3. Pebtoura 

DmsioH 1. NUDA. 

Bbizopods without shell and with reticulate pseudopodia: about 8 
genera; mostly marine. 

BiOKTXA Leidy. Form incessantly changing; nucleus present or 
af^rently absent: 1 species. 

B. mau Leidy. Color pale gray with oil globules, nucleus when 
present large and distinct; no ectosarc: in sphagnum moBS. 

RhizopodB with sheU wUeh has one or more laig« openings from 
which project reticolate and anastomoBing pseudopodia; sfaell nsoally 
ealoareooB, but sometimeB membnuioaB, to which sand ma; adhere, and 
one or many chambered: 4 &milies. 

Uarine and freBh-w&ter rhizopode with a membranoiui ehell with 
an opening at one or both enda : 10 genera. 

Key to the genera of Gromudae here described: 
O) Shell with but one openinK. 
b, PseiidopodU richl; anutomoainx ; contractile Tacnoles nsuallr present 

1. Gbouia 
it Paeadopodia anaatomorins little ; numeroas contrmctUe racnolee. 

2. Paicfhaods 
a. Shell with an opening ateodiend 3. Oiflwhkts 


71s. lit— «r«ai<a KvmoMm (Calklna). 

L Obomu Dnjardin. Shell spherical or ovate in ihape and entirely 
filled by the protoplasmic body; shell memhranoas and often flexible, 
eheoging its shape; psendopodia very fine and reticnlate; nuclei one or 
many: several species; is fresh and salt water. 

O. lasenoldH Oruber (Fig. 16). Body about .25 mm. long, with 
opening at larger end of shell; edge of opening turned in; a fine layer 
of protoplasm Burrounde the shell which has fine reticulate psendopodia 
Ml all sides of it; shell either with or without foreign bodiee: Woods 
Hole; not numerous. 

2. PAHPHAsn Bailey. Peeudopodia very delicate, springing from 
a common protoplasmie base and not anastomosing; shell flexible and 
delicate, and filled by the protoplasmic body; opening of shell narrow: 


P. mutoMHg Bailey. Body compressed and ovate or pear-shaped; 
protoplaam yellowish in oolor ; length 1 mm. : in swamps. 

P. hyaliniiB Leidy. Body almost spherical with short neck; often 
eolonial; length .04 mm. 

S. IhSLOPBKTB Barker. Shell spherical and membranous and with 
two openings opposite each other, from which protmde the pseudopodia: 
2 speeies; in fresh water. 

D. archeri Barker. Psendopodia not always anastomosing; length 
.02 mm. 

DnnsiON 3. PBBFOBINA. (FoaAMiKmBA.) 

Caleareons shell, either one or many chambered, and with nomeroos 
minute pores, as well in some cases as large openings, through which 
stream reticulate pseudopodia: 9 families with numerous genera and 
over 1,200 species, most of which live in the mud of the sea bottom, about 
20 speeies being pelagic 


Shell calcareous and one or many chambered with one or more large 
openings: about 7 genera. 

GxoBzesBiVA D'Orbigny. Shell with many chambers which are 
more or less ovoid and spirally arranged; large openings crescentic; 
usually with spines: about 13 species; marine. 

O. bvDoides D'Orb. Animals pelagic and also in the bottom mud 
at all depths down to 3,000 fathoms: cosmopolitan. 

Oedbb 2. HELZOZOA.* 

Sarcodina with little power of amodboid movement, with a silidous 
skeleton and fine ray-like pseudopodia which are often supported by 
silieiouB axial filaments; ectosarc and entosarc usually sharply marked; 
eontraetOe vacuole present in the fresh-water forms, but absent in the 
marine ones; either one or several nuclei present; reproduction either 
by equal division or by spore formation, the spores being flagellate 
and after an active life losing their fiagella and assuming the form of 
the adult; conjugation and encystment also occur: about 50 species, 
grouped in 4 suborders; mostly in fresh water, but also in the sea and 
in moist earth. 

Kqt to the suborders of Heliozoa: 

Hi Heliosoa without skeleton. 

bx Body naked 1. Aphbothoiugida 

ft. Body with a soft gelatinous or felted fibrous covering. .2. GHLAMTDOFHOBmA 
«, Helioaoa with skeleton. 

\ Skeleton consists of spicules 3. Ghalabathobacida 

kg Skeleton consists of a single piece perforated by numerous openings. 

4. Dbskothoeacida 
* See "HeliosoA," by F. Schaudinn, Das Tlerreich, 1896. 


Naked Heliozoa with filiform pseudopodia radiating from all eidea 
wliicb are either with or without axial filaments; one or more nuclei 
and contractile vacnoles present : 9 genera. 

Key to the genera of Aphrothoradda here deBcribed: 
a, Bodr more or less Bnuebaid. 
(i EctoBSTC and entoaarc ahatpl; defined; anUnala appear on alsae ai red 

cystB 1. Vauptbeli^ 

6, No boundar; between ectoearc and entoaarc 2. Ncoleabia 

a. Body not anuEboid; form spberical. 
b, Ectosarc and entosarc not defined; skeletBl axis of psendopodia extendinc to 

center 3. Actinophbts 

i, Ectoaarc and entoaarc aberplr separated i. AcnuosFasaitTic 


1. Taj[FXXXU>& Cienkowsky. Eetosarc hyaline; entosarc brown or 
red, frequently vacuolated; form amceboid, pseudopodia radiating from 
all sides or arising from only one place: 5 species; in fresh and salt 

V. lateritU Leidy (Fig. 16). Body spherical or elongated; diameter 
about .06 mm. ; length of moving animals may be .24 mm. : among fresh- 
water algae. 

2. NiroLSARU Cienkowsky. Body spherical or elongate and amce- 
boid with homogeneons protoplasm ; psendopodia radiating from all ^es 
or arising from only one place ; one or more nuclei and many contractile 
vacuoles: 2 species; in fresh water. 

N. siinplez Cienk. Diameter about .05 mm.: among Spirogj/ra and 
other fresh- water plants. 

3. ACTlirOPHRTa Ehrenberg. Body epherical and not amceboid; 
paeudopodia radiating from all sides and with axial threads which 
extend to center of body; eetosarc and entosarc not separate: 1 species; 
in fresh and salt water. 

A. sol (0. F. Miiller) (Fig. 17). Diameter .05 mm.; often colonial: 


4. AomroBPKiERnnc Stein. Like Actinophrya but with sharply 
defined and vacuolated ectosarc: 1 species. 

A. eichhomi (Ehrenberg) (Fig. 18). Diameter up to 1 nun.: in 
fresh water; common. 


Body spherical and with a soft gelatinous or felted covering in 
which foreign bodies may be present: 5 genera. 

Hbte&ofhbys Archer. Body with a slight differentiation into 
ectosarc and entosarc; pseudopodia radiating from all sides: 2 species; 
in fresh and salt water. 

H. myriapoda Archer. Diameter .08 mm.; pseudopodia twice as 
long as diameter of body; chlorophyll bodies often present: in fresh 
and salt water. 


Isolated silicions needles present which cover the outer surface: 8 

1. Baphidiofhbts Archer. Body spherical, covered with silicious 
needles lying tangentially; ectosarc and entosarc not distinct; pseudo- 
podia with axial threads radiating from all sides ; often forming colonies 
which have a common covering: 4 species; in fresh water. 

B. elegans Hertwig and Lesser. Diameter .04 min<; often with 
chlorophyll bodies: in fresh water. 

2. AoAVTKOOTBTZS Carter. Spherical animals in which the silicious 
needles project radially; between them are the thread-like pseudopodia^ 
each with an axial thread; tangential needles may also be present: 10 
species; in fresh water. 

A. duetophora (Schrank). Diameter .1 mm.; needles of 2 forms, 
a short and a long, both forked, and both with basal plates. 



Body enclosed in a silicious spherical shell containing numerous 
round holes; a central nucleus; many contractile vacuoles and filiform 
pseudopodia: 2 genera. 

Glathbvuha Cienkowsky. Body spherical and fastened by a stalk 
to some fixed object; the body does not fill the shell, which is absent in 
the young individuals: 2 species; in fresh water. 

0. elegans Cienk. (Fig. 19, p. 24). Diameter of shell .07 mm. ; length 
of stalk up to .3 mm.: in pools. 


Marine Sarcodina often of large dze, witb ray-like psendopodia; 
lilioionB skeleton present in most cases, which is often of great com- 
plexity and beauty; pseudopodia usnally witk axial 
filaments; body divided into two regions, the eentral 
capsule and the eztra-capsular portion; eapsule snr- 
roonded by a perforated cbitinous membrane and oe- 
enpying the center of the body containing also one or 
more nuclei and often oil globules; extra-oapsular proto- 
plasm often vaeuoUted and pigmented and containing 
often yellow unicellular algae (zooxanthellM) which live 
lymbiotieally in it; no contractile vacuole present; re- 
production by division, the central capsule dividii^ first ; 
in some forma the central capsule alone divides, and a 
colony is the result; spore formation has also been ob- 
served, in which flagellate spores are formed in the 
Fix. ift central capsule: about 85 families and over 4,300 species, 

^'>'w0«<^ which are found mostly in the deep sea. 

FilOLT T TTAT.AH flinnijLirAE. 

Skeleton wanting; central capsule simple, with a single uuelens. 
Tkalusioolla Huxley. Extra-capaular portion filled with alveoli 
among which are numerous yellow algae. 

T. pelagica Haeckel. Diameter 2 mm. : in the Mediterranean. 

Class 2. HASTIOOPHOBA. (Flaoellata.) 

FrotOMOa whose motile organs consist of one or more long whip-like 
projections called flagella. The body is provided with an external mem- 
brane which, in many cases, is very delicate, the body being more or 
leas anusboid. A membranous Bbell of silica, chitin, or cellulose is also 
often present. In one group, the ChoanoflagelUdaj the base of the single 
flagellum is surrounded by a hi^ ridge called the collar (Fig. 28). A 
single nucleus is present, and usually a contractile vacuole. 

The protoplasm usually shows no division into eetosarc and entosare. 
It often contains cbromatophores which may be formed of chlorophyll 
and green, or of diatomin and yellow or brown in color. Other bodies 
allied to starch or oil are often present imbedded in the protoplasm. 
Reproduction is by division and by spore formation; colony formation, 
the result of incomplete division, is very common, the members of the 
colony being sometimes enclosed in a common cellulose jelly, sometimes 
connected by protoplasmic strands, and sometimes joined by both jelly 


•nd fltnaidB. The eolony is in some cases very complex with division 
of labor among the different individuals. 

The Mastigophora have been known from the earliest period of 
the study of microscopical animals under the general name of Flagellata, 
and are still so known in many textbooks. The name Mastigophora 
was given the group by Biitschli in 1883. The animals live in both 
freah and salt water, and many are parasites in the higher animals, 
being often the cause of disease. Large numbers closely resemble 
pLinta and many are on the border line between animals and plants. The 
class contains 3 subclasses with about 350 species. 

Key to the subclasses of Mastigophora: 

Ml Small Mastiaophora with a definite anterior and poeterior end, at one or the 
other of which are 1 or more flagella 1. Fulokllidia 

flb Mastigophora with usaally 2 flagella, 1 anterior and 1 transverBe in posi- 

«B Laxge jnarine Mastigophora with parencfaymatoaa protoplasm. 

8. GTSToiULonxmiA 

Subclass 1. FLAGELLIDIA. 

Body with a well-defined cuticula which gives it a definite shape, 
the entieula in some forms, however, being so thin that changes in shape 
often take place; pseudopodia formed in certain forms; many flagel- 
lates are protected by external coverings of jelly, chitin, silica or 
eellnlose; 1, 2 or several flagella extend from one end of the body, 
usually the forward; in the Choanoflagellida, however, the single flagel- 
Inm is at the hinder end and is surrounded at its base by a collar: 8 
orders, in which are included the great majority of flagellates, very 
many oontaining chromatophores and being apparently aUied to plants. 

Key to the orders of Flagellidia: 

Hi Body colorless, often more or less amceboid, and with one or more flagella. 
hi Body spiral with or without flagellunit and more or less like bacteria. 


ftfe Body not spiraL 

Ci One flagellum with collar present 8. Choanoflageluda 

c^ No collar present. 
di Body with indistinct cnticnla, often more or less amoeboid. 

Ci Body elongate with nadulating membrane 5. Tstpanosoicahoa 

€a No nndnlative membrane present. 
/i Two or more flagella, one directed forward, the other trailed behind. 

4. Hetebomastioida 
/s Flagella always directed forward. 
ffi One or two flagella ; body usually more or less amcebold. .2. Monauida 

fft Three or more flagella 6. Poltmastigida 

d^ Body with distinct cnticnla 7. Euolbnioa 

a. Body oanally eitlier yellow or green, often colonial. 

5i Body with distinct cuticula, and usually solitary 7. Eugleioua 

fts Body usually with a hyaline, gelatinous or cellulose house ; colonial. 

8. Phttoflaoeixida 


Obdeb 1. SPntOOHETZDA. 

Body elongate, spiral, with or without an undulating membrane; 
flagellum very short or absent; nucleus diffuse: 1 family. 


With the characters of the order: 3 genera. 
1. Spz&oohsta Ehrenberg. Undulating membrane but 
no flagellum present: about a dozen species; 
mostly parasitic. 

8. balbianii (Certes) (Fig. 20). Length .02 
to .18 mm.; broad membrane present; ends 
rounded: in the digestive tract of the oyster, 
often in the crystalline style. 

8. pUcatilis Ehr. (Fig. 21). 
Length .08 to .2 mm.; narrow 
membrane present; ends rounded: 
in stagnant water. 
FuT^-snirooZltH- 2. Teepokema Schaudinn. Fla. Fij^ 
Fig. 2?^feU- piKH. fi^^Uum but no undulating mem- ^ffiT 
HUB (Dofleiii). brane present: about 8 species. (i>oflein). 

T. pallidum Schaudinn (Fig. 22). Body cylindrical, without 
membrane, .015 mm. long; ends tapering, ending each in a fine flagellum: 
in syphilitic lesions. 

Order 2. MONADIDA. 

Body usually without shell and more or less amoeboid, with 1 or 2 
large flagella at the forward end and often 1 or more secondary flagella ; 
no mouth : 5 families. 

K^ to the families of Monadida here described : 

Oi Pseadopodia present 1. Rhizomashgidak 

Os Pseodopodia absent. 
&i One flagellom present. 

Oi Body not in a cup 2. Ceroomonaoidab 

Ct Body in a cup 3. Godoneoidae 

5t Two flagella present 4. Hetebomonaoidab 


Simple forms without mouth and with 1 or 2 flagella; occasionally 
with either lobose pseudopodia like a rhizopod or stiff radial ones like 
a heliozoan; food taken at any part of the body: 6 genera. 

MASTZGAicaBA F. E. Schulze. Body irregular in form with several 
pseudopodia which disappear when the animal swims, and one long 
flagellum: 6 speeies; in fresh and salt water. 


IL yermcosa Kent (Fig. 23). Length about .015 huil; many short 
psendopodia: in fresh water. 

M. simplex Calkins. Eetosare and entosarc distinct; flagellum 

eonverted into a pseudopodium; length .01 mm.: marine, on decaying 



Body oval or elongate, frequently amoeboid, especially at hinder 
end; with pseudoix>dia and with a long flagellum: 5 genera. 

1. Obsooxovas Dujardin. Form more or less spindle-shaped, pro- 
longed posteriorly: 3 species; in fresh water. 

0. longicauda Duj. Tail long; length up to .05 mm. 

Fig. 28 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 

Fig. 23 — Maatigamaba verrucoaa (CalkinB). Fig. 24 — Herpetomo%a9 mtttoae 
dow^eBtioae (DofleiD). Fig. 25— Codoneoo ^rocilia (Calkins). 

2. HssFETOXOVAg Kent. Body elongate, very flexible; hinder end 
often the more attenuate, but not forming a caudal filament: several 
species; parasitic in insects. 

H. mnscae domesticae (Burnett) (Fig. 24). Length .05 mm.: in 
intestine of the house-fly; common. 

3. OlKOXOVAS Kent. Form spherical or oyal; frequently a pro- 
jecting lip at base of flagellum; sometimes attached by a terminal fila- 
ment : several species in fresh and salt water, often in infusions. 

O. termo (Ehrenbeig). Length .06 mm.: often very common in 
fresh water. 


Body enclosed in a gelatinous or hyaline cup: '2 genera. 

OODOVSOA Clark. Ovoid or goblet-shaped, and attached to a caudal 
stalk; animal does not fill cup: 3 species; in fresh and salt water. 

0. gracilis Calkins (Fig. 25). Cup urn-shaped with a distinct neck; 
length .021 mm.: Woods Hole. 


One or 2 accessory flagella present besides the main one; often 
sessile or colonial, the animals being on a common stalk: 3 genera. 


Key to the genera of Heteromanadidae: 

Ox Solitary forma 1. Mowab 

Oa Colonial forma. 

hi Common stalk branched once or twice ; on Cyclops. . 2. Cephalothamiottm 
ba Common stalk much branched 8. Anthophtba 

1. MovAS Ehrenberg. Body spherical or ovatei occaBionally &8t- 
ened by a thread-like stalk; 2 flagella: 3 species; in fresh water. 

Flg.26 Flg.27 na.28 

Flf. 26 — Monaa eUmgata (Conn). Fig. 27 — Cephalothamnium 0999it09um (Conn). 

Fig. 28— JfoiMWi^a ovata (Calkins). 

M. alongata (Stokes) (Fig. 26). Body elongate; hinder end tapera 
to form stalk; length .01 mm. 

2. OxPKALOTEAifvnnc Stein. Body ovate, with one long and one 
short flagellum; animals colonial and sessile, the stalk branching two 
or three times and several individuals being grouped at the end of each 
branch: 2 species; in fresh water, often on Cyclops, 

0. caBspitosnm (Kent) (Fig. 27). Body with obliquely truncated 
anterior end; length of individual .02 mm. 

3. Ahthofkysa Bory. Body as in above; stalk much branched: 
1 species; in fresh water. 

A. vegetans (0. F. Miiller). Length of individual .03 mm., of 
colony .4 mm. 


Collar flagellates. Collar-like ridge surrounding the base of the 
single flagellum which is at the hinder end of the body when the animal 
swims, instead of at the forward end as in other flagellates; in some 
forma 2 collars are present, one over the other: 2 families. 


Either solitary or colonial and either free-swimming or sessile and 
often enclosed in a cup or a gelatinous envelope: 4 genera. 
Key to the genera of Craspedomanadidae : 

Ox Shell wanting ; animals sessile or stalked. 

hi Stalk shorter than body or wanting 1. MoRoaiQA 

ht Stalk long, with many individoals at the end 2. CoDORoaiOA 

ht Stalk long, branched at end 8. Codonoolaj>ium 

Oa Shell present 4. SALFmooBoa 


1. MovofizeA Kent. Small colorless forms, solitary and o«i»u<7y 
attached direetly or by a short stalk: 9 species; in fresh and salt water. 

M. ovata Kent (Fig. 28). Individual ovate or spherical; length .08 
mm.: in fresh and salt water. 

2. OoDOVOSieA Clark. Shnilar to Mammga, but at the end of a 
stalk and solitary or colonial: 1 species. 

0. botryfeis Clark. From 1 to 20 individuals in a colony; length of 
individual .08 mm., of stalk .014 mm. : in fresh and salt water. 

8. OoBOVOOLADiTTK Stein. like Codonosiga, but the stalk brancheSi 
each branch bearing an individual: 4 species; in fresh and salt water. 

0. umbellatiun Stein. Number of branches 4 to 10, which some- 
times also branch; length .03 mm.: in fresh water. 

4. 8AL7niQ<B0A Clark. Solitary; body enclosed in a shell, usually 
cup-shaped, which is directly attached at base or at the end of a short 
stalk: about 27 species; in fresh and salt water. 

8. itdni Kent. Shell cylindrical; length .02 mm.: in fresh water. 

Obdeb 4. HETEB01CA8TI0IDA. 

Two or more flagella present, one of which is directed forwards and 
the others backwards, during locomotion; no shell present; animal 
colorless: 2 families. 


Small, naked forms with 2 flagella of nearly equal length : 4 genera. 
Key to the genera of Bodonidae here described: 

Oi Flagella spring from anterior end. 

hx Flagella longer than body, which is ovate 1. Bono 

t, Flagella shorter than body, which is elongate 2. Phtlloiotus 

Ci Flagella spring from a lateral groove 3. Oxtbbhis 

Fig. 29 Fig. 80 Fig. 31 

Fig. 29-— J?o<fo ca%dain$ (Calkins). V\g. SO— PhuUomituB amiflophaffut (Conn). 

Fig. 81 — OmyrrhiB marina (Calkins). 

1. BoBO Ehrenberg. Body more or less ovate, often amoeboid; 
antoior end pointed, with 2 flagella arising from a slight depression : 10 
gpeeies; in salt and fresh water. 

B. cavdalna (Dujardin) (Fig. 29). Body ovate, often amoeboid; 
ikgella about the same length; length .018 mm« 


2. FETLLOiaTxrB stein. Body elongate and very flexible, with 2 
flagella shorter than the body: 1 species. 

P. amylophagHB Elebs (Fig. 30). Length .018 mm.: in fresh water. 

3. OzTBBHZS Dujardin. Body oval with pointed hinder end, at 
side of which is a deep cavity from which the flagella emerge: 1 species; 

O. marina Dnj. (Fig. 31). Length .04 mm.: at Woods Hole. 

Obdeb 5. TBTPAN080MATIDA. 

Body elongate, usually pointed, with an undulating lateral mem- 
brane and 1 or 2 flagella which arise from a special nucleus (blepharo- 
plast) and accompany the membrane as a lateral chord: 1 family. 


With the characters of the order: several genera; parasitic in 
invertebrate and vertebrate hosts and often the cause of deadly diseases. 

Fig. 82 Big. S3 Fig. 84 

Fig. 82 — Trypanosoma gamhietue ( Dofleln ) . Fig. 33 — Trypanosoma hruoH ( Doflein ) . 

Fig. 34 — Hexamitua inflatua (Conn). 

Tbypahoboxa Gruby. But 1 flagellum present: over 60 species, 
which are parasites of the blood system in all kinds of vertebrates and 
are also found in the intestine of various blood-sucking insects, which 
in many cases are known to convey the parasite to the vertebrate host 
by their bite. 

T. gambiense Dutton (Fig. 32). The cause of the deadly sleeping 
sickness which affects man in western and central Africa; it is conveyed 
by Glossina palpalis, a tsetse fly; length .03 mm. 

T. bmcei Plimmer and Bradford (Fig. 33). The cause of nagana, a 
sickness fatal to horses and cattle and other animals in Africa and is 
conveyed by Glossina morsitans, a tsetse fly. 

T. evansi Steel. The cause of surra,* a fatal disease to horses and 
cattle in Africa, Asia, and America and conveyed by horse flies. 

Obdeb 6. POLT]ll£ASTI(}IDA* 

Three or more flagella and usually several mouth openings present; 
body colorless and without shell : 3 families. 

* See "Collected Studies on the Insect Transmission of Trypanosoma eyansi,'* by 
M. B. Mittmain, Bull. 94, Hyg. Lab., Wash., 1014* 



Flagella in two symmetrical groups, with a month at the base of 
eaeh: 2 genera. 

HszAXZTVS Dujardin. Body ovate, with 2 to 4 flageUa at forward 
end and hinder end prolonged into 2 thread-like processes: 3 species; in 
fresh water, also parasitic in intestine of amphibians. 

H. infiatiu Duj. (Fig. 34). Posterior processes not close together; 
length .027 mnu 

Obdbb 7. EnOLENIDA. 

Large forms with usually a distinct, spirally striped cuticula; 
1 or 2 flagella present at the forward end, with a so-called 
phaiynz at their base and a contractile vacuole opening into the 
pharynx; frequently colonial and usually colored by chromatophores 
in which 1 or more deeply staining bodies, the pyrenoids, may be 
present; paramylum, a substance allied to starch, also usually present: 
3 families. 

Key to the families of Euglenida: 

«, Ghlorophyll usually present 1. Evgleridae 

Os Chlorophyll absent. 

hi Without distinct month ; saprophytic 2. Abtashdak 

t. With distinct mouth ; holoosoic 3. Pabanehidax 

Family 1. EUGLENIDAE. 

Body spindle or pear-shaped with usually a single flagellum; chloro- 
phyll, pyrenoids, and paramylum and an eye-spot almost invariably 
present; contractile vacuole or vacuoles open into a reservoir which 
opens into the pharynx; nutrition mostly holophytic, in some cases 
saprophytic: 6 genera. 

Key to the genera of Euglenidae: 

«, With one flagellum. 
&i Cuticula elastic, animals more or less plastic. 
Ci Animal not in a shell. 

di Animal free-swimming 1. Buoleita 

^ Usually attached to other animals 2. Colacium 

e^ Animal in a shell 3. Tsachelohonas 

ft, Cuticula not elastic and animal not plastic. 

Cx Chromatophores disc-shaped 4. Phacus 

Ct Chromatophores in two longitudinal bands 5. Cbtftogusna 

o. With two flagella 6. Eutkeptia 

1. EiTGLEirA Ehrenberg. Large spindle-shaped flagellates with 
spirally marked cuticula; 1 flagellum, at the base of which are the 
phaiynx, eye-spot, and contractile vacuole; color usually, green or 
red, a few being colorless; species numerous; in fresh and brackish 

E. Tiridis Ehr. (Fig. 35). Length .1 mm. or lau; bod; lentioaUr: 
often very common in pooh, wb-ch it may eolor green. 

E. Ktu Ehr. Bod; very long, even filiform, pointed behind ; length 

E. dH6i Ehr. Body elongate, ,2 mm. long, with nearly 
parallel sidee: common. 

2. OolaOHTM Ehrenberg. Like Euglena, but nsoally 
attached by a abort stalk at the forward end to small ani- 
mals; flagellum present in free^ewimming conditicm, but 
nsoallj not present when attached: 3 species; in fresh water. 

0. Bteini Kent. On Diaptomua; length .04 Ttim. 

3. TKAOBZLOlfOVAS* Ehrenberg. Like Euglena, except 
the animal has a brown or colorless shell: nnmerons species; 
in fresh and salt water. 

T, lagenella Stein. Shell ovoid or cylindrical and 
smooth; length .03 mm. 

T. hlspida (Ferty). Shell ovoid, covered with spines 
_. ' , and usually dark brown in eolor; length .03 mm. 
Suffieiut I- umata Ehr. (Fig. 36). Shell brown, punctate; 2 

(Dofleia), '**^B '^^ spines aroond aperture and spines often around 
posterior end ; length .04. 
4. Phaoits KitzBch. Body somewhat asymmetrical, flattened or 
pear-shaped, with spiral strips; hinder end spine-like; chromatophoreB 
disc-shaped: 6 species; in fresh water. 

P. pymm (Ehrenbeig) (Fig. 37). 
Body top-shaped; length .03 mm. 

P. losgicandns Dujardin. Hinder 
spine very long; length .08 mm. 

G. Obtttoqliva Efarenbei^. Body 

oval, rigid, with 2 lateral green chromato- 

,1 . 1 ■ Flg.M nt-ST 

phoree and an eye-spot : 1 species. ^^ ^^ _ r^^^o-Hm^ ^rmatt 

0. pigra Ehr. Lei^h .015 mm,: in (Palmer), f^bt— phoon* 
fresh water, 

6. EVTBEPTU Pert;. Like Euglena, but with 2 flagella ; body very 
flexible; chromatopbores disc-shaped: 1 species. 

E. Tirldifl Ferty. Length .05 mm.: in fresh water. 
Family 2. A8TASIIDAE. 

Elongated, colorless, more or less amtsboid flagellates withoat eye- 
spot and nsaallj with striped membrane; sometimes with an aceeasoiy 
flagellom: 6 genera. 

• 8es "Delaware Vslley Forma o{ Tnichelomopaj," bj T. C, FslDer, Ptoc. Acad, 
Nut, sd., iwa. 


Key to the genera of Aatasiidae here described : 

«! Body yery flexible 1. Astasia 

«s Body rigid, aickle-shaped 2. Mbnoidium 

1. Astasia Ehrenberg. Body spindle-shaped; very 
plastie, with striped cnticuhi: 2 species; in fresh and salt 

A. eontorta Dojardin (Fig. 38). Length .06 mm.: 
in decaying vegetation. 

2. IfEVOiDnni Perty. Body elongate and more or 
leas benty and rigid; cntienlar stripes longitudinal: 1 

]£ poUnddnm Perty. Length .08 mm.: in fresh 

water. rif . 88 

Family 3. PEBANEMIDAE. AMtatia 


Body nsnally cylindrical or ovate, plastic or rigid, ^ ^ ^'' 
and covered by a striped cuticula; 1 or 2 flagella present, at the 
base of which is a distinct mouth; no chlorophyll present: 14 

Key to the genera of Peranemidae here described: 

Oi Body plastic 

hi Body elongate, attenuated forward 1. Pebarkua 

1^ Body bottle-shaped 2. Ubcbolus 

«s Body rigid ; two flagella. 

&i Pharynx not deep 8. AmsoNEUA 

h^ Pharynx very deep 4. Entosiphon 

1. PsKAVEXA Dujardin. Body tapers from behind 
forward and very plastic, with a spirally striated cuticula 
and a single flagellum, the tip of which vibrates when the 
animal moves: 1 species. 

P. trichophomm (Ehrenberg) (Fig. 39). Length .08 
mm.: in fresh water. 

2. Uboeoltts Mereschkowski. Body spherical or ovate 
with a neck from which the flagellum emerges : 
1 species. 

U. cydostomns (Stein). Length .03 mm.: 
in firesh water. 
j^ ^ 3. AnsoHSXA Dujardin. Body ovate and 

Peranema compressed with striated cuticula and a „ . ^^%^ 
(«nn)7 lateral groove; 2 flagella, 1 of which trails '^^""^^^ 
behind: 3 species; in fresh and salt water. 
A. Titreom Duj. Body transparent and with longitudinal furrows; 
length .05 mm. 


4. EvTOSiPEOV stein. Body ovate, with 2 flagella of nearly equal 
length, one of which trails behind, a deep ventral furrow and a veiy 
deep pharynx: 2 species. 

E. snlcatnm St (Fig. 40). Length .02 mm. : in fresh and salt water. 

Order 8. 

Flagellates which include most of those forms with holophytie or 
saprophytic nutrition, and are often classed as plants; most of them 
are enclosed in a cellulose shell or jelly; yellow, green or brown chro- 
matophores usually present ; very many are colonial : 4 suborders. 

Key to the suborders of Phytoflagellida here described : 

Oi Yellow chromatophores usually present 1. Chromomonadiiia 

Ot Green chromatophores usually present. 

bi Mostly non-colonial ; 2 or 4 flagella 2. Ohlamtdomoitadina 

5a Colonial ; 2 flagella 3. VOLVOOnfA 


Flagellates with a delicate euticula and often somewhat amoeboid, 
which are nsnally enclosed in a shell or jelly, and are often colonial; 
yellowish or bluish chromatophores and 1 or 2 flagella present: 2 

Key to the families of Chromomonadina: 

Oi Color yellowish ; no pharynx present 1. Chbtsomonadidab 

Os Color blue, green or brown, or colorless ; deep pharynx present. 

2. Crtftomonadidab 


Body usually with a shell or in a jelly, with 1 or 2 flagella and always 
with 1 or 2 yellowish chromatophores, and with or without eye-spots; 
nutrition usually holophjrtic: 15 genera. 

Key to the genera of Chrysomonadidae here described : 

Hi Body in a shell which it does not fill 1. DiROBETON 

Ot Body in a shell which fits it closely. 

It One flagellum 2. BIalloiconas 

5. Two flagella. 

Oi Flagella of equal length 3. Stnxtba 

0^ One flagellum long, one short ; colonial 4. Uboolena 

1. DnroBBTOV Ehrenberg. Free-swimming branched colonies, each 
individual of which is in a transparent cup-shaped shell which springs 
from just inside the opening of the shell next behind it; 2 flagella of 
unequal length, 1 or 2 yellowish or brownish chromatophores, and an 
eye-spot present: 3 species; in fresh water. 


D. BCrtnlula Ehr. (Fig. 41). Shell ,04 mm. long: in freeh water, 
often in great quantities; sometimes fouts the water in reservoirs and 

2. Halloxosab* Perty. Free-swimming and solitary, with closely 
fitting reticulated oval shell bearing long spines; 2 yellowish chromato- 
phoree; without eye-spot; 1 fli^Ilom: several species in fresh water, 
wbieh may prodaee an odor and injure water supplies. 

H. punctifan (Ehrenberg). Spines all over shell; length .035 nmi. 

3. Byvwl Ehrenberg. Swimming spherical colonies of about 50 
radially arranged individuals; each individual with 2 flagella, 2 brown 
ehromatophores, eye-spots and sometimes spinose: 1 species. 

B. nrelU Ehr. (Fig. 42). Length of individual .03 mm.: in fresh 

1. Ukoqlxva Ehrenbei^. Swimming spherieal colonies composed 
of many individuals in a jelly; individual pear-shaped, with 2 nnequol 

flagella, 2 yellow ehromatophores, and an eye-spot: 2 species; in fresh 

V. amarlcana Calkins (Fig. 43). Length of individual .006 mm.: 
the eaose of the fishy taste of the water in some reservoirs. 


Body with a firm cutieula and not amoeboid ; 2 equally long flagella, 
•t the base of which is a long pharynx extending to the middle of the 
body; 2 ehromatophores present or absent: 3 genera. 

Key to the genera of Cryptomonadidae : 
e, Wlthont cbromatopliores. 
h, Arowofhisblr refractive bodies in forward part ofbod7..-l- Ctathouokas 

6, Withont each bodies 2. CRii/>uoiTAa 

«, With cbromatopfaores 3. CRTFiauORAa 

J G. C. Whipple aad 


1. Oyatkomohas Fromentel. Body colorless, ovoid, flattened, with 
obliquely truncated forward end, with 2 flagella of nearly equal length; 
parallel with the anterior border is a row of highly retractile bodies: 
1 species. 

0. tnmcata (Fresenius) (Fig. 44). Length .023 mm.: in fresh 
water and infusions. 

2. Ohzlomohas Ehrenberg. Body colorless, oval, compressed; for- 
ward end obliquely notched, with two equally long flagella: 2 species; 
in fresh water and infusions. 


F\g. 44 Fig. 45 F\g, 46 

Big. 44 — Cyathomonas trunoata (Conn). Fig. 45 — ChUomonas Paramecium (Conn). 

Fig. 46 — Chlamydomonas pulvUculua (Conn). 

G. Paramecium Ehr. (Fig. 45). Body ellipsoid; length .03 mm.: 
very common. 

8. Obyptomovas Ehrenberg. Like Chilomonas, but with 2 green or 
brown chromatophores : 2 species; in fresh and salt water. 

G. ovata Ehr. Length .03 mm.: in fresh water, to which it nouty 
give a fishy taste. 


Body green in color with 2 or 4 flagella and usually a firm cuticula 
or shell within which division takes place: 2 families. 


Cuticula very delicate with no large pores: 7 genera. 

1. Ghlamydoxovas* Ehrenberg. Body spherical to ^Undrical 
with 2 flagella and an eye-spot, a delicate shell, prominent chromato- 
phores and 2 contractile vacuoles: about 6 species; in fresh water. 

G. pulviscnlus Ehr. (Fig. 46). Body spherical, about .02 mm. in 
diameter: in fresh water, to which it gives an oily flavor. 

2. 8P0]n>YL0X0Binc Ehrenberg. Colony of 16 cells in 4 alternating 
rows, each cell with 4 flagella: 1 species. 

8. quatemarium Ehr. Diameter of colony .05 mm. : in fresh water. 

3. PoLYTOMA Ehrenberg. Body ellipsoid with a delicate shell and 
2 flagella, colorless, occasionally with an eye-spot; 2 contractile vacuoles; 

* Bee "Chlamydomonas and Its Effect on Water Supplies," by O. G. Wbipple, 
Trans. Am. Micro. Soc, YoL 21, p. 97, lOOa 


MA8TI00PH0RA 87 

reproduction by division into 4 or 8 cells, which remain in the shell and 
then become free: 2 species. 

P. uveUiun Ehr. (Fig. 47). Length .02 mm. : in 
fresh water. 



Colonial flagellates, the individual cells of uveiium (Codd). 

which have each 2 flagella, an eye-spot and green 
chromatophores, and are imbedded in a common cellulose jelly; repro- 
duction sexual and asexual: 7 genera, all represented in America; in 
fresh water. 

Key to the genera of Volvocma: 

Oi Colony in form of a plate. 
&i Flagella on one side only of colony. 

Ci Colony squarish 1. GoNiUM 

c. Colony round with a spheroid envelope 2. Stephanosphjeba 

bt Flagella on both sides 5. Plattdokiita 

o. Colony spherical or ellipBoidal. 
hi Colony microBcopic. 

Cx Cells crowded, reaching center of colony 3. Pandobina 

Ct Cells not thus crowded. 

d^ Cells aUke in size 4. Eudobina 

dt Anterior cells small, posterior ones large 6. Pudodobina 

(t Colony not microscopic and composed of a large number of cells. . .7. Yolvox 

1. Gomnc 0. F. MuUer. Colony of few and similar individuals 

forming a squarish plate with the flagella on one 

\ \^ ^ face only; asexual reproduction by repeated divi- 

sion of all the cells, each forming a new colony; 
sexual reproduction the result of the conjugation 
of pairs of similar individuals, the zygotes thus 
formed, after a resting stage, each developing into 
a colony: 2 species, 1 American; in fresh water. 
Pig, 48 G. pectorals 0. F. Mill. (Fig. 48). Colony 

OonfoMoeotorole consists of 16 cells and .06 mm. in diameter: 

(DolieiB). _.. 


2. BnPHAVOBPHiBEA Cohn. Colony consisting of 4 or 8 cells ar- 
ranged in a ring which is surrounded by a large rounded envelope of 
which the ceUs form the equator; reproduction as in Gonium: 1 species. 

S. plnvialis Cohn. Envelopes up to .06 mm. in diameter. 

S. Pasdobxva Bory de Vincent. Colony more or less spherical, 
composed of 16 or 32 crowded cells which reach the center and are sur- 
rounded by a lamellate envelope; reproduction as in Gonium, except that 
the conjugating cells may differ slightly in size : 1 species. 


P. momm Boiy. (F^. 49). Colony up to .09 mm. in diameter: 

4. Edsobdta Ehrenberg. Colony more or Ims Bpherical, eomposed 
usually of 32 (occasionally of 16 or 64 cells) which aie 
not close together and do not reach the center, and 
are BuiTonnded by an envelope; aseznal reproduction 
as in Gonhun; at certain times sexual colonies appear, 
the female being like the ordinary colony, the male 
eoloay consisting of long, spindle-like cells which be- 
come free and unite with the female cells forming the 
Fig. 48 zygotes : 2 species. 

PntdoHnoMorMM E. elltfana Ehr. (Fig. 50). Colony about .15 mm. 

in diameter: cosmopolitan. 
6. PUTTSOBlHa* Kofoid. Colony flattened, horse ahoe-sbaped, com- 
posed of 16 or 32 cells with the flagella on both faces on alternate cells 
which are alike; asexual reproduction as in Gonium; sexual reproduction 
not observed : 1 species. 

P. caudata Kofoid (Fig. 51). Colony about .15 mm. long and J.3 
nun. wide ; posterior end of envelope with 3 or 5 tails : niinois. 

Fix, 00 — KudoHfM tlegatu (Jordan aod Kelliu.,. . ._ - -.. .. 

(Eotoid). Fli. S2 — Pleoiorina itiiiuiiiautt (Kotold). 

6. Plxosoxixa Shaw. Colony more or less spherical, composed of 
16 to 128 cells, certain of which are reproductive and the rest vegeta- 
tive, the former being twice the aixe of the latter, and posterior in 
position; asexual reproduction ss in Goftium; sexual reproduction not 
observed; 2 species; both in America. 

P. calif omlca Shaw. Cells 64 or 128, half of which are vegetative: 

P. illlnoiaanaiBt Kofoid (Fig. 52). Cells 32, rarely 16 or 64, 4 of 
which are v^etative, .12 mm. in diameter: Dlinois. 

• See "On PUtjdorlnt," etc., by C. A. Kototd, Boll. 111. St. Lab^ Vol. 8, 
p. 419, 1809. 

t See "On Pleodorlna IIUiioIkdiIb." etc., b; C. A. Kotold, IlL 8L l^h., 
ToL &, p. 273, 1B98. 


7. ToiTOX' L. Colony fonoa a hollow Bphere of lai^ size &nd 
eompoeed of htindreda or tbousaude of colls eonneeted by protoplosmia 
threads, and not differing in eize; aeezoal reproduction by ao-ealled 
parthenogonidia which are eella in the center of the colony (1 to 9 in 
nomber), whieh form there by repeated diviaion dangbter-eolonies; at 
certain times sexual cells appear, the androgonidia and gynogonidia, 
whieh retire to the eenter of the eolony where 
the latter are fertiUzed by the former and 
after a resting period the zygotes develop into 
new eolonies: several species; in aU parts of 
the world. 

V. flobator L. (Fig. 53). Colony of 1,500 to 

22J)00 cells and up to 1.2 mm. in diameter; pro- „ . 

' ^ ' *^ Fig. Bs—Tolmm 

toplasmic threads may contain chromatophores : rSh^'T 

T. aureus Ehrenberg {F. minor Stein). Colony of 200 to 4,000 
cells and np to .85 mm. in diameter; protoplasmic threads contain no 
chromatophores : cosmopolitan. 


Flagellates in most cases with a shell, around the equator of whieh 
is a transverse groove in which lies a flagellum; a second Sagellum ia 
also in moat eases present, which may spring from a second and vertical 
groove; body aometimes colored by chromatophores: 3 orders. 

Key to the orders of DinofiageUidia here described : 

Obdkr 1. ADINIDA. 

Body without groove ; 2 flagetla at the forward end ; shell composed 
of a right and a left half: 2 genera. 

1. ExUTlBLLa Cienlcowsky. Body ovoid, shells compressed and 
composed of right and left valves; 2 brown chromatophores present: 6 
species; marine. 

• See "New Forma of Volvol," by J. H- Powert. Tr&na. Am, Mlc. Bgc, VoL 27, 
p. 133- "Uxbt RcactloBi Id Lower OrKSDlsmi — II Tolvoi," by S. O. Hut, Joor. 
Comp. Near, uid Far., VoL IT, p. 98, 1807. "Le VoItdi," hj C. Janet, 19)2. 

' t 8«c "New Speciei of DtDodKcellatei," bj C. A. Kofold. BulL Una. Com. ZooL, 
ToL BO, p. 1«3, 1»0T. "DlboDaKelUU of tbe San Dleso RealoD," "; same, Uai*. of 
CaL Peb. Zool., VoL 3, p. 209, 190T, 

E. lllii* (Ehrenbei^) (Fig. 54). Anterior border of botb Bhelli 
slightly indented; length .04 mm.; slow of movement: at Woods Hole. 


Two grooves present, & transverM and a longitudinal : 2 families. 

Key to the families of Dintferida: 

a, TraoBTerse groove near middle of body 1. PEBmmnuc 

Oi TraiuveTBe groove above the middle 2. DiKOPHTsmAa 

Transverse groove medinm; longitndiual groove short; shell, when 
present, composed of plates or not; plates either equatorial (bordering 
the transverse furrow), apical, or antiapical, while a rhombic plate may 
extend from the transverse furrow to the apex: about 4 genera. 

Key to the genera of Peridinidae: 
a, With HhelL 
bi BetiiMilar markings on shell. 
0, Anterior part of shell with 7 equatorUl and 1 rhombic plates. 

I. PaamiiinTK 
c. Anterior part of ^lell with 3 equatorial and no rhombic plates. 

2. Cebatidu 

h. No markings on shell 3. OuiroDiNiuii 

0. Without shell 4. OYuifODiniuu 

1. PiRlDDmnf* Ehrenberg. Body globular or elongate; shell with 

distinct transverse groove, which may be spiral and with about 20 

plates: 9 speeies, fresh and salt water; many species are reddish in 

color and may be in sufficient numbers to color the sea. 

P. digitals Pouohet (Fig. 55). Shell with large 

pits and with oblique furrow, 1 posterior and 2 

anterior spines; length ,06 mm.: Woods 

Hole; marine; common. 

P. dirergens Ehr. Shell spherical, 
tapering posteriorly, with 2 large spines 
anteriorly ; length .07 nam. : Woods Hole ; 
I marine; common. 

8. OxBATrnf Schrank. Body a 

flattened sphere with 3 long projections ; 

Fig. M — Bxu^l^tlta transverse groove either spiral or cir- 

a»a (C»!kln«). , , .7 J' 1 „ •:, 

cular; longitudmal groove nsoally wide; 

shell reticulate or striped and composed of 10 plates; color nsnally green 
or brown: nnmerous species; in fresh and salt water. 

* See "Fertdinlam and tbe 'Bed Water' In Nanasusett Bay," bj A. D. Head, 
Sd. N, 8., Vol, 8, p. 707, 1898. 

f See "HatBttona in Ceratlam." bj C A. KoCold. Ball. Una. Comp, ZooL, Vol. 5% 
p. 313, i»og. 


0. tripos Ehreube]^ (Fig. 56). Body triangralar with 1 very loDg 
and 2 short enrred projections; length .29 mm.: Woods Hole; marine; 

0. fuu Ehr. Animal very elongate, dne to presence of 2 long 
projoetions in the same line; length .28 mm.: Woods Hole; marine; 

S. OmtODunnii Stein. Small globolar forms with a transverse 

r — ^ 

ncse — Ctnttnut triad* (CalUm). Via. CT — ajmodititum cOMpreiniw (Cklkliu). 
Fig. 58 — OvmnodUifum graollv (CalklDi). 

groove on anterior half and a short longitudinal one; shell soft and 
Btmeturelesa and without markings: 6 species; in fresh and salt water. 

0. compressnm Calkins (Fig. 57). Body ovoid, compressed, with 
deep tnmsverse and longitudinal grooves; hinder end often pointed and 
this point becomes attached; length .04 mm.: Woods Hole. 

4. QiKMOmxrnt Ehrenberg. Body without shell and spberioal, 
sometimes pointed or flattened; 8 species; in fresh and salt water, 

G. gnctle Bergh (Fig. 58). Transverse groove in anterior half; 
longitudinal groove long; eolor brown; length .06 mm.: Woods Hole; 


Transverse groove near upper end of body, its edges as well as edge 
of the longitudinal groove being usually produced into 
ehancteristie ledges. 

1. AMrEtSiHitnE ClaparKde and Lachmsnn. Body 
ovoid and flattened; longitudinal groove eztendii^ from 
hinder end to transverse groove near forward end; shell 
absent; eolor, brown or green: 2 species; in fresh and 
salt water. 

A. openmlataB CI. and Lach. (Fig. 69). Length .04 
mm.; Woods Hole. 

Uarine flagellates of large size with a parencbymatons protoplasm: 
several genera. 


NoOTZLiroA Suriray. Body spherical and 1 mm. or less in diameter, 
with a median groove in which lies a large feeler and a small flagellom, 
as well as the month; single nudens present; reproduction by division 
and by spore-formation: 1 species; marine. 

N. miliaria Sur. In the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; often so plen- 
tiful that the sea is colored red by day and glows by night with an 
intense phosphorescent light. 

Class 3. SPOBOZOA.* 

Parasitic protozoans which live in the cells, tissues, and open spaces 
of other animals. The body is usually bounded by a thick cuticula; it 
has no external openings or contractile or gastric vacuoles, and in most 
cases but one nucleus. In the adult condition there are no organs of 
locomotion, although the animals have often the power of sluggish 
movement. Being entoparasites, all Sporozoa absorb food in a fluid 
or gaseous form through the outer surface of the body. Reproduction 
is carried on through the medium of spore formation, which usually 
follows encystment, the reproductive processes being in many forms 
veiy complex. Simple division does not occur. The Sporozoa are very 
widely distributed, living as parasites in every class of animals from 
Protozoa to Veriehrata: they are often the cause of disease both in 
man and the lower animals. The class contains two subclasses and 
about 400 known species, besides about as many uncertain species. 

Key to the subclasses of Sporozoa: 

Ot Sporoeoa in which spore formation ends the individual life, inclading the great 
majority of the class 1. Telobfobidia 

Ot Sporosoa in which the entire cell does not form spores but sporocysts are 
formed during life 2. NBOBFoamiA 

Subclass 1. TBLOSPORIDIA. 

In these Sporozoa the individual life ends with spore formation^ 
the entire cell forming spores: 3 orders. 
Key to the orders of Telosporidia: 

Ox Parasitic as adults in the open spaces and organs of the host. .1. Gbbgasinida. 

Oi Parasitic in the solid tissues and not the open spaces 2. CocciDnnA 

Og Parasitic in the blood of vertebrates 3. Rsmospobidiida 


Usually elongate Sporozoa with a thick cuticula and a distinct 
nucleus; life history includes two stages, an attached stage, when the 
animals are known as cephalonts, and a detached and sporulating stage, 

• See "Spozosoa," by A. Labb6, Das Tierreich, 1899. 

8P0B0Z0A 43 

when they are ealled sporoiitB and live in the open Bpacea of the oi^an 
to the mdls of which the; have been attached; body in most oaset 
made n^^bf two or three parts (Fig. 65), the epimerite at the foirward 
end, which is the ot^an of attachment of the cephaloat aod may be 
dropped 1^ the eporont, and the body, which may be divided by a septum 
into the dentomerite which forpis the bnik of the body and contains the 
nacleaa and the protomerite which lies between it and the epimerite: 
about 300 apeeiee grouped in 2 suborders. 
Key to the suborders of Gregarinida : 
a, Grecarinea with an epimerite, and with or without a septum betWMU the 

dentomerite and protomerite 1. Cephujna 

a, Oregarinee witbout epimerite and conaiating of a single chamber, 

2. Aoefbaiuta 
Suborder 1. CEPKALINA. 

Gr^arines possessing an epimerite at 
some stage of their life which la sunk 
into the walls of the organs of the 
host in which they live; body nsaally elon- 
gate, the animals being often in associated 
couples or groups arranged tandem, in 
which case the first individual is called the 
primite and the others the satellites: in 
arthropods as adults, especially in the intes- 
tine of myriapods, beetle^ and Orthoptera; A V 
10 families and about 100 species. ru^i^iS^TAriwV^"^- 
Key to the families of Cephalina here !^.'S^h.':tL:i!&f'T^^ 
described: ^' "P*"*- 

0, Spore more or less ovoid 1. GKBOAuniDAE 

a. Spore not ovoid. 

b, E!pimerite aeymmetrica] 2. Daottlophobid&k 

6, Epimerite sjmmetricaL 

c, Spore B;mmetrical, animal solitary 3. Actinocethalidae 

«i Spore asymmetrical. 

d. Spore crescent-sliaped ; animal aolitary 4. Hbnospobidab 

d. Spore OTotd with polar thickening; in niarlne annelids. .B. DouoCTSmiAa 

Individuals either associated, forming a chain with a septum sep- 
arating each two individuals, or solitaiy; epimerite simple and sym- 
metrical: 8 genera and about 35 species. 

• See "Uit at the Polycjstld QresaHnei of the United Btatei," by H. Crawley, 
Prac. Acad. Nat. Bel., Vol. BS, p. 41, 1903. "The PolycyBtld QregarlDei of the United 
Btatea," by H. Crawley, aame, p. 632. "HoiemeotH of tbe Oreearinea," Mine, Vol. ST, 
p. S9. "Stndy of Borne QregarlDes," etc.. by H. C. HatI, Stnd. from Zool. Lab. Unlr. 
Neb., No. TT. 1»07. "The Polycyatld QreKarlnes of the United Statei," hy H. Cmwley, 
Proc Acad. Nat BeL, IWt. p. 220. 



Fig. 61 





Key to the genera of Gregarinidae here described : 

Oi Individnalfl usually associated 1. QvaQAxaiA, 

Oi Indiyidtiala usually solitary 2. Stketophoka. 

1* GsBOAUHA Dufour. Individuals usually associated; epimeiite 
simple and small but varying in form, being conical or spherical; cysts 

spherical or ovoid, when ripe with long projections called 
sporoducts through which the spores emerge: about 20 
species; in the digestive tract of insects. 

G. blattanun von Siebold (Fig. 60). Body elongate 
but somewhat irregular; cyst ovoid with long sporo- 
ducts; length about .5 mm.: in the intestine of the 

G. achetaa-abbreviataa Leidy (Fig. 61). Deutomerite 
ellipsoidal or oval; protomerite hemispherical; animala 
solitary or in pairs; length .5 mm.: in the common 

G. melanopli Crawley. Protomerite cubical or flat- 
tened; deutomerite more or less rectangular; length .37 
mm.: in intestine of the grasshopper. 

G. lociutae-carolinae Leidy. Protomerite globular on 
which the epimerite appears as a small round knob; 
deutomerite globular; length .35 mm.: in intestine of the 
large grasshopper, Diasoateira Carolina. 

2. Stbhopkoba Labb6. Body large, ovoid or elongate; 
cyst without sporoducts; protomerite small: 4 species. 

8. jnli Frantzius (Fig. 62). With the characters of the genus; 
protomerite often conical: very common in the intestine of Julus. 

Fig. 62 



Epimerite asymmetrical and irregular, with digitiform processes: 

5 genera. 

1. EOHnroicsBA Labb6 {Echinoeephalua Schnei- 
der). Body ovoid and massive; epimerite conical 
with the apex excentric and varied in form: 
1 species. 

E. hispida (Schneider) (Fig. 63). Deutomerite 
eight or ten times as long as the other two divi- 
sions; animal very active: common in gut of 

2. Tbzokorhtmuuus Schneider. Protomerite cylindrical or trun- 
cated with a long rostrum: 1 species. 

Fig. 63 Fig. 64 

Fig. 63 — Bohl- 
nomeraMapida (from 
Broon). Fig. 64 — 
Amphoroide$ fontO' 
viae (Crawley). 

8P0B0Z0A 45 

T. pulcher Schneider. In the intestine of Scutigera; length .07 mnu 


Solitary animals with symmetrical epimerite; spores symmetrical 
and spindle-shaped: 17 genera and about 27 species. 

1. AxFKOSOiDSB Labb6. Epimerite simple and regular, with a 
conical point; protomerite very short and cup-like; spores biconical: 
2 species. 

A. fontariae Crawley (Fig. 64). Deutomerite a long oval, hinder 
end being always blunt; protomerite circular or pen- 
tagonal; length .13 mm.: in diplopods of the family 
Polydesmidae; often numerous. 

2. Abtxkopkoba linger. Epimerite mucronate and 
elongate; protomerite usually larger than the deutom- 
erite: 3 species. 

A. cratoparia Crawley (Fig. 65). Deutomerite lance- 
olate, terminating bluntly; protomerite round with a Fig. 65 
conical projection in front; epimerite small, consisting of Aaterophora 
a number of ribs; length .5 mm.: in curculionid beetles. (Crawley). 


Epimerite large, joined by a long neck with the 
protomerite; spores crescent-shaped: 2 genera. 

HoFLOBHTMUUua Carus. Animals solitary; elliptical 
in shape; epimerite with 6 to 8 long marginal teeth: 
2 species. 

H. actinotns (Leidy) (Fig. 66). Deutomerite conical 
with a pointed hinder end; protomerite small, tending to 

Haoiarhtm' ^^^^^ ^*^ *^* deutomerite; epimerite long, with a large 
c9^tu spreading front end; length .5 mm.: in 8colopoerypiop$, 

(Cnwley). a diplopod. 


Deutomerite not separate from protomerite: spore ovoid, with polar 
thickening: 1 genus. 

DoxJOOrarxB L^ger. With the characters of family: 6 species. 

D. rhyncoboli Crawley. Deutomerite long, tapering to the hinder 
end; protomerite and epimerite small: in the intestine of Bhynchoholu$ 



No epiin«rit« present, the body eDneisting of & einglfl ebanber; 
■pore apindle-flhaped : about 10 genera and numerous species, which live 
prindpslly in the body cavity 
of the host and the organs con- 
nected with it. 

HoMOOTBTU Stein. Body 
OToid or elongate, sometimes 
with long cntieular filaments; 
individnals mostly solitary: 
about 10 species. 
IIK.6T — lloHoov*tU iBMbrlof (from BroDo), „ i__i._i_] /tt i \ 

A, >iii<ie tndiTidnai; B, a spore; H. Inmbrlci (Henle) 

^' " ""• (ilf. agilU Stein) (Pig. 67). 

Length 2 mm.: in intestine, genital organs and ocslam of the earth- 
worm; common. 

H. GlymenallM* Porter. In the body wall of ClymeHeUa torquata. 


Bpontea of apherioal or ovoid shape without a free stag«, whieh 
live imbedded in the solid tissues of the host, usually as intracellnlar 
parasites; reproduction by spomlation with an 
altematioa or generations: 5 families and 70 

EncCTTA Sehneider (Coceidum Leuclcart). 
Cyst ovoid, eaeh on sporulation forming 4 sporo- 
blasts, each of which produces 2 spores: 13 

B. itlsdM (Lindentann) [E. MititmU Rivolta) 
(Fig. 68). In the liver and other oi^ane of 
rabbits and other animals, also in the human liver; length of oyat 


SporoMoa parasitio in the blood of vertebrates, with or without a 
change of hosts; reproduction occurs by asexual spore-formation usually 
in the body of some other animal where conjugation takes place fol- 
lowed by pseudosexual spore-formation : about 4 genera. 

1. Plabxoditk UarchiafavR and Celli. An intra-oorpnscular para- 
site in mammalian blood oorpusclee where it finally breaks up into about 
12 asexual spores (meroEoites) which are often grouped about a eentral 

• Bm 'Two New arvarlnMs." bj 3. F. Pwtw, Jow. Horpk, ToL li. IMS. 



body eomposed of melanin pigment, and then enter other eoipnseles; 
spore-formation occurs every seventy-two hours or oftener, and is 
accompanied by a chill in the patient followed by a fever; if the blood 
is drawn into the intestine of a mosquito of the genus Anopheles certain 
of these spores produce flagellate individuals {microgametes), and others 
produce rounded spores (mticrogametee) ; these two 
conjugate, and motile individuals {zygotes) are the 
result, which penetrate the intestinal mucous mem- 
brane and form large cysts on its outer surface; 
here they sporulate and develop Anally into long, 
slender sporozoites which migrate into the body 

cavity and then into the salivary glands of the '^•,^?r"f3!?W^ 
^ '' '^ «ifiifiMilaHae(I>oflelii). 

mosquito and are injected with the saliva into the 3?»«5 circles represent 
^ ^^ blood corpuBcIeB into 

blood of the next person the mosquito bites: ^%ii^f^™"h*re^tt 

3 species. grows antil It flUs the 

'^ corpQscIe (B) and 

P. malariaa (Laveran) (Kg. 69). The cause Jgjn^ s^wres^ (Jh 
of qnartan malaria, in which the chill and fever ^Djlw^w^'oaSf ^^ 
oceur every seventy-two hours. 

P. vivax Grassi and Feletti. The cause of the tertian malaria in 
which the chill and fever occur every forty-eight hours. 

P. falciparum Welch. The cause of pernicious or autumnal malaria 
in which the chill and fever occur every twenty-four hours, or irregularly. 

2. Babesia Starcovici {Pyrosoma Smith 

CiN (^\ ^^ ^^ and Kilbourne; PtropZoama Fatten). An intra- 
y ^^ ^^^ ^^ corpuscular parasite of mammalian blood- 
/^^ f^i^ {^7ii\ r^^ corpuscles, without melanin pigment; trans- 
^cL^ \s3^ ^Cx ^^ mission by the bite of ticks in whose intestine 
S-'Vikjirr f^'^T^s^^*' ^^ pseudosexual processes occur: many 

eles represent blood corpus- anAeieg. 
dec containing the parasite. »F«*'**»- 

B. hominis (Manson) . The cause of Rocky 
Mountain spotted fever in man, the tick involved being Dermacentor 

B. bigwnina (Smith and Eilb.) (Fig. 70). The cause of Texas fever 
in cattle, the tick involved being Margaropua (Boophilus) a/nnulatus. 

Subclass 2. NEOSPORIDIA. 

Sporosoa which form sporocysts throughout life, the entire cell not 
being used in the formation of spores : 4 orders. 
Key to the orders of Neosporidia here described : 

Si In the organs of fishes and insects 1. MTXOSFORmnDA 

0f In the muscle fibres of vertebrates 2. SABCOSPOBmnPf 


Sporozoan parasites which occur in various oi^na of SaheB, inaeeta, 
and other animals; body amoeboid or spherical and mnltinndear ; eporu- 
lation gives rise to sporoblasts in each of which one to several spores 
develop: 4 families, indnding some dangerous parasitea, one of which 
is Glugea bombyais, the silk-worm parasite, which in thirteen years 
prflviona to 1867 caused a loss iu France of one billion &anea. 

Familt inrXOBOLIDAE. 

Parasites of fishes rarely found in the smoBboid form, bnt usoatly 
as cysts filled with spores in which are vaonotes which are stained 
reddish brown by iodine: 3 genera. 

Htxobokvb Biitschli. Spores ovoid or elliptical: about 40 species. 

IC. lintoni Onrley. In all the tissues of Cyprinodon variegatua. 


Sporozoan parasites in the muscle fibres of 
vertebrates; body elongate forming cysts with a 
double membrane, in which are spores: 1 genus. 

2. SasOOOTBTIB Lankester. Elongated SpoTO- 
toa living in the muscle fibres of the pig, sheep, rat, 
and other animals: about a dozen species. 

8. mlescheriana (Kiihn) (Fig. 71). Length of 
cyst 3 mm. : in the pig. 

B Class 4. niFU80EIA.t 

The Infusoria are distingnished by their defi- 
nite body form, the outer surface of the body being 
bounded by a firm euticula, and by the possesaion 
of cilia. These dlia are short hair-like pro- 
jections of the ectosare throngh the euticula, 
rig. 71 — earoocwUt and in the various epeeies may appear as rapidly 
(DaBelD). A, a cyst ; vibrating locomotory organs, or may be united 
coDuaiiiiig c;at«. to form tentacles, q>inee, mBmbranes, or suck- 

ing tubes. The ectosare is often b^hly specialized. 
In many forms it contains large nnmbera of defensive organs 
called trichocysts, which are minute rods lying perpendicular to 

■ "The MTiosporldla or Psoroiperma el Flibei Bud tbe Bpldemlci Prodaced by 
Them," b; R. R. Gnrlay, BnU. U. S. Flsb. Com., ToL II. 1898. 

f S«e "A UinDBl of tbe iDfnsorla," bf W. a. Kent, ISSl. "A PreUmlwrr Contrl- 
DqUoo towards a Htstorj ot tbe Frefh-waUr InliuoiU ot tbe Dnited StatM," br 
A. C. Stakes Jonr. TtCDtoti Nat Hiit Soc., ToL 1. p. 71, 1688. 


the smface which may he shot out into the water. In a few 
forms {VofiieeUa) nettle organs are present. The ectosaro often con- 
tains mnsde ridges called myonemes, which appear as parallel longi- 
tudinal or spiral lines, and in a few cases (Stentor) striated muscle 
fibriUae are present. The entosarc is more fluid than the ectosarc and 
is granular and contains a variety of specialized structures. Chief of 
these are the nuclei, of which two kinds are present, the micronucleus 
and the macronucleus. The latter is of large size and often branched 
or irr^ular in shape, and is supposed to be v^etative in function. 
The very much smaller micronucleus, of which more than one may be 
present, lies alongside the macronucleus and is chiefly concerned with 
reproduction and conjugation. The entosarc also contains one or more 
eontractile vacuoles and food vacuoles. The former have a definite 
position in the body and serve to eliminate the water taken in with the 
food vacuoles together with the excretory wastes. The food vacuoles 
are globules of water which are taken into the entosarc together with 
the food. 

The food of Infusoria consists of organic particles of all sorts: 
some live principally on animal food, some on plant food, many are 
scavengers, and a few are parasitic. In all, with the exception of 
certain parasitic forms, mouth and gullet are present: an oral groove 
may lead to the mouth. The anus is usually a temporary opening. 

The Infusoria reproduce by division, the animal in most cases 
dividing into two equal parts. In some forms division takes the form 
of budding. Conjugation takes place in all Infusoria, The two conju- 
gating individuals fuse, in most cases temporarily by the ectosarc of 
the mouth r^on, and an interchange of micronuclear substance takes 
place. The macronucleus disintegrates in each animal while the micro- 
nucleus divides several times. The products of these divisions disin- 
t<^rate, with the exception of a single one, which divides again. Of 
the two micronuclei thus obtained in each of the conjugating individ- 
uals, one migrates across to the other individual and fuses with the 
micronucleus remaining there. This fusion micronucleus then divides 
and a i)ortion of it enlarges to form a new macronucleus. Where more 
than one micronucleus is present, it is probable that this process goes 
on with all of them. All Infusoria encyst themselves at certain times, 
in which condition they may be carried by the wind long distances. The 
Infusoria are found in both fresh and salt water. The name originated 
with Ledermuller in 1763 and was at first applied to all minute organ- 
isms which may appear in infusions. Only in modem times has its 
use been confined to protozoans. The clas^ CQnt;aina about 1,200 species 
grouped in 2 subclass^^ 


Key to the subclasses of Infusoria: 

Oi Cilia present 1. Chiata 

Of No cilia present in the adult, but long sucking tubes 2. Suotosia 

Subclass 1. CILIATA. 

Protozoa with cilia and usually with a definite mouth and gullet: 
4 orders with about 1,000 species, of which about 400 are marine. 
Key to the orders of Ciliata: 

Oi Cilia usually, but not always, present on all parts of the body. 

5i Cilia all approximately of the same length 1. Holotbichida 

5s Mouth surrounded by an adoral zone of large cilia 2. Hbtebotrichioa 

o. Cilia present on only a part of the body. 

ht Cilia confined to the ventral side 3. Htfotrichida 

h^ Cilia confined to one or more rings around the body 4. Pebitbichida 



Protozoa in which the cilia are usually evenly distributed over the 
body, with a tendency to arrange themselves in straight lines, which 
have often a spiral arrangement; in the vicinity of the mouth the cilia 
are often longer than elsewhere and in a few forms are confined to this 
region; trichocysts almost always. present: 10 families. 

Key to the families of Holotrichida here described : 

Oi Animals not parasitic. 

5^ Mouth closed except when taking in food, and without undulating membrane. 
* Oi Mouth terminal or subterminal. 

di Body usually oval or cylindrical 1. Enghelinidak 

d. Dorsal side arched ; forward end often neck-like 2. Trachelinidab 

Cs Body ovoid ; mouth in middle or posterior region. . . .3. Chlaictdodontidas 
ht Mouth always open and ventral with an undulating membrane around it or 
in the gullet 
Oi Oral groove absent or slightly developed. 

di No equatorial zone of cilia 4. Cuxlifebidas 

d. Broad equatorial sone of cilia 5. Ubocentbidae 

Ct Long oral groove present. 

di No undulating membrane along oral groove 6. PARAMEcnDAE 

dt An undulating membrane along the oral groove 7. Plbusonemtdae 

Ob Animals parasitic ; mouth absent 8. Opaijnxdab 


Usually oval Infusoria, .sometimes with a long slender forward por- 
tion, with a terminal mouth by which large objects are swallowed, food 
not being introduced in currents, as the gullet is never ciliated: about 
18 genera; principally in fresh water. 


Key to the genera of Enchelinidae here deeeribed: 

Oi CilUt cover whole body. 
h^ Body not covered with rectangular plates. 
Oi Body not elongate and contractile. 
di Gullet absent or short 
et Posterior bristle not present. 

ft Month terminal ; body ovoid 1. Holophbta 

/, Month snbterminal ; body with slight neck 2. Bnohkltb 

e. Posterior bristle present 3. Ubdtbioha 

d, GoDet long and lined with a membrane 4. Pbobooon 

c^ Body elongate and contractile. 

d^ Body flask-shaped with contractile neck 5. Lacsticabia 

d. Body very long and contractile 7. Traohxzxxjbbca 

is Body covered with rectangular plates Q. Ooleps 

a. Cilia confined to 1 or 2 girdles. 

&t I>eep equatorial furrow present 8. McsoDnnuM 

hg No such furrow 9. DnnniUM 

1. Holophbta Ehrenberg. Body striated, cylindrical or ovoid; 
dliation uniform; no trichoeysts: 6 species; in fresh and salt water. 

Fig. 72 

Fig. 73 

Fig. 74 

Fig. 72 — Holophrpa dUoolor (from Bronn). Fig. 78 — Enehelfft pupa (Conn). 

Fig. 74 — Urotricha fareta (Conn). 

H. discolor Ehr. (Fig. 72). Body ovoid ; length .04 mm. : in standing 

2. EvOHSLTB 0. F. MiiUer. Anterior end somewhat elongated and 
truncated with subterminal mouth: 5 species; in fresh and salt water. 

E. pupa Ehrenberg (Fig. 73). Body ovoid; length .08 mm.; color 
often greenish. 

8. UsoTBlOHA Clapar^e and Lachmann. Like Holophrya, but with 
a bristle at hinder end: 2 species; in fresh water. 

U. fareta CI. and Lach. (Fig. 74). Springs with its bristle; length 
.02 mm. 

4. Fbosodov Ehrenberg. Body ovate or ellipsoid, with a long 
gullet lined by a membrane: 8 species; in fresh water. 

P. griseus Oapar^de and Lachmann. Length .25 mm.: in standing 

5. Lao&txasia Ehrenberg. Body flask-shaped, with a eontractile 
oeek and spiral striations; 4 species; in fresh and salt water. 

Laervmaria ol 


L. olor (0. p. MiUler) (Fig. 75). Body extremely 
elastic, colorless or green; leDgth withont neck 2 mm.; 
neck may be much longer than body: in fresh water. 

L. li<«nnb CUparfede and Lachmann. Body flaek- 
shaped, with a short eonical neck which has a crown 
of loiter eilia; lei^h up to .16 mm.: in decaying 
marine and fresh-water algae. 

6. OotEFS NitzBch. Barrel-shaped, 
rigid, with an armor composed of rect- 
angnlar plates between which the cilia 
project: 3 species; in fresh water. 

0. hirtiu Ehrenberg (F^. 76). Gray 
or green; length .04 mm.: in swamps. 

7. Tkaohsloobboa Ehrenberg. Body 
very long, slender, and contractile: ma- "«.*» 

Oot«M Mela* 
nne; 1 species. (Conn). 

T. p&ffinlcoptanu Cohn (Pig. 77). 
Length up to 1.7 mm.; with a fonr-sideiJ month, which may not be 
seen : Woods Hole. 

8. HsBODlimnt Stein. Body globular or conical, with a deep furrow 
around the middle from which spring one or more rows of cirri; 4 con- 
tractile tentacles in the month: 3 spwies; in fresh and salt 

H. dnctoffl Calkins (Fig. 78). Cirri projecting forward 
number about 30: marine; Woods Hole. 

9. DiDimni Stein. Body cylindrical, with 1 or 2 
girdles of cilia and with a horseshoe-shaped macronnclens ; 
forward end a projecting cone with the month at the tip: 
2 species; in fresh water. 

D. namtnu* (O. F. Miiller) (Fig. 79). Length.l mm.: 
feeds on Paramecium and 
other large infnsorians. 

Faiult 2. 


Dorsal side of body 

arched; mouth terminal 

or subterminal, nsoally 


oftOTfcoo- at the end of 
neck; 6 genera. 


T\g. 78 
m.78 - 

(Calllns) . 



TS — Diatm^m 

tc, br 8. O. Hut, BioL BnlL, 


Key to the genera of Traehelinidae here described : 

Oi Distinct neck region. 
hx Mouth runs the length of the neck. 

ct| E<ntire body uniformly ciliated 1. AiCFHiLEFTUa 

Ca Ventral surface only ciliated 2. Lionotub 

hi Mouth at base of neck, which is very long 4. Dilkptub 

a. No distinct neck region 3. Loxophyllum 

1. A1CPSILS7TU8 Ehrenberg. Body often curved, elongate, flattened, 
with a sharp neck-like forward end; no gullet: 3 species; in fresh and 
salt water. 

A. gntta Clapar^de (Fig. 80). Macronudeus double; length .08 mm. 

Fig. 81 

Fig. 80 — AmphilMttus gvtta 
(Conn) . Fig. 81 — lAonotua fan- 
dola (Calkins). Fig. 82 — Lowo- 
phyllum rostratum (Conn). 

Fig. 80 

Fig. 82 

2. LzovoTini Wrzesniowski. Body elongate, tapering to both ends, 
with a large hump ; usually two macronuclei ; flattened side only ciliated ; 
anterior end heck-like: 6 species; in fresh and salt water. 

L. wnesniowakii Kent. Length .18 mm. : in fresh water. 

L. fasdola (Ehrenberg) (Fig. 81). Body ellipsoid, hinder end 
eonical; length up to .6 mm.: in fresh and salt water; Woods Hole; Cold 
Spring Harbor. 

3. LoxoPKYXxmc Dnjardin. Body flat, with a broad hyaline border; 
anterior projection slight, turned to the right; trichocysts often in 
papilla-like groups; nucleus often bead-like: in standing water; 4 
species; in fresh and salt water. 

L. roftratum Cohn (Fig. 82). Body elongate; 
length J 5 mm.: in fresh water. 

L. setigenim Quennerstedt. Body broad; 1 Fig. 83 — DUeptus anter 

1 • 1* * (Conn). 

mm. long: m salt water. 

4. Dilefhtb Dujardin. Body large, elongate, with a long contractile 
neck, at the base of which is the mouth; numerous contractile vacuoles; 
nucleus often bead-like: 2 species; in fresh and salt water. 

D. anaer (O. F. Miiller) (Fig. 83). Body striated; length up to 
1.5 mm.: among algae in fresh water. 


Orold or Iddney-sluiped Inftaoria with the moath nsnally some dis- 
tance from Ulterior end; gullet specially modified to swallow food of 
large size : about 11 genera. 

1. Nabsula Ehrenberg. Body ovate or cylindrical ; montb between 
middle and anterior end ; gullet armed with rods or with a membrane : 
8 species; in firesh and salt water. 

K. oniata Ehr. Body nearly eircular, usually with brightly colored 
qtota; gullet with rods; length 2 mm.: in fresh water. 

K. nuCTOltom* Cohn (Fig. 84). Body nearly circular, with brightly 
colored spots; gullet with a membranous lining; length .OS mm.: 
marine; Woods Hole. 

2. Ohilosov Ehrenberg. Body flattened, with convex dorsal side; 

f:£. Si Fig. 85 n«. se 

Flfi. S4— TToMvIa wtaerottoma (Cftlktni). Fig. SO — Ohllodo» okwIIhIu* (CalklnB). 
Fie- S^—FrtHttonla leucat (CalklDa). 

month at or in front of middle of body; gullet armed with rods: 
fi species; in fresh and salt water. 

0. cncnllnliiB (O. F. Miiller) (Fig. 85). Length .1 mm. or less; 
body ovoid; forward aid bent to the left: in fresh and salt water. 


Month never behind the middle and always open, with an undulating 
membrane on the edge of it or in the slightly developed gullet: 
Q genera. 

Key to the genera of Chiliferidae here described : 

0, Long ventral furrow leading back from the month I. FbortoRU. 

Of No sDcb furrow. 

t, Caudal bristle preaent 3. Ubomuu 

Is No bristle. 

c. Body oval, symmetrical 2. CoLpjmvit 

Ct Body rounded doraally, straight ventrally 4. Colpoda 

1. FSOMTOKU Ehrenberg. Body large, ellipsoid or elongate and 
contractile and colorless, or green or brown, with month near forward 


and and an nndnlating membraae in the gullet: 3 apeeies; in fresh 
and salt wat«T. 

F. lencas Ehr. (Fig. 86). Body brown or black in color; length 
J3 mm. or more ; a furrow extends back from the mouth : in fresh and 
Bait water; Woods Hole. 

2. ODumiini Stein. Body oval, the ventral side being incurved 
and the forward end smaller than the hinder; mouth central: 2 Bpecies; 
in fresh and aalt water. 

0. colpodx (Ehrenherg) (Fig. 87). Length .045 mm. or more: in 
fresh and salt water; common in infusions; Woods Hole. 

3. UsonXA Dojardin. Body minute and oval, with a long bristle 
at the hinder end; month near middle surrounded by membranes: 6 
species; in fresh and salt water. 

ns.87 — CoIpUfwm cotaoda (CalklDa). Flg.SB—Uro»«ma marinun (Calktni). 
tlK.89 — Volpoia ououUut [Conn). 

V. marinam Duj. (F^. 88). Length .06 nun.: in fresh and salt 
vater; in decaying vegetation; marine; Woods Hole. 

<. OoLPOOA 0. F. Miiller. Body laterally compressed, with rounded 
dorsal and stra^ht ventral surface; mouth toward forward end, sur- 
rounded by long cilia; several species; in fresh water, especially in hay 

0. cncvUnB Mid. (Fig. 80). Body ellipsoidal; length .1 mm.: in 
fresh water; very common. 


Body barrel-shaped; month near the middle; a broad girdle «t 
longer cilia sroond the body : 1 genns. 

UsoonraBtm Nitzseh. Characters as above : 1 species ; in fresh and 
salt water. 

V. tnrbo (O. F. Holler) (Fig. 90). Length .06 mm.; swims with a 
whirling motion. 


Body elongate, with a long, deep, oral groove leading to the mouth 
which is in the middle or hinder part of the body: 1 genns; common in 
infusions and decaying organic matter. 



PASAXSomc* O. F. Miiller. Slipper-animalcules. Characters aa 
above; trichocysts distinct; two contractile vacuoles: 4 species; in fresh 
and salt water. 

P. aurelia Miil. (Fig. 91). Forward end rounded; hinder end bluntly 
pointed; length .15 nun.; 2 micromiclei : in fresh and salt water; common. 

P. candatom Ehrenberg (Fig. 92). Like P. aureUa, but somewhat 
larger and more pointed behind and with 1 micronucleus : in fresh 
water; commoner than the preceding. 

Big. 80 Fig. 91 Fig. 92 

Fig. 90 — Urocenirum turbo (Conn). Fig. 91 and Fig. 92 — Paramecivm omreXia 

and P. oaudatum in outline (Qeorge T. Hargltt). 

P. bursaria Ehr. Body wide, rounded, and obliquely truncate for- 
ward and pointed or rounded behind; usually bright green from the 
numerous green algae {zoochlorellae) in the ectosarc; length J.2 mm.: 
in fresh water. 


Body oval or ellipsoidal, with a long, deep oral groove leading to 
the mouth in hinder part of body; along the edge of this groove is a 
large undulating membrane: 5 genera. 

Key to the genera of PleuronemicUie here described : 

Oi No caudal bristle. 

&i Hinder end acute 1. Lescbadion 

&, Hinder end rounded 2. Pleuboneva. 

a. Caudal bristle present 3. LembiTs 

1. Lexbadzoh Perty. Body oval, rigid, posterior end acute: 1 

L. bullinum Perty (Fig. 93). Length .05 mm.: in fresh water. 

2. PLEtr&ONEiiA Dujardin. Body rigid, oval, and flattened; oral 
groove takes in a large part of the ventral surface and with a high, undu- 
lating membrane; cilia very long: 2 species; in fresh and salt water. 

P. chxysaliB (Ehrenberg) (Fig. 94). Moves by springs and by swim- 
ming; length .04 mm.: in fresh and salt water; in decaying vegetation. 

* See "Races of Paramecium/' by H. S. Jennings and 0. T. Hargltt, Jour. Morph., 
Vol. 21, p. 495, 1010. "Two Thoasand Generations of Paramndum," by L. h. 
Woodruff, Arch. f. Prot. Vol. 21, p. 263, 1911. "Paramsclum aurelia and P. 
oaudatum,** by same, Jour. Morpb., Vol. 22, 1911. 


3. hxMMtn Cobn. Body elongnte, with a long caudal bristle; mouth 
in the middle with the oral groove leading to it from the forward end: 
in decaying plants; 3 species; marine. 

L. infuionuiL Calkins (Fig. 95). Body lancet-shaped, with a taper^ 
ing anterior extremity; a row of contractile vacuoles extends from the 
hinder end forward; length .07 mm.: Woods Hole. 


Month absent; body oval or elongate: 6 genera, parasitic in the 
Anura and in worms and mollusks. 

1. Opaixna* Purkinje and Valentin. Elliptical Infusoria living 
parasitic in the rectnm of frogs and toads; 13 specif 

O. ranomm Pur. and Tal. (Fig. 96). Body flattened; 
many contractile vacuoles; length .6 nun.: in frogs and 

2. AxoFU)PKXYA Stein. Body elongate: in the di- 
gestive tract of marine annelids and on the gills of 
cmstaceana; occasionally free-swimming. 

A. braacUamm St. Length .1 mm.; body Qask- opauna 

■haped: Woods Hole; free-swimming. (DSfldn". 


Body with uniform cilistion and an odorol zone along the oral 
groove consisting of cilia fused together to form membraneUes : 7 families. 

Key to the families of HeteTotrichida here described: 
«i Bod; Dot {d a cup. 
b. Body not with ■ crown of loDg cirrL 
c. Body not funnel or tmni pet-shaped. 

rf, Body elonjcated 1. fiAoiUTOiODAK 

d. Body usaally oval with a trianxnlar oral groove 2. BcasABnoAX 

e. Body fonuel or trumpet-shaped 3. STERTosroAa 

b. Body with a crown of long cirri 4. HALTGBiniAE 

0, Body in a cup 5. TmrmmDAr 

• See "OpaUna," by M. K. Metcalf, Arcb. (, Prot., Vol. 13, p. 1»B, 1909. 




The oral groove extends from the forward end of the mouth, near 
the middle of the body; adoral zone along the left aide of the groove; 
body elongate: 6 genera. 

Key to the genera of Plagiotamidae here described: 

0} Oral groove spiral 1. Mjctofus 

0| Oral groove straight 

hi Forward end acute and turned to the left .2. Blephabisica 

b. Body straight and worm-like 3. Spibostoicum 

1. MsTOFTO Clapar^de and Lachmann. Body cylin- 
drical; oral groove extends spirally across the forward 
two-thirds of body; contractile vacuole at hinder end: 
2 species; in fresh and salt water. 

U sigmoidea (O. F. Miiller) (Fig. 97). 
Length .13 mm.; body very contractile: in 
fresh water. 

2. BxJEPHABXBi^ Perty. Forward end 
acute and turned to the left; hinder end 
rounded: several species; in fresh water. 

B. undulans Stein (Fig. 98). Length 
•37 nun.; color red: in fresh water. 

8. Spi&osTOinnc Ehrenberg. Body long, 
cylindrical, and worm-like, very contractile, with dis- 
tinct spiral striations; nucleus bead-like; oral groove in 

about first third of body; contractile 
vacuole at hinder end: 2 species; in fresh 
and salt water. 

8. teres Clapar^de and Lachmann 
(Fig. 99). Length .4 mm.; body tapers 
slightly at both ends; nucleus sometimes 

8. ambigunm (Bory de Vincent). Body 
1 mm. long or more, and not tapering. 

Fig. 07 


Fig. 08 

Fig. 00 







Family 2. BUBSABUDAE. 

Body usually oval and flattened, the oral groove being a triangular 
sunken area ending in the mouth; adoral zone on left edge of groove: 
5 genera. 

Key to the genera of Bursariidae here described : 

Ot Animals parasitic 2. BALAinmnTH 

(1, Animals not parasitic. 

6i Body very hroad 1. Bubsaha 

5t Body cylindrical 8. (3oin>TLOSTOMA 


L BvxsASU 0. F. M{ill«T. Bod? luge, pnrse-ehaped, obliqnel; 
truncate in front; nnclens long, ribbon-like: 1 Bpeeies; in fresh w&t«r. 

B. tnmcatalU Uul. (Fig. 100). Length 1 nun. 
and more: often between fallen leaves in the 

S, Bu,A«Ti9iuM Stein. Body apindle-ahaped, 
irith the oral groove at the apex : 4 apeoies, para- 
sitic in nuunmals, amphibians, and worms. 

B. coU St. (Fig. 101). Length 02 mm.: iu 
the large intestine of the pig and man, canaing 

B. antoioon (Ehrenberg). Length 2 mm.: fu.100 

in the large intestine of frogs, toada, and aartaria lni«oal«na 
aalainaadera. , (Com). 

S. OoniTxoflToiu Dnjardin. Body rounded or cylindrical, tapering 
anteriorly with obliqnely truncate forward end; nnclens bead-like: 2 
species, in fresh and salt water. 

0. patens (O. F. Muller) (Fig. 102). Length .4 mm.; width M 
mm. : freeh and salt water. 

Body the shape of an elongated funnel and very contractile, the 
small end of which can be attached ; large end truncate, the adoral n>ne 
passing around the edge; nucleus usually beaded: 2 genera; in fresh 

Stsbtob* Oken. Fixed or free-swimming; when swimming body 
is fioutraeted~and ovate: 8 species; in fresk-water. 

B. COMrnleiU Ehrenberg (Fig. 103). Body bine; length .25 nun. 

I (Bbr.)," bj A. A. Scbaeffer, Jotu. 


8. polymorphns (0. F. Muller). Body nsii&lly greoi from the pres- 
ence of algae {looehioreliae) but sometimes colorless; length 1 mm.: 
sometimes very abondaiit on water plants. 

8. rcwall Ehr. Body colorless; nucleus ribbon-shaped; often 
attached by a short case; length 1 mm. 

Fahilt 4. HALTEXnDAE, 
Body ^herical or ovoiil, often with long bristles and a few cilia 
scattered over the body; animal moves by springing: 2 genera. 

1. HaltkKU Dnjardin. Body small, spherical, 
with anterior adoral ciliated sone, and asnally body 
bristles: 2 species; in fresh water. 

H. grandineUa (0. F. Uuller) (Fig. 104). 
Length .04 mm. 

2. BTBOMatonni Claparide and Lachmann. Like 
Tig. 104— HatffTfs Ealteria, but without the bristles: 6 species; in 

'™*""'"" *«"•"''>• fresh and salt water. 

8. r-andatnin Fromentel. Caudal appendage present; length .035 
mm.: in freah and salt water. 


Body attached by a stalk to a cnp: 5 genera. 

1. Tmimopais Stein. Animal in a ehitinons 
cup on which are embedded sand granules; anterior 
end has two circles of cilia: numerous species; 

T. beroidea St. (Fig. 105). Cup thimble-shaped; 
length .05 mm.: Woods Hole. 

T. davidoffl Daday. Cup elongate with a loi^ 
spine; length .23 mm. 
ny. JOB — THnHH- 2. TsfTlinrDl Ehrenberg. Like Tintinnopna 

((^iudi). except that no sand grains are imbedded in the cup: 

numerous species; in fresh and salt water. 
T. amphora Clapar^de and Lachmann. Length .1 mm.; cup elon- 
gate: marine; Cold Spring Harbor. 


Body flattened and with cilia, spines, eirri, and membranellea 
conflned to the ventral surface; dorsal surface may have bristles: 3 



Key to the families of Hypotrichida here described : 

Oi Body tuaally elongate and broad, with ventral cilia 1. Oxttbichidak 

Os Body more or less circular with very long bristles and cilia usually absent 



Body somewhat elongate with arched dorsal and flat ventral side, 
the latter with cilia, bristles, etc.; month near the middle with an oral 
groove running backwards: 21 genera; in fresh and salt water. 

Key to the genera of Oxytrickidae here described: 

Oi Several median longitudinal rows of continuous dlia. 
6i Five or more rows of cilia. 

Cx Mostly fresh-water animals 1. Ubosttla 

e^ Marine animals 2. Epicuntes 

fta Less than 5 rows of cilia. 
Oi Neither anterior nor anal bristles; body acute anteriorly. .3. Stichotricha 
Ca Such bristles present ; body usually broad. 

di Animals mostly marine 4. Auphisia 

d^ Animals mostly in fresh water. 
ei Two median rows of cilia. 

ft Three anterior and no anal bristles .6. Uboleptub 

ft No anterior bristles ; anal bristles present 7. Holosticha 

€a Three or 4 rows, body broad and rectangular 6. OirrcHODBOinTs 

Os No median rows of continuous cilia ; but marginal rows present. 

h^ No caudal bristles 8. Oxttbioha 

ft. Three long caudal bristles 9. Sttlontchia 

1. Urobtyla Ehrenberg. Body flexible, elliptical, 
with longitudinal striations and rows of cilia; oral 
groove at forward end; 5 to 12 long anal bristles in 
an oblique row, and 3 or more anterior bristles: 6 
species ; in fresh and salt water. 

V. trichota (Stokes) (Fig. 106). Length .3 mm.; 
5 anal and about 20 anterior bristles: in fresh water. 

2. Epiclxhtbs Stein. Body flexible, elongate, the 
forward half being ovate, the hinder end slender and 
cylindrical; several longitudinal rows of cilia: 1 
species; marine. 

E. radiosa C^uenner- 
stedt (Fig. 107). Length 

.045 mm.; 5 large bristles at pig. io7^BpU)Unie$ radioM 

forward end: Woods Hole. 

3. Stichotbioxa Perty. Body cylindrical and very contractile, 

with acute forward end; oral groove extending back to middle of 

body; 2 or 3 rows of cilia; color often green: 4 species; in fresh and 

salt water. 

8. secimda Perty (Fig. 108). Length 2 mnu: in fresh water. 

Fig. 106 

Urosipla Mohota 


i, Ampkuia Sterki. Body elongate and eylindrical and contractile, 
with rounded ends and often tinged red or yellow; several anterior 
brietles and 5 to 10 anal bristles; oral groove extends back to middle 
of body: 7 epeeiee; in fresh and salt vater. 

Fig. 110 — Uroleptiu longicauiatut (Coud). 

A. ksBBlsil (Wrzesnioweki) (Fig. 109). Body wider anteriorly; 
length J3 nun.: marine; Woods Hole. 

S. UKOLEPTirB Ehrenberg. Body cylindrical or flattened and slen- 
der with roanded anterior and acute posterior ends; 3 anterior and 
DO anal bristles; oral groove short; 2 continuous rows of median cilia: 
6 species; in fresh and salt water. 

n. longlcatidEitna Stokes (Fig. 110). Length .2 
mm.: in fresh water. 

6. OHTOBODXomra Stein. Body broad, somewhat 
reotangntar; 3 or 4 rows of ventral cilia; one row of 
large cilia along the oral groove: 1 species. 

0. giandls St. (Fig. 111). Length .35 mm.; width 
.12 mm.: in fresh water; slow of movement. 

7. HoLOSTiOKA. Wrzesniowski. Like Oxytricha 
except that there are 2 rows of median cilia and no 
anterior bristles. 

H. Temalia Stokes. Body elliptical, rounded at 
O»vehoinmua ^°^^ ™^^ ' '^"^th .07 mm. : in fresh water, 
(tnT^B** ^* O^^'^NOHA Ehrenberg. Body elliptical, with a 

row of cilia along each lateral margin and a mid- 
ventral group of bristles, consisting of about 8 bristles along the oral 
groove, about 5 in middle of the body, and about 5 anal bristles: several 
species; in fresh and salt water. 

0. pellionella (O. F. Iduller). Body elongate; length .09 mm.: in 
fresh water. 


O. UfuU Stokes (Fig. 112). Bod; broad; length .2 mm.; bristles 
in a single line: in fresh water. 

9. Sttlohtohia Ehrenberg. Body elliptical, 
rigid; oral groove triangular or semicircular, reach- 
ing middle of body; cilia and bristles as in Oxytricha; 
nsnally 3 long caudal bristles present: 
6 Bpedes; in fresh and salt water; very 
common, the animals oiXea moving by 
quick jerks. 

S. postulata Ehr, Body broad; 
length .25 mm.; width J. mm.: in 

S. mytUiu (0. F. ICiiller) (Fig. 

113). Body broadest in front 


Fig. 11! 

OwMoka middle; length .3 mm.: in fresh Fig, ii3 

Faiolt 2. EtTPLOTIDAE. 
Cilia very little developed or absent ; large bristles and spines ehor- 
aeteiize the ventral surface; nucleus ribbon-shaped; body round or oval: 
S genera; mostly marine. 

Eey to the genera of Euplolidae here described: 
A, No poaterior faooh-like projection at aide of bod;. 
b, Anterior briatlee present 

Ci About 9 anterior bristles 1, tiOFUyiEB 

c. About 6 anterior bristle* 2. Diophkts 

6, No anterior briities 3. naoirroHU 

a, PcaterioT book-like projection at aide of body 4. Abfiihsoa 

L EvPLOiza Ebrenberg. Body oval 
or round, either green or colorless; mouth 
in the binder half of body, a long arched 
oral groove joining it with the front end 
of the body; about 9 large bristles oppo- 
site the groove and a similar number o£ 
ttna! bristles: 5 species; in fresh and salt 

*"**^' Fig. 114 Plf. 116 

B. Charon (0. F. Muller) {Fig. 114). p^. ii*_j,.p,o,,, eJu«^ 

Length .045 mm.: in fresh and salt i^p'iSiiKl.ta.^c.iki^f^*'*' 


a. PiopHBTB Dujardin. Like £upIotes except that about 6 anterior 

and 8 anal bristles, all very long and thick, are present; movement rapid 

and continuous, not by jumps: 2 species; marine. 

P. app«&dlcniUt(u Stein (Fig. 115). Length .05 nun.: Woods Hol«, 


3. Uboittohu Stein. IJke Euplotes except that no anterior and 
about 10 ^eat anal bristles are present; movement rapid, with freqneDt 
jumps: 2 species; marine. 

V. Betigera Calkins (Fig. 116). Length .04 mm.: 
common at Woods Hole. 

i. Asmosoi. Ehrsnberg. 
Body oval with a short oral 
groove in the middle of the 
hodj and a short posterior 
projection at the side of 
body ; about 8 thick, anterior, 
and 6, or more, anal bristles : 
in fresh and salt water. 

A. hftZUia Qnennerstedt 
(F^. 117). Length .07 mm.; 
6 anal bristles; Woods Hole. 


Cylindrical or oup-shaped infusorians in which the body is without 
cilia except those forming tlie adoral zone at the oral groove, and in 
fl few cases a zone at tlie hinder end ; most of them are sessile : 3 families. 

Key to the families of Peritrichida here described : 

n. Bod; attached b; a broad sucking disc I. LiCHKOFHOtTOAK 

u, Ba6y usually attached by a slender Btalk 2. Vobticeludak 


Forward part of the body with an oval oral groove; the hinder 
part stalk- like and broadened at the end to form a sucking disc 
])iovided with a ring of cilia, by 
which the animal fixes itself: 1 
genus; marine; nsnally parasitio 
on moUusks. 

LlOKVOFBOKA Cla parade. 
Characters given above. 

L. macfarlandi Stevens (Fig. 
US). Length .08 mm.; the animal 
moves about on its pedal disc: Woods Hole, on the e^ capsules of 
Crepidula and on annelids. 


Body cup-shaped and cylindrical and, with one or two exceptions, 
attached by a stalk at the hinder end; oral groove oireolar, arouad UiA 


«dge of the «np; bod^ very eontnetile; aninuJa frequently coIonUl: 
16 genera. 

Key to the genera of YorticeliidM here deecribed: 
Oi Aplioala not werile and withoat k stalk ; paruttes or oommenaala on Htdru 

and other animals 1. TnOHODiHA 

•) Animals sessile and stalked and not parasitic, although olten attached to other 

bi Body not encloaed in a cnp. 
Ct Stalk l<Hig or sbort and not branched : animals solitary. 

ii Stalk long and (contractile 2. TpBTnau.a 

^ Stalk short and not contractile. 
9i On] disc acta like a cover (opercalnm) wUdi may dose the opening of 

the cnp S. Prximuic 

e. No each cover 4. Rhabdobtila 

c^ Stalk branched ; animals coloniaL 
i. Stalk contractile, 
e. Each IndlTidnal of the colony can contract independently. 

S. Casohxsidii 

e. The colony contracts as a whole 6. Zoothaukiuu 

d. Sulk not retractile, bnt rigid. 

ei No opercalnm 7. EJpiarrus 

«! Opercalnm present 8. Ofuodlabu 

b. Body eneloeed in a traoaparent cap 9. COTHUUtia 

1. Tbiohodira Ebrenberg. Body sfaort, eylindiical or dJse-sbaped 
with a ring of cilia around the oircnlar flat base; oral end also flat: 
parasites or commensals on Hydra, planaiians, and other small <"iim#l», 
also on the gills of fishes, attaching itself by the aneker-Uke base or moving 
over the snrface of the body; sometimes entopara- 
sitie in the urinary bladder or intestine of fish or 
amphibians; several species. 

T. pedictdna Ehr. (Fig. 119). Length .08 
nun- : often common on Hydra. 

S. ToBTioxLLa L. Body more or less bell- 
diaped with the oral groove extending inwards Ftg. ii^—Triohadin* 
from the rim and with a long stalk ; nucleus horse- ' ** 

riioe-riiaped; colorless or green or blue: many species; b salt and fresh 
water, on plants and »niiii»lii 

V. nebnUfora Ebrenbei^ (F^. 120). Body campannlate, some- 
times green in color, .07 mm. long with a stalk 4 times as long : in dear 

T. eatnpannla Ehr. The largest VorticeUa, with a body 2 mm. 
loi^ or less, bluish in oolor, and a stalk several timea as long, not 
annolated: in fresh water, often in clnmpe on water plants. 

Y. coDTallarla L. Body ancnlated, .1 mm. long, with a long stalk: 
in iofneions. This animal is interesting becaose it was the flrst micro- 
sec^ne animal discovered by Leenwenfaoek, who first saw it in April, 167S. 

V. patellinft O. F. Miiller (Fig. 121). Bod; not simulated, with a 
very wide oral end ; length .05 mm. : In freeh and salt water; Woods Hole. 

V. muiu Greef. 
Body annulated, .035 
mm. long: marine; 
Woods Hole. 

3. PrziDnm Kent. 
Stalk short and not 
contractile; body elon- 
gate and elliptical, with 
a small oral end; oral 
cilia on a disc called 
the operculum which can 

n.. 120 n«. 121 •='»* '^°^ "^ " li^- 

P. ranuMa Stokes. 
Length .15 mm.: in 
fresh water. 

4. BRAaDOBTTLA Kent. Like VorUceUa but with a short and non- 
contractile stalk; bod; hell'shaped or elongate, 

with small oral end. 

£, breripai (Claparide and Lacbmann ) . 
Let^h .1 mm. : in fresh water. 

5. OaxoHXBUni Ehrenberg. Richly branched 
colonies which form visible grayish masses on 
water plants and often animals; each individual 
can contract independently: several species; in 
fresh water. 

0. polTplnam (L.) (Fig. 122). Body broad 
and fnnnel-shaped and about J. mm. long: com- 
mon in freeh and salt water. 

6. ZooTKAMHiuii Ehrenberg. Like Car<Ae- 
«itim, except that the colony contraets as a whole: 
several species, in fresh and salt water. 

Z, arbnacnla Ehr. Body more or less eyl- 
indrical; length .05 mm.; on water plants in 
fresh water. 

7. EPilTTLie Ehrenberg. Like Rhabdoityla, 

but colonial; whole colony rigid: nnmerous ape- car^^ium polvpte... 
cies; in fresh and salt water, often on small (Dofleln). 


E. flavicang Ehr. (Fig. 123). Body beU-shaped, .1 mm. long: in 
fresh water. 


8. OraaoULASu Ehrenberg. Like Pyndmm, but eolonul; whole 
eolony rigid: 8 species; in freeb water. 

0. amcnUU Ebr. Body spindle- 
shaped, traneate at lower end, and .05 mm. 
long: on water beetles. 

9. OOTHUBHIA Ehreo' 
berg. Body elongate and 
endoeed in a colorless or 
brownisb cap, at the bot 
torn of which it is at 
tached and into which it 
«an retract; cup also at- 
taebed either directly or 

by a short stalk: nnme^ "*■ "* 

. . . , , Cotftwmte cr|i«- 

Fic- 123— BptotyHi itovtooM ons species; lo fresh and tatutta 

(Conn). „ . (C»1Mm). 

salt water. 

0. dTsUDlna Ebr. (Fig. 124). Length of cnp .07 to .2 mm.: in 
fresh and salt water; Woods Hole. 


Usnally sessile Infutoria which have no eilia as adults bnt are pro- 
vided with long hollow tentacles adapted for sucking or piercing; they 
attach the tentacles to other Infiuaria and suck them out; some are 
entoparasites in Infusoria: 8 families with abont 200 species. 
Eley to the families of Svctoria here described : 

a. Body globular, without a cup 1, Podophkiidai 

a. Body not globnlar. 

6i Body iMaall; in ■ cup at end ot a slender atalk 2. Acinetidab 

6, Body witboot cup or stalk ; tentacles knobbed 3. Dehdboboiodai 


Body globtilar and not in a cnp; stalked or 
not, and with tentacles of difFerent kinds, some 
knobbed and some acute: 6 genera. 

1. Sfksbotbxta Clapuride and Lachmann. 

Body spherical or ovoid and without stalk, with 

knobbed tentacles radiating from all sides : f ree- 

Uving in swamps and infusions or entoparasites Fig. 13C — iSpk«ro- 

jtfuya mafffta 
in Btetttor, Paramecium, and other oiliates; 4 (Conn). 


8. magiu Haupas (Fig. 125). Diameter .06 mm.: among water 


S. PoDOPKXTA Ehrenbei^. Body apherioal or ovoid and attaehed 
by a. etalk; tentacles lEiiobb«d and radiating in all direetious, either in 
groups or not : several species ; b fresh and salt vater. 

P. gntdlia Calkins (IHg. 126). Diameter of bodjr 
,008 nun.; stalk very long, measuring .04 mm.: in salt 
water; Woods Hole. 

S. Efsxloia Wright. Body more or less spherical, 
Tith a stalk; tentacles of two kinds, being either 
pointed and need for piercing, or short and cylindrical 
and used for sueking: 8 species; marine. 

E. ooronato Wr. (F^. 127). Diameter of body 
;09 to .2 mm.; stalk three times as long, and thickest 
at the body: common at Woods Hole on eampanula- 
lians, hydroids, etc. 


Body usually in a onp and usua% stalked; ten- 
tacles knobbed; reproduction by endogenoas budding, 
the spores being ciliated: 4 genera. 
n«. IM 1, AoiHXTA Ehrenberg. Body in a cup with a 

^^op*p'"^™- stalk: several species; in fresh and salt water. 

'a. diviaa Fraipont (Fig. 128). Body .027 mm. 
long and does not fill the cup; tentacles long; length of stalk J. mm.: 
a on Bryotoa at Woods Hole. 

m. las Fif. 129 

,___ __. laS-^olMta *tvUa (CilUiu). 

. 129— AOtMW (UbATtMS (CaUliu). 

A. tnberosa Khr. (F^. 129). Cup very delicate and often difBoult 
to see; tentacles in usually two groups; color yellow; length of body .33 
mm.: at Woods Hole, in salt water. 


S. TozOTHXTA BiitsehlL Bodj not Id a enp bnt at the end of a 
stalk: several speeiea; in fresh and salt water. 

T. aaadzlpaitlta (ClaparMe and Laolimaim). Body J mm. long: in 
fresh water. 


Body without flap or stalk; tentacles 
knobbed and arranged in groups; reprodactiou 
as in Acitteta: 3 genera. 

1. TuoBOPHKTa ClaparMe and Laofamann. 
Body irr^alar in abape and spread out; fre- 
quently parasitic: in fresh and salt water. 

T. tolpanm Knts. On the branchial bars 
of Molfftila: at Woods Hole; often conunon. 

S. DsniKOBOltA Ehrenberg. Colonial ani- „...». 
mals on long and branehing stalks which spring nuHmu (Dollelnf. 

from a creeping base: 1 speoies. 

D. radians Ehr. (Fig, 130). Colony up to 2 nun. high: in fresh 


Th« eoileiiterates are ndiatly sjmmetrical anim&ls which possess 
but a single internal cavity and no C4»lom (Fig. 131). This cavity is a 
simple apace in a more or less cylindrical body in the lowest etelenter- 
ates, biit in the larger ones it ia often extensively branched. The body 
wall is composed of three layers, (1) an outer cellular layer, the ectoderm 
(Fig. 131), (2) an inner cellular layer, the entoderra, and (3) & tissue 
between them called the middle or suppoiting layer which is skeletal in 

This middle tissue in all c«elenterates but the Ctenophora is pri- 
marily Don-cellular, being a secretion of the cellular layers, and is called 
the mest^lea; in the simplest 
eases (Hydrotoa) (Fig. 131, A) 
it remains non-cellular, but in the 
targ«r and more complex forms 
(Fig. 131, B) it becomes cellular 
through the migration of cells 
into it from the ectoderm or 
entoderm. In the Ctenophora the 
wit'?'(A"a":;™?fiSSr S*na*(Bf I'^iJS^ ="ddle Uyer is primarily ceUular, 
"B^Shig Siy«."^*"°" '' "'"**'"°'' '• being a development of the em- 
bryonic mesenchyme. 
The coilentenites are the lowest many-celled animals and are with- 
out most of the org&ns and tisanes which characterize the highest ani- 
mals. Sexuality is, however, fnlly developed in all of them, some being 
hermaphroditic, but the majority being unisexual. Asexual reproduction 
by fission or budding is also very general and leads to the formation of 
extensive colonies. Yery many exhibit the phenomenon of alternation 
of generation, in which a sexual, often free-swimming generation alter- 
nates with a sessile, usually colonial and asexual generation. 

History.— ThiB phylum was constituted in 1847 by R. Leuckart, 

who separated the polyps, medusae and Ctenophora (Kschscholts) from 

the Zoophyta-Radiata of Cnvier and his contemporaries and called them 

the Ceelenterata. He showed that these animals should be included in 




one and the same phylum inasmuch as they are without a eadom and the 
hydroid and medusa are usually but stages in the same life history^ faets 
the importance of which had only very recently begun to be understood. 
Trembley (1744) introduced the term '^polypus" because of the fancied 
resemblance of Hydra to the octopus, the polyp of the ancients. The 
term '' medusa '' was employed by linnaus and the older writers because 
of the resemblance of the tentacles of many jellyfish to the snake-like 
curls of Medusa. 

The phylum is composed of 3 subphyla. 

Key to these subphyla: 

Oi Sponges ; animals sessile, without tentacles • 1. Spokoiabea 

a, Hjdroids, jellyfish, corals, etc.; no cilia or outer surface; tentacles nsuallj 

present 2. CirmABiA 

Ob Ctenophores ; outer surface with 8 dilated bands ; 2 tentacles or none. 

3. CrsNOFHoaa 

SuBPHTLUM 1. SPONGIABIA.* (Pobifbba.) 

Sessile, aquatic ani- 
mals, with but few spe- 
cialized organs and tis- 
sues, in which skeletal 
fibres or spicules usually 
form an important part 
of the body. The animals 
often live in colonies of 
irregular form in which 
the various individuals 
are indistinguishably fused 
with one another. Numer- 
ous pores in the body wall 
admit water into an in- 
terior chamber called the 
cloacal cavity, of which a 
laiige opening called the 
oseulum furnishes an outlet. Sponges are without tentacles and motile 
appendages of any sort and the adult forms have no locomotoiy 

* See "Rep. of InTertebrate Animals of ViDeyard Sound and Adjacent Waters/* by 
A. B. Yerrill, Rep. of U. S. Fish. Com., 1871. "Porlferata/' by A. Hyatt, Stand. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. 1. 1888. ''Sponglaires,*' by Delage et H6rouard, Traits de Zool. 
eonerftte, 1800. "Sponges,** by E. A. Mlncben, A Treatise on Zoology, 1900. "Sponges 
Collected In Porto Rico.** by H. V. Wilson, Bull. Pish. Com., Vol. 20, Pt. 2, p. 375, 
1900. "Catalogue of Recent Marine Sponges of Canada and Alaska,** by W. Lambe. 
OtUwm NaturaUst, Vol. 14, 1900. "Biological Survey of Woods Hole and Vicinity,** by 
F. B. Sumner and others. BuU. Bur. Blsh., VoL 81, 1913. 

Fig. 132 — Diagrams of the 3 types of sponges 
(Boas). A, ascon type; B, sycon type; C, leucon 
type. 1, oseulum ; 2. cloaca ; 3, pore canals ; 4 
radial canal ; 5, flagellate chambers. 


The simplest sponges (Fig. 132|A) are usually cylindrical stmo- 
tureSy either colonial or not, in the walls of which are numerous pores 
through which water streams into the doacal cavity; the osculum is at 
the free end of the body. The body wall is composed of three layers, 
the outer ectoderm or dermal epithelium (Fig. 133,1), the middle skeletog- 
enous layer or mesoglea containing the skeletal elements (2), and the 
entoderm (3) consisting of peculiar cells called collar cells or choano- 
cytes which line the interior cavity. Each collar cell is provided with a 
single flagellttm, the base of which is surrounded by a high ridge or 

This simple structure is called the ascon type of sponge. Other 
sponges have what is called the sycon type of structure (Fig. 132, B). 
In this the middle layer is much thicker than in the ascon type and from 
the central cavity numerous cylindrical diverticula called the radial 
canals (Fig. 132, B, 4) extend into the walls, and communicate also with the 

outside through pore canals (3). In these sponges the 
collar cells are confined to the radial canals, the central 
cavity being lined with a flattened epithelium. Still an- 
other type of sponge (Fig. 132, C) is called the leucon 
or rhagon type, in which the skeletogenous layer is still 
Fig. 138 thicker than in the sycon type and the collar cells are 

sponge (Lenden- confined to widened portions of the radial canals called 
dtm (ojSSJ?" **^® fiagellate chambers (5). 

poring liyer^ ^^® great majority of sponges belong to the leucon 

8, entoderm. type; in these the middle layer constitutes by far the 

greater part of the body of the animals. 
The ectoderm forming the dermal epithelium in all sponges is a 
smgle layer of fiattened cells which in a few cases (Oscarella) is ciliated. 
In many sponges the ectoderm is more or less glandular and in all it is 
contractile, the contractile elements in it being elongated cells called 
myocytes which form sphincters around the pores and oscula and often 
also surround the cloacal and other cavities; the ectoderm is also some- 
times sensitive. 

The mesoglea varies much in thickness in different sponges, being 
generally thin in the smaller and more primitive sponges and thick in 
the higher and larger ones. It arises as a secretion of the ectoderm 
and contains various cellular elements, and usually also calcareous 
or silicious spicules, or horn-like fibres composed of a substance called 

The spicules are of a great variety of forms and fall into two gen- 
eral groups which are called megascleres and microscleres (Fig. 134). 
The former are usually elongate or radiate in form and are often bound 

C i < 

8P0NGIAB1A 73 

together by epongin or eonneetiye tiBsue fibres or aftieulate together to 
form a network, and constitate the supporting framework of the body. 
The latter are minute flesh spieoles of a variety of forms which are scat- 
tered throughout the tissues. 

The cellular elements of the mesoglea fall into two distinct groups: 
(1) Hioee which are derived from the eetodenuy and (2) the archeoeytes. 
The former migrate into it and are either seleroblasts which secrete the 
spicules, the spongioblasts which secrete the spongin fibres, or the col* 
lencytes or connective-tissue cells which are distinguished by their stel- 
late form and thread-like pseudopodial processes. The archeoeytes are 
primitive cells derived from the blastomeres during development, which 
perform a variety of important functions. They are amoBboid cells 
whieh are nutritive in function, ingesting and digesting food, and also 
supply a circulatory element in that they aid in distributing nutriment. 
They also give rise to the reproductive elements — ^the spermatozoa, the 
ova, and the gemmules* 

The entoderm con- 
sists uniformly of col- 
lar cells in all sponges. 
The flagella of these 
cells do not act in 
unison, but eadi for 
itself, and have for 
their main function the 
creation of currents in ^ 6 

the water whieh bring '^ *=»*^P'~ilUV^'llS^io"<SS,"°>" ^' "^ 
the animal food and 

oxygen and carry away the wastes. The current thus produced enters 
the pores, traverses the radial canals and fiagellate chambers into 
the doacal cavity and passes out again through the osculum. The 
food consists of organic particles and minute animals and plants; 
these are ingested and digested by the collar cells in the lower, 
calcareous sponges, but in the greater majority of them principally by 
the ammboid archeoeytes. No special excretory or respiratory organs 
and no muscles, nerves or sense organs are present in sponges, although, 
as we have seen, contractility is present in the ectodermal cells, and sen- 
sitiveness to external stimuli is often noticeable. 

Sponges have three methods of reproduction: (1) by budding, (2) by 
the formation of gemmules, and (3) by sexual methods. Budding is 
simply growth which results in the formation of new oscula, each oscu- 
Inm representing a new individual; it is of very general occurrence. In 
a fsw sponges the bud becomes separated from the parent sooner or 



later and leads an independent life, but in most of them the bttds are 
indisting^uishably joined together so that a colony resolts, the members 
of which form a compact whole. 

Gemmole formation occurs in all fresh-water and some marine 
sponges and is a provision against cold weather in temperate regions 
and in the tropics against desiccation* With the approach of the nnf a^ 
vorable season, archeocytes migrate to one spot in the middle layer, the 
cells of which secrete a capsule around them. When the sponge dies 
the gemmule falls to the bottom and remains, in the case of the fresh- 
water sponge, until the following spring, when the capsule bursts and 
the archeocytes within move out and develop into a sponge. Many 
fresh-water sponges live through the winter, however, notwithstanding 
the formation of gemmules. 

Some sponges are hermaphroditic, others are unisexual. No special- 
ized sexual organs are present, the ova and spermatozoa developing from 
the archeocytes. The ciliated larva swims actively about in the water, 
but finally attaches itself and after a metamorphosis develops into the 
adult animal. 

Sponges are world-wide in their distribution and, with the exception 
of the Spangillidae, are all found in the sea, where they range from 
tide lines to very great depths. The fresh-water sponges occur in lakes 
and streams in all countries. 

Hiv^ort/.— Aristotle was acquainted with sponges and knew that 
they were animals, although he notes their likeness to plants. Through 
the ages following his times, opinions differed concerning them, some 
people believing them to be plants, others animals, while many ascribed 
both an animal and a plant nature to them. Ellis (1765) first described 
the currents of water which stream into and out of sponges. Lamarck 
classified them with polyps. Robert Grant (1825) definitely proved 
their animal nature, showing that water flowed into the sponge through 
numerous minute pores and out through the oscula, and he correctly 
inferred that ciliary action caused the flow. Many competent natural- 
ists, however, still believed them to be plants, and the question was not 
finally settled until about 1870 or later. H. J. Clark (1866) first demon- 
strated the collar cells and laid the foundation for the belief which pre- 
vailed for some time that sponges are colonial flagellate Protozoa, The 
embryological investigations of F. E. Schulze and others, however, have 
tended to overthrow this belief, and sponges are at present usually 
classified under the Metaeoa either as a separate phylum or under the 

The Spongiaria include about 2,500 living and a large number of 

fossil species, and are grouped in 3 classes. 

s. % 

8P0N0IABIA 75 

Key to the eluses of Spoftgiaria: 
0, Small marine cponses wltli calcarcona •picoles and Urge colUr celb and 

moatly under 2 cm. In length I. Cauuxka 

Ut U*iuUr larger ■pongea with liUcioiu ■picnlea or Bpongiii fibres, or both, or 
witiiont either. 

b, QIbm aponsei ; ipiciiles nanallj flix-ra;ed 2. HEU<niKnjJDA 

6, MoBBiTe ipoaxcfl without aix-rayed apicnlea ; akeleton of aUiciooa aplcalea, 
aponxiu or both, or wantioc 3. DntOSFONOUK 

Class 1. OALOABEA.* '^ 

Hflrine aponges of amall sue with l-rayed, 3-nyed or 4-rafed cal- 
careous spieulee; most of them are oyliDilrieal in ohape, eolorlesB, either 
solitary or eolonial, and live in shallow water: 2 orders with aboot 150 

Key to the orders of Calcarea: 
a. Body wall thin and porooa; central caTlty lined with collar celU. 

1. Hoiioaxi^ " 
a, Bodf wall not thin ; central ctvitr witboot collar cella 2. BrnaoooiA >^ 

Obdkb 1. HOHOOCELA. 

Very simple, thin-walled sponges in which the central cavity con- 
tains the collar cells; each pore in the body wall is a perforation of a 
single thickened dermal cell leading into the cavity : 2 families and over 
50 speeiea. 


With the oharaeters given above; no radial canab or flagellate 
chambers; with straight, triradiate, or qoadrirediate spicules: 4 gener*. 

1. LxTTOOHUaru Bowerhank. Usually 
colonial, although sometimes simple 
sponges, consisting of a mass of narrow 
anastomonng tubes: numerous species. 

It. botiyoidea Bow. (Fig. 135). Sponge 
up to 35 mm. long, ivory white in color, and 
eonaisting of a mass of slender tubes; 
spicules 1 and 3-rayed and faint yellow in 
color: in shallow water; Martha's Vine- 
yard to Gulf of St. Lawrence; Europe. "*■ ^^H^'^^^^, ^*^ 

L. cancellata Yerrill. Sponge massive, 
consisting of small anastomosing tubes, up to 3 cm. in length and yel- 
lowish in color: walls thin, with triradiate and quadriradiate spicules: 
Caaco Bay to Arctic Ocean. 

• 8c« "Die KalkMihiAmme," br D. Haeckal, 1873. 


L. ftaglUl* Haeckel {Aacortit fragiUa Haeck.). Color white or yel- 
lovish; spiciJes both straight or somewhat arched and triradiatei sep- 
arate individuals 1 to 1^ mm. long; eolony 6 to 10 mm. in diamet«r: in 
shallow water from Long Island Soond to Qulf of St. Lawrence; 
oommon; Enrope. 

Obokb 2. HET£BO0(EL&. 

Small sponges iisnaUy more or less cylindrical in fonn with thick 
walls and a cloacal cavity lined with a flat epithelinm and not with col- 
lar cells, the latter being confined to more or less well-defined chambers 
or in radial tubes which are joined by means of small inhalent dermal 
canals with the outside; either solitaiy or colonial: 6 families and aboat 
90 species. 


Radial tubes extending outwards from the cloacal chamber; distinct 

and continuous layer (dermal cortex) peripheral to the radial canals; no 

conspicuous quadriradial spicules lia- 

ing eloacal cavity : about 13 genera and 

40 species. 

1. Okuttia Fleming. Triradial 
spicules filling mesi^lea and projecting 
into cloacal cavity; cortex thin: 20 

a. dllaU (i^brieius) (Fig. 136). 

Solitary sponges, 12 mm. high and 3 

mm. thick; 2 kinds of monaxial spie- 

Fi«.l36-o«,«(tecHto(«<KelloK). "'l"*. * '""Sfer kind protecting the 

^■toSgl?;<U«l'*!jSi?i'"^ osculum and a shorter in the cortex 

protecting the inhalent canals: Rhode 

Island to Greenland, from low water line to 60 fathoms; Europe; often 


O. canadnuis Lambe. Body 3 nun. high and 1 mm. thick : QxM of 
St. Lawrence and northerly. 

Familt 2. LEtTOONIDAE. 

Collar cells in spherical flagellate chambers from which branched, 
exhalent canals extend to the cloacal cavity : 6 genera. 

ZiBiroASSXA Haeckel. Spicules without r^ular arrangement: many 

3P0N6IASIA 77 

K taflorl Lunbe. Sponge small, solitary, ^loboee, 6 mm. high and 
4.5 mm. thick, with thick Tails and a narrow cloacal caTity; spicoles 
triradiate, with long monazials protecting the oaoulun: Vancoaver 


Conspionons snbdermal qnadriradiate apicales with elongated in- 
wardly directed rays: 5 genera. 

AxPKOUKm HaeckeL Cortex thin; spionles triradial and qoadri- 
radial: several species. 

A. thompeoni Lambe. Qnlf of St. Lawrence. 

Class 2. HEXACTIMELLIDA.* (Tbiazonu.) l^ 
Glass sponges. Sponges with usually rather thin walls and a large 
cloacal cavity giving them a more or less tubular or basket-like shape; 
Bpienlee siLcious, consisting of 3 crossed axes making them either 6-rayed 
or belonging to the S-rayed type, and either soli- 
tary or joined to form a continnous skeleton 
which often has the appearance of spun glassy 
cloacal cavity lai^ and nnnsually more or less 
cylindrical, nsnally with simple radial flagellate 
chambers opening out from it, the wall of the 
cloacal cavity, however, often folded and the 
chambers branched: about 12 families. 

Family 1. ViVmFA'VVlliliWA'^; 

Body elongate, nsnally curved or twisted; 
spicnies joined tc^ther forming a network; 
upper end the larger with a terminal sieve-like 
plate; lower end with nanally a mass of long 
silicious threads which fasteos the animals in 
the mud: several genera. 

EtttlboxzllA Owen (Fig. 137). With the characters of the family: 
several species. 

E. niberaa Wyvilla Thomson. Body a straight, cylindrical, slightly 
swollen tube, 25 em. long and 5 em. in diameter: West Indies, in deep 


Body globose, elongate or cnp-ehaped with a long stalk eompoeed of 
lon^ twisted silicious strands ; several genera. 

HTALOnaa Gray. Body funnel or cup-shaped: several species. 

• Bee "Raport od tbe HexaetliwlUda," b; V. B. 8«halie, ChUL Rep.. To). 21, 1887. 


H. longiflsiaiiuii Verrill. Length 40 cm.: in 60 to 95 fathoms off the 
New EngUnd coast. 


Usually massive and often brightly colored sponges with thick walls 
and small round flagellate chambers connected by branched exhalent 
canals with the cloacal cavity ; spicules very varied in f onui being often 
monaxonic and straight and needle-like, or tetraxonic with 4 crossed axes, 
giving them 8 rays; spongin either present with the spicules or not, or 
the fibres alone may be present or both be wanting: 4 orders. 

Key to the orders of Demospongiae : 

Ox Skeleton formed of tetraxonic silicious spicules of a variety of forms without 
needle-like spicules and without spongin ; in rare cases no skeleton. 


a. Skeleton of needle-like spicules with often others and with or without spongin 

fibres 2. MoNAcnNiaxmA *^ 

0| Skeleton of spongin fibres alone 3. Gebaospoitgiai: 

a« Skeleton entirely wanting 4. Mtxosponqiak 


Spongos with usually a hard outside crust or cortex containing 

megascleres which form the principal framework of the body, micro- 

Bcleres occurring throughout the mesoglea and being of a variety of 

forms, but usually reducible to the tetraxonic type: 8 families and over 

325 species. 

Familt 1. THENEIDAE. 

Body usually more or less mushroom-shaped with the osculum in the 
center: 1 genus. 

Thsvsa Gray. With the characters of the family : several species. 

T. edunata Verrill. Body 5 to 10 cm. broad and not quite so high, 
with a short, thick stalk; upper portion with radiating bundles of spicules 
which project beyond the surface: New England coast north of Cape Cod. 

Familt 2. GEODIIDAE. 

Body globose with a thick crust, provided with masses of spherical 
spicules: about 8 genera and 180 species. 

GsoDiA Lamarck. Tetraxonic needles radially arranged and con- 
fined to the periphery; oscula sieve-like, in groups; incurrent openings 
also sieve-like and scattered : 70 species. 

G. mtUleri (Fleming). Spherical or flattened in youth, later irregu- 
larly lobed; diameter and thickness sometimes 30 cm.: cosmopolitan; 
Jamaica; West Indies. 

• Bee "Tetraxonia," by B. von Lendenfeld, Das Tierrrich, 1903. 



Sponges in which the skeleton consists of needle-like (monaxonic) 
spicules and sometimes other kinds, with or without spongin fibres: 20 
families, grouped in 2 suborders, and numerous species, constituting the 
majority of all sponges; mostly in shallow water; 1 family in fresh 

Key to the suborders of MonactinelUda: 

Oi Sponge compact, usually massiye 1. Haoboksrina 

0, Sponge not compact, usually with spongin 2. Haughoitobiita 


Body compact, having a hard outside crust or cortex, and usually 
massive but sometimes cup-shaped or stalked; spongin absent or very 
poorly developed: 8 families. 

Family 1. TETHYIDAE. 

Body spherical, with slight projections on the surface caused by the 
protrusion of the end of bundles of long needles (megascleres) without 
beads which extend radially from the centre of the body; no spongin 
fibres present: 6 genera. 

Tethta Lamarck. Body with a thick, leathery rind and the form 
and color of a small orange : several species. 

T. hispida Bowerbank. In 8 to 35 fathoms in Caseo Bay, Maine. 


Form massive; substance compact and firm; spicules (megascleres) 
are needles with heads; without microscleres or spongin: 15 genera. 

SiTBBXiTBB Nardo. Form various, often massive, sometimes pedun- 
culate; outer surface smooth : 15 species. 

8. compacta Verrill. Body irregular, being an elongated mass 
attached by one edge; length up to 15 cm.; width and height 2 to 8 cm.; 
color bright yellow; surface smooth; oscula inconspicuous: Maine to 
Viiginia in shallow water; often on the shells of hermit crabs. 


Form massive, often spherical, with long needles extending radially 
from the centre; with the surface covered with small protuberances, 
some of which have an osculum; no microscleres or spongin: 13 genera. 

PoLTXABTXA Bowerbank. Smaller needle and pin-shaped spicules 
in addition to the radial ones present. 

P. robnrta Bow. Form irregular; color yellow or gray; diameter 


up to 30 cm.; with finger-like branches 4 to 10 mm. long: North Carolina 
to Maine and northerly in 1 to 8 fathoms; very common in Long Island 
Sound; Europe. 

Familt 4. GLIONIDAE. 

Sponges which bore in shells or limestone by some process not 
understood; monaxial spicules of various forms: 4 genera. 

OzjOHA Grant. The sponge begins its existence by boring in the 
dead or living shells of various moUusks; it honeycombs the shell, and 
after having destroyed it, grows over it, forming a mass often 15 or 20 
em. in diameter, on the surface of which are small elevations. 

0. celata Grant. Sulphur sponge. Color brigJit yellow: very com- 
mon from South Carolina to Maine in 1 to 12 fathoms; cosmopolitan. 


Body not compact but usually fibrous, without a cortex; spongin 
usually well developed: 13 families. 


Fresh-water sponges. Body variable in shape and forming an ins- 
ular mass incrusted on stones, sticks, plants, etc., up to the size of the 
hand, or larger, and yellow or brown in color, or green where exposed to 
the sunlight, as the result of the presence of zoochlorellae; spicules of 
two principal kinds, (1) the megascleres, slightly curved needles or rods 
occurring in the mass of the sponge and (2) the microsderes, much 
smaller needles, rods or amphidiscs (two star-like plates joined by a rod) 
(Fig. 139, B) which occur in the sponge or form the shell of the gem- 
mules; asexual reproduction by gemmules, these being globose buds 
about .5 mm. in diameter, which may occur throughout the sponge, being 
present mostly in the latter part of the summer and in the fall: about 
10 genera and 50 species, of which 21 occur in this country ; in fresh and 
sometimes brackish water, both in running streams and in ponds and 
lakes, from the surface to a depth of 200 feet; cosmopolitan. 

Key to the American genera of SpongiUidae: 

a, Gemmules without tendrils or projections. 

b, No amphidiscs present 1. Sfonoula 

5, Amphidiscs present. 
Oj Discs of amphidiscs of same size. 

di Bat one type of amphidiscs 2. Efhtdatia 

<^ Two types of amphidiscs 3. HETEROliXTBiriA 

0^ Discs of unequal slse 4. Tubella 

o, Gemmules with tendrils or projections 5. Cabtbbius 

* See "A MoDograpb of the Fresh Water Sponges," by B. Potts, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Scl.. Phlla., for 1887. "Sponginidae." by W. Weltner. Sflssw. F. Deutschl., Heft 
19. 1809. 




, .In lac 

Obbw. F. Dent.). 

1. SnsoiLLA lAmarck. Gemmole without vnphidiscs, bat sui^ 
rounded by needles or rods alone; large needles neually smootb: 17 
species, 6 American. 

8. iMostriB (L.) (Fig. 138). Sponge branching and usually green, 
with smooth longer (megascleres) and rough shorter (microseleres) 
needles; genunules surrounded by spiny curved rods, but occasionally 
without them, and often scarce until late in the fall : cosmopolitan, pre- 
ferring running water and 
sunlight; the cotomoiiest 
£resh-water sponge. 

8. fragilifl Leidy. Sponge 
not branching, growing in 
flat patches, usually yellow 
or brown but occasionally 
green in color; genunnles 
abundant, in one or more 
layers at the base of the 
sponge; large needles smooth; no mieroederes in body of sponge: in 
standing and running water and avoiding the light; next to the above, 
the commonest species. , 

2. STHnATU Lamouroux {iSeyema Carter). Gemmnle with amphi- 
dises all of one type : 17 species, 8 American. 

E. flVTiatOis (L.) (Fig. 139). Sponge massive, occasionally lobate; 

color yellow or brown, sometimes green; needles smootb 

or rough with only the tip smooth; no smaller needles 

present: cosmopolitan; in standing and mnning water, 

preferring the former. 

3, HcTsaoiEETxnA Potts. Similar to 
Ephydatia, but the gemmule has amphidiaes 
of two different types, the less numerous 
being much longer than the other and with 
long hooked rays on the discs : 3 species, all 

H. rydarl Potts. Sponge massive, 
often hemispherical, lobed, light green in 
color; needles rough, except at the tips; long ampbidises with spiny 
shaft and discs consisting of 3 to 6 recurved hooks; short amphidiscs 
mth usually smooth shaft and large flat discs: eastern and central 
North America, in shallow-flowing water. 

4. TUBXLIA Carter. Discs of amphidisc of very unequal sise, giv- 
ing it the shape of a collar button; needles rough, sometimes with 
rounded tips: 5 species, 1 American, 


FIk. 13B — Ephydatia fiuvla. 
Ulit. A, CDtlre apange attaclied 
la B stick: B, amptaldlBCS Id 
(«mmal« (BlUaw. F, Deot). 


T. pemu^Taoica Potts. Sponge minute, being 6 mm. in diameter, 
incruBting, grny or gi'een in color; gemmnles very nnmerous: eastern 
North America, in shallow water. 

6. Oaxtxsito Potts. Aperture of gemmule with 
a chitinons lining which is prolonged into a tube 
which is expanded at its outer margin and often 
divided into long tendrils: 5 species, 3 American. 

CtenospomaPotts (Fig.140). Sponge yellowish- 
green; needles rongh, both long and short being pree- 
"K- ^^^ ent; gemmules with 3 to 5 twisted tendrils which may 

mule a" cor^NM be 12 mm. long; amphidiscs as in Bphydatia: eastern 
(SOMirl'rDcDt). United States; on water plants or ehells. 

Familt 2. CHALINIDAB. 

Form various; usually branched; spongin fibres often well devel- 
oped; spicules needle-shaped; some species form gemmules like fresh- 
water sponges: about 40 genera, all marine. 

Key to the genera of Cftalinidae here described: 

Oi Spongin fibres form a regular network 1. Ghausa 

o, SponKin fibres little developed. 

bt Spicolea connected et their tips to form a network 2. REnmA 

b, Spicales confDBedl; massed together 3. Hauoondria 

1. Oeauva Bowerbank. 
Spoi^es in which the spongin 
forms a regular rectangular 
network in which the spicules 
are imbedded: several species. 

0. ocnUta (Pallas) (Fig. 
141). Finger sponge. Thick, 
more or less flattened, forked or 
digitate stalks with roond ori- 
fices 2 mm. in diameter scat- 
tered over them; color orange 
or red: very common from 
Rhode Island to Labrador, in 
1 to 80 fathoms. 

0. arbnsciila Yerrill. Dead 

men's fingers. Body a cluster 

of branches, 10 to 20 cm. long 

' . ,. „ Fl«. 141— eftoHM oculofa (ShafferJ. 

and 5 to 10 mm. iii diameter, of 

delicate texture and white or gray in color: North Carolina to Cape Cod 

ia 1 to 8 fathoms; very common in Long Island Soond. 


S. BxaiBBA Schmidt. Form various, very fragile, easily pul- 
verized; spoDgin very little developed; spicules straight needles 
joined at their t^w, and arranged to form a network: numerous 

B. mollis Lambe, Body massive, lobate, 9 cm. long, 5 em. high and 
3 cm. thick; oseula lai^, 5 torn, in diameter; surface 'rough ; color yel- 
lowish: bibrador; Vancouver. 

3. Ealioohsbu Fleming. Massive sponges of various shapes with 
needle-like q>iculea confusedly massed together, and with but little 
spongin : numerous species. 

H. panteea (Pallas). Color gray, yellowish or orange: from Rhode 
I&land to the Arctic Ocean, in 4 to S fathoms; Europe. 


Form various, a distinct network of spongin being present with 
needles of various forms, one of which is C-shaped: numerous genera. 

Fig. 143— SIvlDfeHo hellophlla (Parker). 

1. ElFXSXIXA* Yosmaer. Amorphous sponges with needle-like spic- 
ules predominating; spongin usually distinct: several species. 

E. flbmills H. V. Wilson. Irregular sponges, yellowish-brown in 
color, about 10 cm. in diameter, covered with algae, hydroids, etc., 
with a dermal membrane, beneath which are subdermal cavities; 
spicules few; genunules formed during the summer: Woods Hole, on 

2. HiOKOOlOHA Bowerbank. Sponge incrusting and irregular in 
form, with straight or bent needle-like spicules and stout spongin Sbres: 


M. prolifara (Ellis and Solander) (Fig. 142). Bri^t-ied sponges 
inenisting on stones, shells, etc., when young, rising in digitate masses 
sometimes 15 cm. high: South Carolina to Cape Cod from low water 
mark to 10 fathoms; very common in Long Island Sound. 

3. Sttlotella* Lendenfeld. Erect, inenisting sponges with very 
little spongin and with needles in bundles; no microscleres; texture soft, 
no hard rind present. 

8. heUophila H. V. Wilson (Fig. 143). Yellowish sponges, either 
massive or with erect finger-like processes, 5 to 10 cm. long and 5 cm. 
high : common on stones and shells in shallow water, North Carolina. 

0RDE8 3. 0ERA08P0N0IAB. 

Sponges in which the skeleton consists of a close network of spongin 
fibres without proper spicules : 4 families and about 40 genera, which are 
found in tropical and subtropical seas. 

Fahily 1. SPONGTTDA'R. 

Commercial sponges, f Spongin fibres solid, with a slender axial 
core and frequently enclosing foreign bodies, such as sand; fiagellate 
chambers small with special openings by canaliculi into exhalent cavities: 
7 genera and about 20 species, the fibrous skeleton of many of which is 
used for commercial purposes. 

1. ExrsPOVGZA Bronn. Body massive with slender spongin fibres 
and very small meshes; simple main fibres usually containing sand, tho 
finer connecting fibres without sand: about 12 species; cosmopolitan. 

E, officinalis (L.). Levant sponges. Fibres very elastic; form usu- 
ally more or less globose, often lobed, cup-shaped or lamelliform; color 
in life dark brown, being lighter beneath and on the sides : eastern Medi- 
terranean; Bahamas; West Indies; Australia; in 1 to 100 fathoms; 
several varieties are known, of which the most valuable is the light yel- 
low cup-shaped E. mollissitna from Asia Minor. The American variety, 
the so-called glove sponge, is one of the least valuable commercial 

2. HiPPOSPOHOlA Schulze. Horse sponges. Body massive and per- 
meated by large, often cavernous canals; fibres delicate and forming 
an irregular network: about 20 species. 

* See "The Reactions of Sponges," etc., by G. H. Parker, Jonr. Bxper. ZooL, VoL 
8, p. 1, 1910. 

t See "Revision of Nortb American Porlferae, Pt. I and II," by A. Hyatt, Mem. 
Boat Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. 2, 1875 and 1877. 'Tbe Sponge Fishery and Trade," by 
R. Rathbun, U. 8. Com. of Pish., Sect. 5, Vol. 2, p. 817, 1887. "The Commercial Sponges 
of Florida," by H. M. Smith, Bull. U. 8. Fish. Cora., Vol. 17, p. 225, 1897. "The 
Commercial Sponges and Sponge Fisheries," by H. F. Moore, Bull. Bur. Fish., Vol. 28, 
p. 403. 1910. 


K. KOMTpint Hyatt. Sheepswool sponge (Fig. 144). Form vari- 
able ; surface with munerous projeetione, betweea which are the laige 
oeenla: Florida and the Bahamaa; the most valuable American spoBge. 

E. •ftuioa Schmidt. Hone sponge; yellow sponge; grass sponge; 
velvet sponge. Body massive, of coarse fibre and with extensive canal 
system: Mediterranean; West Indies; Florida; much less valuable than 
the above. 

3. Oaoosposou Schmidt. Fi- 
bres rather coarse and brittle; main 
fibres distinct from the connecting - 
fibres ; meshes large : several species. 

0. spongelifonnls H. V. Wil- 
son. Body cylindrical, somewhat 
branching, 25 cm. long, 7 mm. 
thick; texture solid, with subder- 
mal cavities; surface covered with 
minute conical elevations; dermal 
membrane with numerous shells, 
sand, etc., imbedded in it: West ^- "<— mj-gJwMoiW'W** 

4. HnomA Nardo. Form variable, sometimes very large; charac- 
teristic filaments present found in no other sponges, which are 3 or 4 
mm. long, very fine and swollen at the ends: oumerous species. 

H. acuta Hyatt. Body IQ cm. high, massive, with several oscula; 
surface with small protuberances; filaments in many places in bundles; 
color gray, in life blackish : West Indies. 


Fibres hollow, without foreign ioclusions; flagellate chambers small; 
form various: 4 genera. 

Aplysiva Nardo. Form various but usually digitate; fibres form a 
close network; surface with protuberances: numerous species. 

A. flagellifonnia Carter. Body 10 em. long, cylindrical, branching, 
7 mm. in diameter, daric red in color: West Indies. 

Spoi^es without skeleton of any kind: 2 families. 

Slime sponges. Body inemsting and soft, vrith elongate, sac-like 
flagellate chambers: 3 genera. 


AOA Dujardin. Body small, soft and irregular, with lai^ 
OBcnla eomewhat elevated: several species. 

H. dnjardinl Johnston. Small, pale-yellow, gelatinous sponges grow- 
ing on red a^e : in 5 fathoms, oS Rhode Island. 


Jellyfish, hydroids, corab, etc. Aqnatic onimab, either sessile or 
free-Bwinuning, in which the body possesses a single internal cavity, the 
gastrovascular space (Fig. 131). This has nsuatly a single opening to 
the ontside, which ia called the mouth, and is the common digestive and 
circolatory cavity ; in the simplest eases it is cylindrical in shape, but ia 
the higher and larger forms is much branched, 
forming a system of canals. 

The cnidarians are predacious animals and 
usually possess long vibratile tentacles by means 
of which they take their prey. These tentacles, 
as well as other parts of the body, are provided 
with numerous characteristic oi^ns of peculiar 
structure called the nettle organs or nematocysta 
Pig. 14S — DiBBMin of which render them effective instruments in the 
"ofa cDidarUn performance of this important function. A nettle 
^ coidoriU s, organ (Fig. 145, 3) consists of a spiral, thread-like 
fl^'^C^UcUie" ct""™ tube with several barbs at the .base which lies 
coiled within a cavity in a specialized cell called 
a cnidoblast (1). The cavity is filled with a poisonous fluid; its walls form 
an ovoid sac, the outer end of which is continuous with the thread-like tube. 
A minute spine, the cnidocil (2), projects from the free surface of the 
cnidoblast into the water and when the surface of the ectoderm is irri- 
tated, either by actual contact or in other ways, the tube is shot ont witli 

• See •'Contiibntlona to the Natural History of tbe D. 8.," Vol. 3 Knd 4, by L. 
Agauli, 1862. "lUTertebnite AntmilB of TIneysrd Sound," by A. B. Verrill, Bep. U. S. 
Flab. Com., 18T1. "Lies CifleiiteTei," by Delage et Htirouard, Tra]t4 de Zoolosto 
concrete, Vol. 2, 1901. "Hydrotdi of tbe Woods Hole Rpglon," by C. C. Nutting, 
Bull. C. S. Plsb. Com., Vol. IS, 1899. "SfDopala of Nortb Amsiieaa Invertebrates, 
The HydroiuedDue," by C. W. Hirgltt, Part I, 11. Ill, IV, Am. Nat. Vol. 35, pp. 
301. 379 and 9T6, 1901, and Vol. 37, p. 331, 1903. "Tbe Hydroida of tbe PaHflc Coast of 
North America," by H. B. Torrej, Univ. of Cal. Pub., Vol. 1, p. I, 1902. "Tbe Mednue 
of the Woods Hole RegioD," by C. W. Hargltt, Bull. Bur. Fish.. Vol. 24, p. 21, 1004. 
"Notes on CtEleaterates of Woods Hole," by C. W. Hargltt, Biol. Bull., Vol. li, p. 96. 
"A Synopsis of the Fixed Hydroids of New Engbind," by J. S. KlngBley, Tuftn College 
Stndiea, Vol. 3. p. IS, ISIO. "Ueduue of the World." by A. O. Mayer. 1010. "Tho 
Hydroida of the Weat Coaat of North Amerlea," by C. M. Frnser, Bull, from tbe Lab. 
of Nat. Hist of Cnlv. of Iowa, Vol. 8, 1911. "Some Hydroida o( Beaufort, Nortb 
Carolina," by C. U. Fnser, BulL But. Flsb., Vol. 3D. p. 337, 1912, "A Biological 
Survey of tbe Waters of Woods Hole and Vicinity," by P. B. Sumner and otbers, BnlL 
Bar. Flab., Vol. 31, 1813, 




1 plerrtnc tbe c^lUnoiu >beU 

-- ■- " — ••'- nnans 

by Its 

snfficient force to punctnre the skin of amall animals (Fig. 146), and the 

poisonous fluid whioh is thus injected into the wound may cause paralysis 

or death. The thread tubes also often 

lasso small ammals by winding aronnd 

hairs and other projections of their 

bodies (Fig. 146, B). The nettle organs ^ 

of the l&iger jellyfish often inflict s 

pftinfnl wound to man. 

The body of the Cmdaria is dis- 
tinctly radiate in structure; in the 

smallest jellyfish and hydroid polyps the 

number of radii is usually four and in 

the lai^r ones and the Alcyonaria, some 

multiple of four; in the Zoantharia it is 

usually dx or a multiple of six. 

Two distinctly different types of 

structures are present among the Cni- 

daria, which are, however, capable of 

being referred to a common fundamental 

form. These are: (1) the hydroid or 

polyp type (Fig. 147, A), and (2) the medusa or jellyflsh type (Fig. 147, 

B, or Fig. 154). The first is seen in the simplest form in the fresh-water 

Hydra and the hydropolyps, and in a more complex form in the corals; in 
th«se animals the body is 
cylindrical in form, one end 
is usually attached to some 
more or less stationary ob- 
ject, while at the other end 
u the mouth surrounded by 

Two variations of this 
type are fonnd. In the 
S Scyphotoa and the An- 

*' thosoa (Fig. 219) longitu- 

dinal mesenterial ridges pro- 
ject prominently into the 
gastro vascular space and s 
gullet lined with ectoderm 
is present, while in the sim- 
pler Hydroioa or Bydro- 

medusae these features are wanting (Fig, 147, A). Cnidarians of the 

hydroid type live in colonies in the majority of cases which often con- 

TiK. 14T— JThe two tvpea of Btmrtnre of enl- 
darUna. A. tbc b;drold typt ; B. Ibe nifdUBa 
trpe. a quarter ot tbe antnul being reniored to 
■bow tbe iDtemal atrnrtare. <DelBge et ilSrou- 
■rd.l 1, mouth; 2. gantraraiitruliir ipace ; 3, tpo- 
tacle; 4, exambrella ; 6, subumbrelm : 0, maao- 
brlDm : T, Telum. 


tain thousands of individoalsi and grow from one another by process of 

The medusa type is seen in its simplest form in the usually minute 
hydromedusans and in a more complex form in the larger s<^yphomedu- 
sans. In all these animals the body is more or less bell or disc-shaped, 
the convex sicLe, which is called the exumbrella, corresponding to the 
attached end of the hydroid polyp, while from the center of the concave 
side, which is called the subumbrella, extends the manubrium, a more or 
less cylindrical but often branched projection, at the end of which is 
the mouth. Tentacles may be present on the manubrium, at the edge 
of the bell, on the subumbrella or the exumbrella, and may be long or 
short and flexible or rigid. 

Two distinct types of medusae are met with. Those of one type are 
called craspedote medusae (Fig. 147, B), because they possess a velum (7). 
This organ is a ridge or membrane containing epithelial muscle fibres, 
which extends inwards toward the manubrium from the entire edge of 
the subumbrella. These medusae are almost all small, being usually less 
than 2 cm. in diameter, although some are larger, ^quorea tenuis attain- 
ing a diameter of 10 cm. and ^quorea forskalea of the Mediterranean 
one of 40 cm. and, excepting the Narcomedusae, have a plain, unscalloped 
edge. Those of the other type are called acraspedote medusae (Fig. 216) ; 
these lack the velum or have it in a rudimentary form and possess a 
scalloped outer edge, as well as other special features; they are also usu- 
ally large, some having a diameter of a meter or more. A certain number, 
however, are small, with a diameter of less than a centimeter. 

In Hydra and the Anthozoa the hydroid or polyp type of structure 
alone prevails, and the animals produce, either by budding or by sexual 
methods, young individuals which develop directly into adults similar to 
the parents. In most Trachomeduacke and Narcomedusae, so far as known, 
the medusa type alone prevails, the young developing directly into free- 
swimming medusae. In the Hydromedusae and Scyphomedusae, on the 
other hand, both types may prevail in the same species, and the phenome* 
non of the alternation of generations is exhibited, an asexual generation, 
which is the hydroid, producing by budding a sexual generation, which 
in these animals is the medusoid generation. The medusoids are either 
male or female and produce embryos called planulae, which after a period 
of free life attach themselves to some fixed object and become hydroid 
polyps, the medusoid buds, in certain cases, remaining attached to the 
parent hydroid, and in others becoming free-swimming jellyfish. 

In all the Cnidaria, the body wall consists of the outer ectoderm, the 
inner entoderm and the middle mesoglea (Fig. 131). The ectoderm consists 
of a single layer of cells, among the inner ends of which are small inter- 


8iitial eells and often epithelial mnsele fibres and nerve cells. The mes- 
oglea is skeletal in function and a secretion of the two cellular layers; 
in the Hydromedusae it remains non-oellnlar and usually thin, but in the 
other Cnidaria, cells migrate into it from the ectoderm and it often be- 
comes very thick, forming the jelly (Fig. 131, 3). The gastrovascular 
space (Fig. 147) is cylindrical in the hydroid; in the medusa it is a 
branched cavity which forms a system of canals. Food is taken into the 
mouth; in the gastrovascular space it is digested and the products of diges- 
tion are caused to circulate throughout the body of the colony by the action 
of the entodermal flagella or cilia. The sexes are separate in Cnidaria, 
with some exceptions, but usually not dimorphic. The sex cells arise in 
the ectoderm in the lower and in the entoderm in the higher forms. 
Locomotion is accomplished by means of the muscle fibres which are the 
inner projections of ectoderm or entoderm cells. The sessile hydroids 
and Anfhozoa move their tentacles about actively and can retract and 
extend the body; the medusae swim slowly through the water by means 
of the muscle fibres in the velum or in the subumbrella. The nervous 
system consists of a plexus of nerve cells and fibres among the muscle 
fibres, some of which, in the medusae, form a double ring in the outer 
rim of the umbrella and in the acraspedote medusae a rudimentary gan- 
glion at the base of each sense organ. The muscles may also be stimu- 
lated directly and without the intermediary of nerve cells or fibr^. 
Special sense organs are absent in hydroids and the Anthozoa: in medusae 
they are present in the margin of the umbrella and may be either visual 
(oeellate) in function or equilibrial (vesiculate). 

JJifftory. ^Aristotle was acquainted with many enidarians, especially 
with actinians and medusae which he named Acalephae and Cnidae, the 
latter term referring to the stinging power of the animals. During the 
succeeding ages and down to about the middle of the eighteenth century 
the animals were observed and figured by a number of naturalists, but 
little or no exact knowledge of them existed. They virere called either 
plants or plant-animals (zoophytes) and were often considered the con- 
necting link between the plant and animal kingdoms, a belief that has 
not entirely disappeared in some localities even down to the present day. 
Polyp stocks and corals were generally held to be plants, the individual 
animals being called the flowers. When, however, Trembley in 1744 
demonstrated the animal nature of Hydra and Peyssonnel in 1753 that of 
corals, a new era began in the study of enidarians, and in the following 
years a large number of them were accurately figured and described by 
EUis, Pallas, O. F. Miiller, and others. The relation of the polyp to 
the medusa was, however, still for a long time to be entirely unknown. 
Cnvier in 1799 was one of the first to study the anatomy of the medusa 


and in 1812 brought polyps and medusae together in the single type- 
group of Animalifi'Radiata. 

The next few years saw an immense increase in the knowledge of 
both the imstomy of the medusa and the polyp and in the number of 
the forms known, yet it was not until 1841 that M. Sars, on the basis 
of his studies of Aurelia aurita, and 1842 that Steenstmp, on that of 
his studies of Coryne, could first definitely formulate the prineiple of 
the alternation of generations in cnidarians and elucidate the relation of 
the polyp to the medusa. Even as late as 1837 Lov6n held the polyp and 
medusa to be dimorphic sexual forms, the former being the male and 
the latter the female individual. In 1847 Leuckart created the phylum 
Ccelenterata and called attention to the fundamental sack form of the 
body, and in 1849 Huxley showed that the walls of this sack were made 
up of two layers which he named ectoderm and entoderm and homologized 
with the two primitive germ layers of the higher animals. In 1851 Vogt 
introduced the useful term Hydromeduaa, Huxley in 1856 that of Hydro- 
eoa, and Glaus in 1891 that of Scyphozoa, The latest development of 
the system is due to many authors, of whom perhaps Chun and A. G. 
Mayer are especially to be mentioned. The first important American 
work on cnidarians was J. D. Dana's Report of the Zoophyta of the 
Wilkes Expedition (1846). Louis and Alexander Agassiz and their 
pupils and followers have done the most to extend the knowledge of 
American cnidarians. Mayer's monograph. The Medusae of the World, 
is the most important recent work. The subphylum contains about 4,200 
species, grouped in 3 classes. 

Key to the classes of Cnidaria: 

Uj Small bydroid polype and both small and large medusae, 
bi Hydroids withoat mesentarial ridges and usually colonial, and craspedote 

medusae 1. Htdbozoa {Hydromedutae) 

5, Minute hydroids with 4 mesentarial ridges, and acraspedote medusae. 

2. ScTPHOZOA i8oyphomedu»ae) 
o. Corals, sea-auemones and gorgonians 3. Anthozoa 

Class 1. HTDBOZOA. (Hydromedusab.) 

Hydro id polyps and craspedote medusae, u suallv with alternatio n of 
F^*)firftTiT^"° ' "° ^^^'•^'^ stage, which is called the trophosome, is sessile 
and usually colonial and produces by budding the medusoid stage, which 
is called the gonosome. The latter is sexual and either male or female. 
The individual hydroids are small, being usually but a few millimeters 
in length, the solitary tubularians being exceptions, which may be several 
centimeters, and in the case of the deep-sea BranchiocerianthtM imperator, 
which is allied to Corymorpha, a meter or more in length. The colonies 
are often plant-like in appearance; the ipdividual polyps are called the 


bydrant hs (Fig. 162), t he stalks o n whichthey grow, the hydrocaulus, 
and the root-like projections by which the stalk^E attacKed fd'ttre'^b- 
stratum, the hydrorhiza. "* TfiCgagtrovascidar space (Fig. 150) extends 
throughout the colony so that all the polyps are in communication wRh'one 
anothCT . A cuticulai-layer called the perisiarc is secreted by the ectoderm 
of many species which gives rigidity to the whole colony: in the Hydro- 
cordlUnae the perisarc is calcareous and so enormously thickened that the 
colony has the appearance of coraL The oufiuth of the hydroid is ter- 
minal in position and at th e summit of an elevation called the hypostome. 

In very many Hydromedusae, the hydroid individuals are polymor- 
phic (Fig. 162), being specialized to perform different functions. 

The medusoid stage or gonosome is either a free-swimming eraspedote 
medusa or a sessile medusoid individual or gonophore which remains 
attached to the parent hydroid. In the latter case it may have retained 
the general form of a medusa or it may be reduced to the form of a bud 
(sporosac) and have lost all semblance of the medusoid form. The 
embryo is ciliated and is called the planula :. after a period of free life 
iir attaches ilielT'and becomes a hydroid polyp. 

Most HydromedusOiS'lvfh ih the sea. Hydra is found in fresh water 
and is cosmopolitan in its distribution. Cordylophora is a brackish water 
form which also occurs in fresh water. A few medusae, Microhydra in 
Pennsylvania and Europe, Craapedacusta (lAmnocodium) in America, 
Europe and Brazil, Limnocnida in Lake Tanganyika and Holomiais in 
Trinidad, occur in fresh water. The class contains about 2,000 species, 
grouped in 7 orders. 

Key to the orders of Hydromedusae: 


Oi Animals mostly in fresh water , 1. Htdbauab 

Oa Animals marine (rarely in fresh water). 

di Colony forms a coraMike stock 2. Htdboooralunab 

6, Colony not coraMike. 
e^ Colony and individnal hydroid asnally not minute. 
tf| No protective cup (hydrotheca) on hydranth (Fig. 150) . .3. Tubulariae : 

dg Hydrotheca present (Fig. 172) 4. Caicpanulabiaei 

c. Colony and hydroid minute (when present) 5. Tbaohomedusab 

Ca Colony free swimming , 7. Siphonophoba 

(Excluding the HffdrocoralUnae and the SipkonopKora,) 

Oi Rim of umbrella not scalloped. 

5i Gonads on manubrium 3. Tubulabeae {Anthomedusae) ' 

&s Gonads on subumbrella (sometimes also on manubrium). 
01 Medusae often disc-like at maturity. . .4. Campanulabiab (Leptomeduiae)- 

Ct Medusa usually hemispherical or elongate 5. Tbaohomedusab 

a. Rim of ambrella scalloped 6. Nabcomedusab 



Fig. 148 

Hydra viridUHma 
(Sassw. F. Deat.). 
1, sperm ; 2, ovum. 

Obdeb 1. HTD&ARIAE.* (The Htdras.) 

Elongate, cylindrical animals 1 to 3 centimeters in length. The animal 
attaches itself temporarily by means of a sticky secretion at one end 
which may be called the foot, and can move about slowly by gliding on 
the foot and by a looping movement; it cannot swim. At the free end 

is^hi^inouth on the conical hypostome, at the base of 
which is a single row of hollow tentacles. No perisarc 
is present. The food consists of small emstaceans 
and other animals which are caught by means of the 
nematocysts. When the animal is well fed it repro- 
duces principally by budding, the buds often remain- 
ing attached to the parent for a while, but finally 
becoming separated: it also reproduces occasionally 
by transverse or longitudinal fission. At certain times 
the Hydra reproduces sexually and is either moncD- 
cious or unisexual. Spermatozoa are produced from 
specialized interstitial cells usually near the base of the tentacles which 
form rudimentary testes, and a single large ovum may appear in an ovary 
formed of interstitial cells usually near the proximal end of the body. 

The order contains about four genera, of which Hydra 
is the most familiar. The other genera, Protohydra and 
Haleremita, which are marine, and Polypodium, which was 
found on the eggs of the sturgeon in the river Volga, are 
apparently rare and have not been found in this country. 
Htdra L. Tentacles 4 to 12 in number: 3 well 
established species; cosmopolitan; in fresh water. 

H. viridiasima Pallas (H, viridia L.) (Fig. 148). 
Green hydra. Body grass green, the^color being due to the 
presence of zoochlorellae in the entoderm; tentacles short 
and about 6 in number; hermaphroditic: usually on water 

H. oligactia Pallas (H. fuaca L.) (Fig. 149). Brown 
hydra. Body brown; tentacles very long and about 8 in 
number; proximal end of body slender and stalk-like; unisexual: on stones, 
sticks, and plants. 

H. vnlgaria Pallas (H. grisea L.). Color gray, orange, or brown; 
proximal end of body not stalk-like; average number of tentacles 6: on 
stones, plants, etc. 

* See "M6m. poor lerrir a THlst. d'un genre de Polypi d*eaii donee/' by A. 
Trembley, 1744. "The DeYelopment of Hydra," by G. A. Tannrentber, iBlol. Bull., Vol. 
14, p. 261, 1908. "Die Benenaung und Unterscheldung der Hydra Arten/' by 
A. Braner, Zool. Ani., Vol. 88, p. 790, 1909. 

rig. 149 

Hydra oUgaa 


ti9 (Sassw. F. 


Obdxb 2 


HydromedusanB in which the polyps are coloni&l and have a oslcifled 
peris&rc of such thickness that the colonies resemble corals. In fact, 
the animals were classified among the corals until Louis Agassiz in 
1859 showed them to be bydromedusana allied to the Tubulariae, The 
colony is incrust«d on a rock or some other object and rises erect in the 
form of a more or less arboreseent, coral-like body in the water, being 
composed of a network of tubes imbedded in a thick calcareoas mass. 
The tubes have the cellular structure cbaracteriatio of hydramedusans, 
the calcareous groundwork being secreted by their ectoderm. Numerous 
pores appear in the surface of the colony leading into cylindrical cham- 
bers from the bottom of which two kinds of polyps may project into 
the sarronnding water; these are nutritive polyps or gastrozooids, with 
mouth end often provided with tentacles, and the defensive polyps or 
dsctylozooids, without mouth and with batteries of nematocysts. The 
gonosomes are usually sporosscs, but in a few forms they are medusae 
and are produced in chambers which open to the outside through special 

The suborder contains 2 families and 15 genera, which are inhab* 
itants of tropical seas. One species occurs on the Florida coast. 


Colony very varied in form, consist- 
iag of a broad basal mass which is in- 
crusted on the rock, and insular, short 
branches which rise from it into the 
water; the nutritive polyps have each 4 
or 5 short knobbed tentacles; the defen- 
sive polyps are also provided with ten- 
tacles; the gonosome is a free medusa with 
4 or 5 rudimentary tentacles: 1 genus. 

HnXJEPOKA L. Each nutritive polyp 
is surrounded by 5 to 6 long and very 
contractile defensive polype: 1 species on 
the Florida coast and in the West Indies. 

M. aldcomiB L. Pepper coral. On 
the coast of Florida; has unusual sting- 
ing powers. 

FIS. mo — A tabnlarlan hydrotd 
polyp (£urfmdHHn| (HcrtwiK). 
1, entoderm : 2, ectoderm ; S, perl- 


tb ;' i' 


Order 3. TTTBULAHIAE. (Qthnoblabtea; Anthouedcsae.) 
Mostly inrTnnin' ''ylrfimpiTiignnH^n whii-li the hydrantb is without a 
rmtrntiTa gup ^li^drotheca) (Fig. I50y and which produce either free 


medusae or sessile medusoid buds. The medusae (Fig. 147, B) are known 
as Anthomedttsae and are usually more or less bell-shaped and ocellate and 
bear the gonads on the manubrium. Many of them have never been traced 
to the hydroids which produce them : about 15 families. 
Key to the families of Tuhulariae here described : 


Hi Hydranth without a basal whorl of tentacles, these being scattered more or 
less irregularly over the hydranth. 

&i Tentacles filiform ; no free medusae 1. Clavidab 

&, Tentacles knobbed 2. Gobynidab 

Of Hydranth with a basal whorl and with or without distal tentacles, 
by Hydranth with a basal whorl and no distal tentacles. 
Ox Colony arborescent. 

di Hypostome conical ; free medusae present 3. Bouoainvilludab 

d^ Hypostome trumpet-shai>ed ; sporosacs present 4. Eudendbiioae 

Ca Ck>lony not arborescent, but incrusting. 

di Sporosacs present and no free medusae 5. Hydractinudab 

d^ Medusae present 6. Podocobtrioab 

5s Hydranth with both basal and distal tentacles. 

Ci Distal tentacles knobbed 7. Pennabiiuae 

Ci Distal tentacles filiform ; hydranths of large size. 
di Free medusae present. 

«i Hydranths solitary 8. Ck>BT]C0BPHiDAB 

e^ Hydranths colonial 9. Dendboclavidab 

d. Sporosacs in pendant clusters present 10. Tdbulabiidab 


(The 1st, 4th, 5th and 10th families produce no free medusae.) 

Oi No oral tentacles or lobes present. 
5i Two or 4 marginal tentacles. 

Oi Tentacles well developed 2. Cobtnioae 

e^ Tentacles rudimentary 7. PENNABnoAE 

&, One long marginal tentacle, the others short (except Eotopleura), 


Oa Oral tentacles or lobes present. 
hi Marginal tentacles in 4 or 8 clusters (except Pertgonimus) . 

3. BouoAiNvnxnDAB 
h. Tentacles not in clusters. 

Ct Marginal tentacles 2 or 4 Febigonimus 

Cs Marginal tentacles 4 or 8 6. Podooobtnidae 

Pi Marginal tentacles numerous 9. Dendboclavidab 

Family 1. CLAVIDAE. 

Trophosome : colony either branching or consisting of an extensive, 
filiform hydrorhiza from which rise the polyps; hydranths elongate and 
bearing numerous filiform tentacles irregularly placed. Gonosome : gono- 
phores in clusters either just below the tentacles or on special branches 
or even rising independently from the hydrorhiza, forming sporosacs and 
never medusae: about 5 genera. 


Key to the genera of Clavidae here described : 

Oi Cdloliy not branching; polyps rlsiiig from a filifonn hydrorhisa. 

hx Sporosacs borne on hydranths 1. Glava 

b^ Sporosacs spring from hydrorhiza 2. Rhizooeton 

Oa Colony branching 3. Cobdylophgiu. 

1. Olata Gmelin. Simple unbranched hydranths rise from a fili- 
form hydrorhiza; this is protected by a perisarc which extends a short 
distance np the hydranth; sporosacs in dusters at 

the base of the tentacles: 5 species. 

0. leptostyla Agassiz (Fig. 151). Hydranths 
reddish in color, about 2 cm. long, with about 20 
tentacles; male sporosacs pink, female purple: 
common in shallow water on fucus, piles, etc., from 
Long Island Sound to Labrador; California. 

2. Rhizogbtov Agassiz. Similar to Clava, 
except that the sporosacs arise from the hydro- 
rhiza on short stalks : 1 species. 

B. fnsifonnis Ag. Hydranth about 8 mm. ^fistlU'{S^g)T 
high, with 12 tentacles; sporosacs shorter and 
invested with the perisarc: in rock pools in Massachusetts Bay. 

8r OoBDYCOFHORA* Allman. Colony profusely branching, the hy- 
dranths with scattered filiform tentacles being at the ends of the 

branches; sporosacs ovate, 
.-/ & springing from the 

branches; with a definite 
perisarc: 2 species. 
I W\ 7/ Jir Q lacnrtris All. (Fig. 

152). Colony about 20 to 
30 mm. high ; hydranth with 
10 to 20 tentacles : on rocks, 
eel grass, etc., in brackish 
and fresh water, being one 
^ •MSfl^M^ -/C>y ^itZ of the very few fresh-water 

^ ^,„ ™ ,«„ eoBlenterates ; Rhode Island; 

Fig. 152 F\g. 15S * ' 

«.. «^« ^ ^ > >. • -_,/«« ™ Massachusetts; Illinois; 

V\g. 152 — Oordytophora laeustrU (Sassw. F. ' ' 

Dent). 1, hydranth; 2, hydrocauius; 3, sometimes rather common; 

hydrorhiia. Fig. 153 — Synooryne ' 

w^lrabUie (AgaMis). Europe. 

Family 2. OOBYNIDAE. 

Trophosome: colony branched or not, with long, slender hydro- 
cauius and cylindrical hydranths bearing numerous knobbed tentacles 

• See "Hydrolds in the Illinois Uver/' by F. Smith, Biol. Bull., Vol. 18, p. 67, 1910. 


irregularly placed. Gonosome: gonopbores usually among the basal 
tentacles and producing either free-ewimming or attached medusae with 
4 radial canab and 4 tentaclee: numerous genera. 

Key to the genera of Corynidae here described: 
a, Hjdroid branched ; ntedaaa with 4 long, mar^al tentacles. . . .1. Stnookths 
0, Hydrold branched ; meduM witb 4 abort knobbed marginal tentacles. 


a, Hjdroid not branched ; medusa with 2 long and 2 nidimentar)' marginal 
teoUdea 8. OiMMARIA 

1. SnrooBTVE Ehrenbei^. Hydroid colony 15 mm. high and branched 
and with definite perisarc and an elongate, cylindrical hydranth; meduaa 
with an oocllns at the base of eacli tentacle: 16 species. 

8. mlrabilis Agasatz (Fig. 153). Hydroid col- 
ony attached to seaweed, shells, etc., in shallow 
water, from Martha's Vineyard to Greenland, also 
in California; medosoid in 2 varieties, one, which 
was first described as Sartia mirabiliSf free-swim- 
ming, developing in early spring, 7 mm. high and 
4 mm. in diameter, with 4 long, marginal tentacles 
and a long manubrium extending beyond the veltim 
(Fig. 154) ; the other, a sporosac, with rudimentary 
tentacles, and without ocelli or mouth. 

2. DiPirszirA UcCrady. Hydroid like Syn- 
coryne; medusae with 4 stout marginal tentacles 
the ends of which are knobbed, and a long 
'iSirafcuirf'niedSa" manubrium with constrictions, often extending 
(Hargltt). beyond the velum: 6 species. 

D. strangnlata UcCr. (Fig. 155). Medusa very transparent, 3 mm. 
wide, 4 mm. high, ovoid in shape: common at Woods 
Hole; South Carolina. 

3. Qtmhirta Mc(;rady. Hydroid like Syncoryne 
but unbrnnched, the hydranth rising from a creeping 
hydrorhiza ; medusa with 2 mai^inal tentacles, each of 
which bears long-stalked nematocysts, and with mouth 
without marginal lobes: several species. 

a. gammoaa MeCr. Hydroid on Mytiltu shells, 
etc.; adult medusa 6 mm. in diameter, almost spherical *^- ""* 

and with 2 tentacles; no ocelli: Vineyard Sound and "^J^Kio''*"" 
southwards. t^*">- 

Trophosome: colony branching with distinct, often annnlated peri- 
aarc; hydranth with a single whorl of filiform tentacles. Qonosome: a 


free-swinmuDg medosa which is nsnally home on the bydrocaulna and 
has 4 radial canals; marginal tentacles either single or in clusters, and 
4 or 8 mannbrial gonads: about 19 genera. 

Key to the genera of BougamvilUidae here described: 

a, Hydroid colony arborescent ; medusa with teutulea in dniters. 
b. Medusa witb tentacles in 4 clusters, 
e, UedDsa vithout short knobbed tentacles ; hydroid arborescent. 


c. Medusa with a pair of short knobbed tentacles at each cluster. .6. NEiiopeiS 

b^ Medusa witb tentacles in Sclusten; hydroid like Bong«invillia..4. Ratbrea 

Oi Hydroid colony with creepins hydrorhisa ; medusa with only 2 long tentacles. 

b. Four short oral lobes 2. PERIOOniiiUB 

ii Four long oral lobes 3. Stomotooa 

1. BoveAixTiLLU Lesson. Trophosome : col- 
ony arborescent with a denBe perisarc, bydranth 
witb eonical bypostome. Oonosome: medasa 
globular, with branching oral tentacles and 4 
pairs at first and later 4 groups of marginal 
tentacles: 20 species. 

B. caioUnensU (UcCrady) (Fig. Ii36). Col- 
ony may be 25 em. high, usually 7 to 12 em.; 
hypostome conspicuous; tentacles about 12; 
medusa with brick-red manu- 
brium and black ocelli, 4 mm. 
in diameter: Cape Cod and 
southward; eommon on fucus, oofioHno»«i» ( 
piles, etc. 

B. raperdllaris Agassiz (Fig. 157). Colony 5 em. 
h^h or less; bypostome inconspicuous; tentacles 15 to 
20; medusa with yellowish manubrium and black ocelli, 
10 mm. in diameter: Newport to Greenland; on fucus 
and shells; Europe. 

2. FxKieoHUnrs Bare. Trophosome: colony branch- 
ing a little and rising from a reticulated bydrorhiza 
with a gelatinous perisaro and conical bypostome. 
Fig. 107 Gonosome: medusa with 2 or 4 marginal tentacles; no 

Booffolflt^iua ocelli: 10 species. 

*(^nSK)^ P- JoumI Osbom and Hargitt Hydroid colony, 10 

mm. high or less; hydranth with 16 tentacles; medusa 
hemispherical with an apical projection, 2 mm. high and broad, with 2 
long tentacles and 2 additional tentacular bulbs; manubrium short, 
squarish, with 4 oral lobes: on spider crabs (Libinia) at Cold Spring 
Hsrbor. L. L 


8. Stomoiooa Agassiz. Trophoeome like Perigonimtu. Qonosonie: 
meduBa more or less conical with an apical projection; with 2 long mar- 
ginal tentacles and a squarish manabrium and 4 oral lobes 
and the often ver^r large gonads on the side: 6 species. 
B. apicata (McCrady) (Fig. 158). Hydroid form 
unknown; entoderm of manubrium greenish in color in the 
male and brownish in the female; base of the tentacles 
purplish or yellowish; size 4 mm. by 3 mm.: Florida to 
Vineyard Sound ; Europe. 

B. mgosa Mayer. Similar to preceding, but with 14 
rudimentary marginal tentacles together with the 2 long 
ones; base of the tentacles and manubrium brick red; 
5 mm. high: eommon at Newport, B. I., Hnd southwards. 
4. Ratkksa Brandt (Liitia 
Forbes). Trophosome unknown. 
Gonosome: medusa subconical with 
marginal tentacles in 8 clusters of 3 
to 6 each; young with only 4 ten- 
tacles; manubrium buds off young 
medusae; 4 branching oral tentacles; 
no ocelli: 8 species. 

K. grata A. Agassiz (Fig. 159). 

Medusa 3 to 6 mm. high, transparent: Maesacbusetts 
Bay to Newport, R. I.; often common. 

5. Nemopsu Agassis. Trophoeome like Boa- 
gainviUia except that the medusae arise from the 
hydranths. Qonosome: medusa like Bougainvillia 
hut with a pair of short-knobbed tentacles directed 
upwards from each group of long tentacles and with 
gonads extending on to the subumbrella: 2 species. 
N. bachei Ag. (Fig. 160). Medusa 6 to 10 mm. 
high: Florida to Vineyard Sound; common. 

Fault 4. EXn)ENBIQ)A£. 
Trophosome: colony branching, rising from a letioolated hydro- 
rhiza; perisarc distinct and variously annulated; hydranth with trumpet- 
shaped hypostome (Fig. 150) and a single whorl of filiform tentacles. 
Oonosome: no free medusae; male sporoaaos in a whorl just beneath, 
and the female sporosacs usually just ^ove the tentacles uid oeeasion- 
ally on the hydrocaulns: 1 genus. 

Einuun>Biu]( Ebrenberg. With the oharaeters of the family: about 
1 species. 

Fig. 1S9— JtefUos grata <HsrKltt). 


Key to the eptaea of Eudenriidae beie described ; 

Oi Golonr lUfc <8 to IS cm. Ugk). 

bi Branches aunnlatcd at their bue onlj B. EUtoauif 

i. Branches coropletel; annulated B.DI8FAK 

a. Colon; small (less than 3 cm. long) ELlSIfUK 

E. nmonim (L.) (Figs. 150 and 161). Colony profusely branehed, 
10 to 15 em. high, with oyimnetricol branches; tentacles abont 20; male 
sporosaca reddish and in maniliform clusters; female sporosacs orange 
and pyriform: abundant on piles, rocks, etc., in ehallow water from 
North Carolina to Labrador; Pacific Coast; Europe. 

E. diapv Agassiz. Colony less profusely branched than abovof 

Flfr 161 Fig. 162 

rig. lei—SBdaidrtUM nMMMM ([rem Hargltt). Fig. 162— ffydraoKota ooMiKila 
(HcMurrldi). 1, fHdIng brdranth: Z, deteiulve 
hydraDtb ; 3. nproouctlTe bTdrantb. 

6 to 10 cm. h^h; tentacles about 28; sexes distinct: in deeper water 
from Vineyard Sound to Bay of Fundy. 

K tenna A. Agassiz. Colony irregularly branched, 25 mm. in height ; 
mole sporoeacs moniliform and pink; female sporosacs orange and scat- 
tered over the hydrocanlus: on seaweed, ete., is shallow water from 
Buzzard's Bay to Bay of Fundy; not abundant. 


Trophosome: colony incrustii^, the polyps rising separately from 
an inemsted, spiny bydrorhisa to which the perisarc is confined, and 
potymorpbie, consisting of 3 types of individuals: (1) feeding bydranths, 
whiefa have a single whorl of tentacles; (2) reproductive individualB, 
bearing dusters of sporosacs; and (3) defensive individuals usually 
without tentacles but with nnmerous nematocyste at the apex. Gono- 
stnne: cfporoBaes and no free medusae present: 1 genus. 


HxDaAonMU Van Beneden. With the charaeteiB of the family: 
2 American species. 

H. ecMnaU Fleming (Fig. 162). Colony 10 mm. high; reproductive 
individuals without tentacles: usually on tbe shells of Lennit crabs bat 
also on stones, fucus, piles, etc. - very common on Atlantic coast ; Europe. 

E. ntUleii Torrey. Colony 5 mm. high; reproductive individuals 
with tentacles: California. 


Trophosome: like that of Ei/draetiniidae. Gonosome: free medusae 
preseat, each with i radial canals and 4 or 8 or more marginal tentacles: 
several genem. 

Key to the genera of Podocorynidae here described: 
a. Medusa with loag tenUctea, hydrold on Limulut, shells of hermit crabs, 

etc 1. PoDoooRTnE 

o, Margioal tentacles of medDBarudimeDtar;; hydroid on ViM«a. . .2. Sttlaotis 

1. PoDOOOaTKE Sars. Trophosome: like Bydraclmia. Gonosome: 
medusa globular with 8 or more rather thick tentacles : 11 species. 

P. carnea Sars (Fig. 163). Medusa very transparent, 3 mm. high, 
with 4 marginal tentacles in the young and 24 to 32 in the adult; 
manubrium reddish with 4 oral tentacles: 
hydroid on lAmuhu, crabs, rocks, etc 

P. folgniuu (A. Agassiz). Uednsa 1 
mm. high, hemispherical, with 8 ma^inal and 
4 oral tentacles; manubrium buds off young 
medusae : North Carolina to Uassachusetts 
Bay; common; often brightly phosphoiescent. 
2. STTLAOTia Allman. Trophosome: col- 
ony consisting of very long, slender hydranths 
rising from a reticular base. Gonosome: a 
sporosac in the European species, but in the 
American a medusa with rudimentary ten- 
tacles: several species, 2 American. 
8. hooperi Sigerfoos. Hydranths 20 mm. long with 18 to 25 ten- 
tacles; medusa globidar, I mm. in height with 8 rudimentary, mai^jnal 
and no oral tentacles and borne on specialized hydranths, just below the 
tentacles; no ocelli: Long Island and Vineyard Sounds, on Naasa 

Trophosome: colony regularly branching; hydianth with a basal 
whorl of 10 to 12 filiform tentacles and also a number of short knobbed 



tentoeles on the hypoBtome. Gonoeome: either a tne or a sessile 
medusa with 4 radiatiog canals and 4 mdimentary tentacles: about 7 

PxnrAKU Oken. With the charaoters of the family: abont 6 

P. tiarella (Ayres) (Fig. 104). The bright pink hydroid colony 
may be 15 cm. in height, and is attached to piles, rocks, or seaweed in 
aballow water; medusoid buds on the aide of the hydranth; medusa 

(Fig. 165) an elongated bell about 2 mm. long with 4 rudimentary ten- 
tacles; the medusa ia free-swimming chiefly during midsummer, the 
greater part of the year it is more or less sessile : common from Maine 
to Florida. 


Trophosome : hydranths solitary and 
of large size with a basal and several 
distal whorls of filiform tentacles; me- 
dusae produced just within the basal 
tentacles. Gonosome: free medusae with 
4 radial canals and 1 to 4 marginal ten- 
tacles, one of which is longer than the 
rest: several genera. 

1. OoKTXOXFBa Sars. Lai^ soli- 
tary polyps with a soft striated outer 
snrface and no well-defined perisart, 
rooted by fllamentons processes : 5 species. 

0. pandnla Agassis (Fig. 166). 
Polyp pendant, 3 to 10 em. high and 
bright pink; medusa bell-shaped with a projection at the apex, with 
1 large and 1 to 3 radimentary marginal tentacles; manubrium extends 


to the velum ; length 6 nun. : common from Vineyard Sonnd to Onlf of 
St. Lawrence in 8 to 30 fathoms. 

2. Htbooodov Agsssiz. Trophosome: polyp lai^, solitary, with a 
well'deflned perisarc and hydrorhiza; hydrantb with a baaal and 2 distal 
whorls of filiform tentacles; jnst within the base of the former mednsae 
are budded off: 2 species. 

H. prollfer Agassiz (Fig. 167). Orange-colored bydroids 4 em. high, 
with longitudinally striated perisarc which is annnlated jnst below the 
hydrantb; mednsa hemispherical and asymmetrical, with 5 medidional 
orange-colored bands at maturity and with 1 to 3 long marginal ten- 
tacles, from the thick base of which secondary medusae bud : on rocks in 
clear water from Vineyard Sound to Uassachusetts Bay; not common. 

3. EOTOFLSVSa Agasaiz. Trophosome : hydroid like Tvbularia, being 
indistinguishable when without gonophores. Gonosome: free medusae. 

ng. le? FlK. lOS F\g. 169 

flc. 167 — Hvbocodm proUfer (Ma^er). Fli. iO^—Eetopleura oohraoea (Husltt). 
Fig. 169 — Tunitopili nutrUmta tHarer). 

rather elongate, with 2 or 4 tentacles from the base of which lines of 
nematocysts estend on the surface of the bell to its apex : 3 species. 

£. ochracea A. Agassiz (Fig. 168). Uedusa about 3 mm. in height 
with a large manubrium and S loi^tndinal bands of nematocjrgta on 
exumbrella: Cape Cod to South Carolina; eommon. 


Trophosome: colony branching, with an elongate hydranth at the 
end of each branch bearing 18 to 20 short flUform tentacles scat- 
tered over it. Gonosome: a free-swimming medusa produced below 
the hydranth: 2 genera. 

1. TiTBBlTOPBn UcCrady. Hydroid form as above; medusa hemi- 
spherical, with 8 to 70 equidistant tentacles; 4 reddish gonads: 1 species. 

T. BTttrlcnla McCrady (Fig. 169). Medusa 4 to 6 mm. in diameter: 
Cape Cod to Florida; often common. 



Tropfaosome: polyps solitary or eolonial, of Ui^ size and bright 
pink in color; hydranths with a baaal and a distal whorl of flUtorm ten- 
tacles. Gonosome: medusoids remain attached to the polyp, b«ii^ sus- 
pended from long-branched stalks above the basal tentacles and varyingf 
in form from sporosacs to perfect medusae; no free medusae; the female 
medosoids produce peculiar free-snimming hydroid-like bodies called 
actinnles: 1 genus, 

TvwiLAMiA L. With the characters of the family: about 20 species. 

Key to the species of Tubularia here described : 

0, PoIfp> Dnbrancbed, in gronps of 4 to 8; medusoidH with dUtinct radtal 

canals T. oouthodti 

o, PoItpb branched ; oTteo no distinct radiai canals in medusoids. 

i, Hjdraoth with collar T. labtkz 

b. No collar present. 
Ci Hydranth large ; often in muddy water. 

if, SporuBsc with conical apical process T. BPKCTabujs 

d^ Female sporosac with flattened apical process T. CBOCCA 

C Hrdranth amall; often in clear water T.TBnEij[.a 

T. contbon;! Agaasiz (Fig. 170). 
Individuals unbranebed, 7 to 15 em. 
high; hydranth often expanding 20 
mm. or more, with a basal whorl of 30 
to 40 tentacles; mednsoid with distinct 
radial canals: on sandy bottoms in 
shallow or brackish water, in clusters 
of 5 to 10 indiridualB; New England 

T. larynx Ellis and Solander. In- 
dividuals somewhat branched and ex- 
tensively annulated and living in clus- 
ters, 2 to 5 em. hi^; a collar-like 

expansion just below hydranth, the ^'- "**~J'£^m^ eouthouyt 

latter with 16 to 20 basal tenUcles; 

female medusoid with a conical apical process and no distinct radial 
eanals: in shallow water from Cape Cod northwards; California; Europe; 
on rocky and shelly bottoms. 

T. Bpectabills (Ag.). Colony irregularly branched, sparsely annu- 
lated, and 8 to 10 cm. h^b, growing in a tangled mass; 20 basal ten- - 
taeles: in shallow water from Rhode Island to Bay of Fnndy. 

T. teaalla (Ag.). Colony 25 to 40 mm. high and like preceding 
form but more loosely branched: in tide pools and the open ocean; 
' Hanacbusetts Bay to Bay of Fund;. 



T. {Parypha Ag.) 
crocM (Ag.) (Fig. 171). 
Colonies growing in dense 
tufts of long tangled 
stems of from 8 to 10 cm. 
in height ; sparingly 
branched ; basal tentacles 
20 to 24; apical process of 
the female sporosac fiat- 
tened: common on pilea, 
docks, etc., in shallow 
water from Boston sonth- 

FIs. ni—^abularia oroeea (Anaal*). A, i . , 

B, t BlDgle bTantDtb. vards; California. 

Obdeb 4. CAMFANULAAUI!.* {Caltptobustga ; LEprouEDtiSAE. ) 
Colonial hydromednsans with two kinds of polyps (Fig. 172), the 
hydranths or the nntritutive polj-ps and the blastostyles or the reproduc- 
tive polyps. The perisare does not end at the base of the polyp, as in 
the tnbularians, but continues over it, forming, in the case of the 
I hydranth a protective cup called the hydro- 

theca and in the ease of the blastostyle a. 
cylindrical capsule called a gonangium or a 
gonotbeca. In some species the open end of 
the hydrotheca may be closed by projections 
or valves which form an operculum (Fig. 
173); in some species also the blastostyle 
projects out of the mouth of the gonangium 
and forms a lai^ cap- 
sule or brood chamber 
in which the eggs de- 
velop, called the aero- 
cyst (Fig. 178). The 
hydranth has never * 

more than a single ^ 

whorl of tentacles and *^ "^ 

CampaaalamD oper- 

FlK- 1T2 — A cBnipanalarian COn in mOSt CaseS be cula (NdttlDg). A, 

bydrold (from Htanec). 1, , . ,. . two-y«lve<l opercnlom ; 

hTdrmnth; 2. hjdrotbeca ; 3, retracted Within its B, one-TBlved opercn- 

bluti»tyle ; 4, gounslum. . , . , . lum. 

hydrotheca or extended 
beyond it. The blastostyle cannot usually be extended beyond its 
gonangium and produces within it the gonophores; these constitute 

H. B. Tomr> CnL «C 



the medusoid generation and may either be liberated as free mednsaey 
or, remaining in the gonangiom, produce the sexual products there, 
which escape from the gonangium as free larvae. The medusae 
(Fig. 191) are known as Leptomeduaae and (except in the rfcottman- 
tUdae) have lithocysts and not ocelli as sense organs: they bear the 
gonads beneath the radial canals on the subumbrella: about 8 families. 
Key to the families of Campanulariae here described : 


di Hydrotheca sessile, t. e., not joined to the stem by a stalk ; gonangium contains 
^ Hydrotbecae in 2 rows (e^^cept HydroUmania) either opposite to each other 

on the stem or not 1. Sbbtulabiida]: 

ftf Hydrothecae in a single row on the stem 2. Plumuiabiida]: 

Oa Hydrotheca stalked and bell-shaped. 

hx The gonophores are eporoeacs 3. CAMPANULAsnDAB 

h^ The sronophores are medusae ; hydroid forms very little known except in the 
genera Obelia, Clytia, and Laodicea. 



The Ist, 2nd, and 3d families produce only sporosacs and no free medusae. 

Hi Four simple radial canals; lithocysts and no ocelli present 4. Eucofidae 

Ot Radial canals numerous (8-100) 5. iEquoBEiDAB 

a. Radial canals 4 or 8; ocelli present and no lithocysts. .6. Thaumanthdas 


Trophosome: colony usually branching; hydrothecae sessile (not 
stalked), almost all with opercula (Fig. 173) and forming two rows 
along opposite sides of the hydrocaulus (except Hydralltnania) . Gono- 
some: gonangia much larger than the hydrothecae, there being only a 
few in the colony, and occurring only at certain times of the year; each 
gonangium contains a blastostyle which produces planulae; no free 
medusae: about 15 genera and 135 American species. 

Key to the genera of SertularHdae here described : 

Ox Hydrothecae in two rows. 
5i Hydrothecae exactly opposite each other. 

Ci Operculum in 2 pieces (Fig, 173, A) 1. Sebtulabia 

c. Operculum in 1 piece (Fig. 178, B) 3. Diphasia 

bt Hydrothecae alternate or subaltemate to each other. 
Cx Hydrothecae stand out from the stem. 
di Hydrotheca with toothed margin ; operculum of 3 or 4 pieces. 

2. Sebtulabiella 
da Hydrotheca with smooth margin ; operculum of one piece. .4. Abietinabia 

c, Hydrothecae closely pressed against the stem 5. Thuiabia 

a, Hydrothecae in one row, the openings turning alternately to the right and 
left 6. Htdballmania 

* See "American Hydrolds, Part II, The Sertnlarldae," by C. C. Nutting, U. S« 
Nat Ifius. Spec. Bull., No. 4, 1904. 


1. Sebtvlabxa L. Hydrotheeae in paiiB along the stem, the mem- 
bers of a pair being exactly opposite each other; operculum paired 
(Fig. 173, A) ; gonangia have plain marginfs and are of simple form : about 
20 American species. 

S. pumila L. (Fig. 174). A simple or more or less branched colony 
1 to 5 em. high attached by a creeping hydrorhiza, the stem being divided 

into short intemodes, each bearing a pair 
of hydrotheeae; gonangia oval, sessile and 
often bearing aerocysts, the male gonan- 
*" (rV^ 7 gium being somewhat more slender than the 

female : common on f ucus, etc., between tide 

lines, from New Jersey to the Arctic Ocean ; 

California; Europe. 

A ' s 2- Seetttlaexlla Gray. Similar to 

Pig. 174— Sertularia pumiJc preceding genus, but differs from it in that 

a^iW^B,t'g?2i"n°^um. ^^^ hydrotheeae are alternate on the hy- 

drocanlus and not opposite, and possess a 
prominent operculum composed of several pieces; gonanginm usually 
deeply annulated: about 50 American species. 
Key to the species of Sertularia here described : 

Ot Margin of hydrotheca with 4 slight teeth. 
hi Hydrotheca annulated. 

Ox Annulations only on upper side S. gate 

c^ Annulatlon complete S. bugosa 

bt Hydrotheca smooth S. poltzonias 

Oa Margin of hydrotheca with 3 teeth S. tbicuspidata 

S. rngosa (L.) (Fig. 175). A small colony 2 cm. high, either un- 
branched or little branched and with annulated stem; hydrotheeae 
crowded, annulated, and with 4 marginal teeth; gonangia 
large, annulated and with four-toothed aperture: New 
England coast; Puget Sound; Europe. 

S. gasri (Lamouroux). Colony attaining a height of 
15 cm. and with paired or alternate branches; hydrothe- 
eae wrinkled or partially annulated and with a four- 
toothed aperture; gonangia elongate, ovate, tapering 
towards both ends, annulated in upper portion : Atlantic 
coast; Europe. SerfJloralte 

S« polyxonias (L.). Irregularly branching colony (MngBiey), 
attaining a height of 12 cm.; hydrotheca smooth, with 4 
teeth; gonangium deeply annulated and with 4 teeth: Atlantic and 
Pacific coast; cosmopolitan; common. 

S. tricnspidata (Alder). Colony 12 cm. high or less and slender 
with alternate branches; hydrotheca smooth, with 3 teeth; gonanginm 


with dMp umolAtions and a. bowl-shaped orifiee: New England eoast; 
eommon; north Paeiflo coast; Enropa. 

3. DtPSASU Agassiz. Colony more or laM branehing, jointed, the 
hydrothecao in pairs opposite each other and standing ont from the 
stem; a single operealom present (Fig. 173, B) i 
goaangia dimorphic, the female being the larger 
and often Bnnnlated, and with a brood pouch in 
its distal half, the male with a central tabular 
orifice Bud 4 spines: 10 American speeiee. 

D. fallax (Johnston) (Fig. 176). Colony 
aboat 8 cm. high, with simple branching, the 
ends of the branches being often tendril-like; 
gonangia elongate; female gonangia oval, deeply 
cleft into 4 s^menta: Masaaebasetts Bay to 
Bay of Fondy; Europe. 

D. roaactt (L.). Colony delicate, abont 8 
cm. h^i, branching alternately ; gonangium with 
longitadinal ridges terminating, in the male, in 

the teeth which surround the orifice: northerly "«■ JJ^^hmSS)^ '**' 
New England ooast; Europe; common. 

4. Amotimamja Kirebenpaoer. Hydrothecae flaak- 
ahaped and alternate or subaltemate with operculum of 
<me piece on the aide next to the stem and with smooth 
margin : 16 species. 

A. aUatina (L.) Sea-fir (Pig. 177). Colony la^e and 
boshy, being sometimes 30 em. high or more, with alter- 
nate branching, with very laige hydrothecae and relatively 
small gonangia: from Vineyard Sound to lAbrador; north 
Pacific; Enrope. 
5. THUtAXU Fleming. Hydrothecae altemat- ^ 

ing with each other, more than a pair to an inter- 
node and closely a^qtUed to the Btem, which is &, 
jointed : 20 species. 

T. thuja (L.). Colony very rigid, sometimea 
25 em. in height, zigzag in shape and annulated 
near the base; perisarc very dark in color; gonan- 
gia smooth and pyriform: in shallow water on ^^'tea^iucSe^ %. 
northerly New England coast; Pacific coast; gonsngi^ ; «, ■«»• 

T. ugottM (L.) (Fig. 178). A laige bnshy colony, often 20 or 30 
cm. high, branching alternately or dichotomonsly ; gonangia broad, taper- 
ing towards the base, with a circular aperture and usually 2 spines: wy 



conanoa ; New Jersey to the Arctic Ocean from low-water mark to 100 
fathoms, nsnaUy in rather deep wat^r; Pacific coast; Eorope. 

T. cnprsuinft (L.)- A slender, elongated 
colony, often 20 cm. high, branching alter- 
nately and dichotomouely; gonangia elongate 
with a prominent spine at each aide of the 
aperture: eame habitat ae the preceding but 
less abundant. 

6. HTDEAUJtAinA Hincks. Hydrothecae 
in a single row projecting ont from the 
hydrocauluB alternately to the r^ht and the 
left; colony pinnately branchii^; 3 species. 

H. ftlcato (L.) (Fig. 179). Colony often 
30 cm. high, slender, rather r^d and with 
simple branching; on each branch the secood- 
aiy branches are very regular and feather-like; 
gonangia ovate and simple: on stones, shells, 
/»SS«.(S^^h^^*^ etc., on New England coast and m Long Island 
Soimd; Puget Sound; Europe. 

brsQEh wltb bj- 


Trophosome: usually a branched colony with aessile hydranths, 
which are borne in ti row on small branches called hydrocladia (Fig. 180) ; 
between the hydranths and on the main stem and branches are nemato- 
phoree, small specialised defensive polyps, each of which eonsists of a 
hydrotheca and an elongated body armed with nematooyets. Qonosome: 
gonangia large, the blastoetyles producing planulae and never medusae: 
about 43 genera and over 300 species, being a quarter of all known 
hydroids; about 100 species occur along the Atlantic coast and in the 
West Indies. 

Key to the genera of Plumulariidae here described: 

0, Oonaugia not protected hy special branchlets ; nematophores tmmpet-eliaped 
and movable, 
b, H;drocladiB do sot branch. 
o, Colony not dichotomouslr branched : the hydrocladia arranged in whorla 

or scattered along the stem 1. Anteksui^bia 

c. Branching dichotomouH : hrdrocladia all arise from the upper aide of 

branches Ji. Monobtachas 

i, Hrdrocladia forked 3. Schizotbicba 

a, QonanKifl. protected by special branchleta ; nematopbores immoTable. 

4. Cladocabfos 

• See "AmeriCTin Hydrolda, Part I, Tbe PlnronlaritJae," by C. C. Netting, U. S. 
Nat Una. Spec. Boll. Mo. 4, 1900. 



1. Antswitlabza Lamarck. Main stem of colony simple or 
sparsely branched and attached by a massive hydrorhiza; hydrotheca cup- 
shaped; gonangia borne in the axils of the branches: 6 American 

A. antennina (L.) (Fig. 180). Colony a dense duster of upright 
stemsy often 20 cm. high, obscurely jointed, each intemode bearing a 
whorl of fine branches (hy- 
drocladia) on which are the 
hydranths and the nemato- 
phores; gonangia ovate and 
of large size, in the axils of 
the hydrocladia: from Mar- 
tha's Vineyard to Bay of 
Fundy in 6 to 60 fathoms; 


ooan. Colony branching 
dichotomously and attaining a height of 15 cm.; hydrocladia spring- 
ing all from the upper side of the main branches: 1 American 

M. quadridens (McCrady). From Martha's Vineyard southwards. 

3. SoHZZOTBiOHA Allman. Colony usually a cluster of simple stems; 
hydrocladia arranged pinnately and branched in mature specimens: 
4 American species. 

8. tenella (Verrill). Colony branching dichotomously and attain- 
ing a height of 5 cm. ; stem divided alternately into longer and shorter 

Fig. 180 — Antennularia antennina (Nattlng). 1, 

hydraoth ; 2, nematophore ; 3, gonanglnm ; 

4, hydrocladium. 

Fig. 181 

Fig. 182 

Fig. ISl—Sehigotrieha graoOUma (Natting). Fig. 182— CladoowTtM fl^^iUt (Nat- 

ting). Fig. 188 — Haleaiitm haiecinum (Hargitt). 

intemodesy the latter bearing each a hydrocladium; gonangium eomu- 
eopia-shaped : Long Island and Vineyard Sounds, in shallow water, often 
on piles. 


8. gradlUma (G. O. Bars) (Fig. 181). Colony about 5 em. high; 
branches divided into regular intemodes, each bearing a hydrocladiom: 
New England coast; Europe. 

4. Olasooabvub Allman. Colony usually branched; hydrodadia 
not branched ; gonangia borne on the stem at the base of the hydrocladia 
and protected by special branchlets armed with nematophores : 15 
American species. 

0. flezilis Verrill (Fig. 182). Colony up to 20 cm. long and slender; 
hydrotheca long and cylindrical, lying close to the hydrocladium; pro- 
tecting branchlets of the gonangia branched like deer's horns: in moder- 
ately deep water along the Atlantic coast; common. 


Trophosome: either a branched or simple colony on which are bell- 
shaped and usually stalked hydrothecae; hypostome trumpet-shaped. 
Gonosome: gonangium large, the blastostyle producing planulae and 
never free medusae: about 33 genera. 

Key to the genera of Campamilariidae here described: 

Ci Hydrotheca rudimentary, the hydranth not being entirely retracted 

into it 1. Haleoiuk 

o»Hydrotheca not rudimentary. 
bx Blastostyle does not project from the gonangium. 
Ct Stem not completely annulated. 

di Gonanginm without acrocyst, colony not parasitic 2. Campanulabia 

dt Gonangium with acrocyst; colony parasitic on other hydroids, etc. 


Cs Stem completely annulated • 4. Opebcuiabella 

hf Blastostyle projects from the gonangium 5. Gonothtbba 

1. HALEonw Oken. Branching colonies with creeping hydrorhiza; 
the hydrothecae are more or less rudimentary, being shallow and 
disc-like or funnel-shaped, the margin often with a circle of dots, 
into which the hydranths can be only partially retracted: numerous 

H. halednum (L.) (Fig. 183). Colony 10 to 20 cm. high, rigid; 
hydrothecae alternate on the stem, cylindrical, often annulated; gonan- 
gia appear in a row, the male gonangium slender and club-shaped, the 
female rather irregular in shape with broad distal end and a terminal 
aperture: New Jersey to Labrador; in shallow water; Puget Sound to 
Alaska; Europe. 

2. QjkXBATULAMiA Lamouroux. Colony either branched or simple, 
with bell-shaped hydrothecae, which are without operculum, and with 
or without maiginal teeth: many species. 


Key to the epecies of CawtpoHuiaria here described : 
Oi Calon; not branched, the hrdranthB iMns Mparntely from hydroiliiM. 

bi Margin of apertnre of hrdrotbecn not toothed C. rotanm 

bt Mnr^n toothed. 

e, Teeth square at top O.HUfOKn 

<^ Teeth very ahallow, the marsin bring ainuona CLvolcbius 

«^ Colony branched. 
i. Colon; large, over 10 cm. high. 

Ci Margin of aperture toothed CtBbtiOiuat^ 

<^ Margin of apertnre not toothed Cauphoba 

bt Colony email, cinder 3 cm. hifb C. rLEZCOU 

0. potarinm (Ag&ssiz). Colony onbranched, with the hydranths at 
the end of long, completely aiuinlftied stalks, which rise separately from 
the hydrorhiza; aperture of hydrotheca not toothed; 
hydrajith with 24 tentaeles; gonangia slender and ovate, 
rising from the hydrorhiza: Vineyard Sound to Labrador; 
low-water mark to 30 fathoms, eommoo on seaweed; 

il .Alder (Fig. 184). Colony unbranched, the 
hydranths at the end of long and partially annulated 
stalks which rise separately from the hydrorhiza; aper- 
ture of hydrotheca with 12 square-topped teeth ; gonangia 
on short stalks and annulated : from Vineyard Sound to campa»»- 
Maine, on stones and shells; southern California; Europe. *T^^^^ 

0. Tolnbills (L.). Colony unbranched, the hydranths 
at the end of long completely annulated stalks which rise separately 
from the hydrorhiza; aperture of hydrotheca with 
10 shallow-ronnded teeth; gonangia rise from the 
hydrorhiza: from Vineyard Sound to Greenland; 
low-water mark to 100 fathoms; common; Pacific 
coast; Europe. 

0. wtlcillats (L,). Colony branched, attain* 
ing a height of 12 em. ; hydrothecae with a toothed 
aperture borne on long, partially annulated stalks 
which form whorls around the stem : Long Island 
Sound to Maine, in 4 to 45 fathoms; Alaska; 

0. unphora (Agassiz). Colony branched, 

.^ attaining a height of 15 cm.; hydrothecae with 

untoothed apertnre and with a swollen stalk; 
hydranth with 30 tentacles; gonangia tnmcate: from Long Island Sound 
to Qulf of St. Lawrence; common. 

0. flaxnoaa (Eincks) (Fig. 185). Colony 25 mm high, branched 
irr^nlar^; stem annulated near the base of the branches; hydrothecae 


with ontoothed apertnre and with winuUted stalks; gonangia large: 
Long Island Sound to Labrador, on piles, etc, abundant towards the 
north; Europe. 

3. Oaltoelu Hincks. Hydrorbiza parasitic on other hydroids, 
Bryoioa, etc., and sending forth short annulat«d stalks bearing elongate 
eylindrical hjdrotheeae which have opereula; gonangiom oval, rising 
from the hydrorbiza and bearing a globular acrocyst. 

0. Bjrtinga (L.)- Hydrotbeea longer than 
its stalk: Long Island sound to Maine; com- 
mon; Pacific coast; Europe. 

1, n»CTmtT »»*T.T « Hincks. Stem annu- 
lated throughout and sparsely branched or 
nnbranched ; hydrotheoa with operculum ; 
gonangium with acrocyst. 

0. lacwata Hioeks. Hydrothecae with 
short stalks; s^meots of operculum very long 
sad slemder: Long Island Bound to Maine, on 
docks, etc 

6. GoHOTKTmxa Allman. Stem erect, ir- 
r^nlarly branched, more or less annulated; 
hydrotheca belt-shaped, with toothed margin; 
the blastostyle produces fixed, medusiform 
sporosacs with rsdial canals and tentacles, i^ich 
project ont of the gonangia bnt are not free- 
iwimming: several species. 

O. loveni AUman (Fig. 1S6). Stem 10 to 
15 mm. high; from the mature gonangium project 3 to 5 sporosacs: oo 
shells, stones, etc., in shallow water from Long Island Sound to Maine; 

G. darki Torrey. Simitar to the above but without radial canals in 
the sporosacs; hydrotbeea deep, with mai^ having 10 square-topped or 
bicuspid teeth: Pacific Coast from California to Alaska; often common 
in shallow water. 

Famlt 4. EUCOPIDAE. 

Tropbosome: colonial, either branched or simple; hydrotbeea bell- 
shaped and stalked, the margin of the aperture either toothed or not; 
gonangia lai^e and usually in the axils of the branches. Gonosome: 
gonangium large, the blastostyle producing free medusae with lithocysts 
and usually without ocelli, with 4 radial canals, beneath which on the 
subombrella are the gonads, there being as many gonads as radial 
canals: about 34 genera. 


Key to the genera of Eueopidae here described (hydroid form well 
knovD in ObeUa and Clytia alone) : 

a, HannbriaiD of medoBa short; bfdroid moatlr a branchfnK colony. 
&iHeduBB Sat and disc-like; hydmid a branchins colony; hydrotheca often 

withoat a toothed mai^Q 1. Obelu 

h, Hednsa bell-shaped or hemiepberical. 
c, Mednsa with no more than 16 marginal tentacles. 
it Medusa without cirri at the base of the tentadea ; hydroid not or Tery 

Bpatsely branched ; hydrotheca with toothed margin 2. Clttia 

d, Hednsa with 4 or more tentacles, each of which has 2 basal cirri. 

4. BUOHE1L0T& 

Oi Medusa with more than 10 teutaclM. 

d,Onl lobes fHlled 3. Tllbofsu 

d. Oral lobes not frilled S. Oounu 

9t Hanubrinm of medusa rery long; hydroid moatly nakaown. 

«, TenUdes 4. fl. BnniiA 

e. Tentacles of adnlt namerooB 7. Tiiu 

1. Obbua Piron and Leeaenr. Hydroid colony asoally branched, 
the stem with annulations at the base of the branches and the bydrantbs; 
hydrotheca often with ^ ontoothed margin; gonangium 

with a small terminal ^3^ a aperture, osually SQironnded by 

a eoUar or neek; me- Akt ^''^ more or less disu-shaped, t 

to 6 mm. in diametor, j( \i with 12 or more mai^inal 

tentacles and S ffl\ i^_i^Ti lithocysts, often swim- 

ming with erarted ^V%V ip^' bell: nnmeroos species, 

PU. 18T — ObcHa 6iehiitoma (Xayer). A, eatirt cOtniy; B, colony enlarged; C, 

the medusae of which can often not be distinguished from one 

O. comtnlanmllB McCrady. Colony tree-like with long central trunk, 

15 to 20 cm. high, sparsely branched, the side branches springing out at 
right angles; hydrotheca not toothed; gonangia elongate; medusa with 

16 or more tentacles: on docks, algae, etc., from South Carolina to Bay 
of Fundy; common; California. 

O. dichotoma (L.) (Fig. 187). Colony rather small with a deep 
brown stem and a general tree-like appearance; branches zigzag; hydro- 
theca elongate withoat toothed margin; gonangia long and oonical; 


medusa witli 16 tentacles at liberation: from Sontb Carolina nortliwards; 
common on stones, seaweed, etc.; Pacific coast; Enrope. 

0. senlcoUto (L.) (Fig. 188). Colony not more than 30 mm. high 
and consisting usaally of a single zigzag stem bearing 
alternate hydranths on short annnlated stalks; gonou- 
gia borne in the angles of these stalks; medusa with 
24 tentacles at liberation : on docks, f ucus, etc., from 
Long Island to Labrador; 
very common; California; 

O. calatinoM (Pallas). 

Colony tree-like, profusely 

branching and very laige, 

Vig. 188 being sometimes 25 cm. hi^ 

OBelta oontc^lata or more, with central stems fi^, 189 — OlvHa Moo- 

and zigzag branches; hydro- 
tbecae small, with toothed margin; gonongia small; medusa with 16 
tentacles at time of liberation : on docks, seaweed, etc., in shallow water 
from New Jersey to UoasachusettB Bay; very common; Paget Sound; 

2. Olttia Lamouroux, Hydroid colony sparsely branched or not 
at all, the hydrantbs being at tbe end of a usnolly long, more or less 
aimulated stalk which rises from the hydrorhiza; hydrotheea with 
toothed margin; gonai^a often annulated, on the bydrorhiza or tbe 
stem; medusa with 16 tentacles and 16 lithocysts: 8 species. 

0. Ucophora Agasaiz (Fig. 189). Colony about 10 mm. high; medusa 
6 mm. in diameter, bemiapherical when liberated bnt later becoming 
more flattened; gonads brown, monnbrium 
short, with 4 small oral lobes: from Soath 
Carolina to Arctic Ocean, on fucus, docks, 
etc.) in shallow water; often common. 

3. TIABOPSIB Agassiz. Hydroid form un- 
known; medusa hemispherical; marginal ten- 
tacles very numerous in adult; mannbrium 
short with frilled month opening; 8 lithocysts 
above each of which is an ocellus: 6 species. 
T. dUdematfc Agassiz (Fig. 190). Mednsa 
15 mm. in diameter, with slopii^ sides; manubrium with 4 prominent 
lips: New England coast; often abundant. 

4. EvOHSiLOTA McCrady. Hydroid form nnkoown; medusa hemi- 
spherical; tentacles each with b pair of lateral cirri at its base: 6 


B. dvodsdiiulla A. Agassiz (Fig. 191), Tentadee 4, each with a pair 
of cirri at its base; diameter 2,5 mm.; manubrium very short: Cape Cod 
to Florida; often common. 

6. OoBAVU P^ron and Lesnenr. Hydroid form mostly nnknown; 
medusa hemispherical with 16 or more tentaelee; lithocysts also numer- 
ous in adults, 2 being between eaeh two marginal tentacles; gonads 

colored and borne along the outer half of radial can^s: mannbrinm 
with 4 everted oral lobes; 6 species. 

O. languida A. Agassiz (Fig. 192). Gonads brownish or pink or 
green; tentacles 20 or more; diameter 20 mm.: from Bay of Fundy to 
Florida; often common. 

6. Etjtdu McCrady. Hydroid form unknown in most species; 
medusa bell-shaped with 4 or more tentacles and a very long manubrium 
extending far out of the bell ; 8 lithocysts : 12 species. 

E. nin MeCr. (Fig. 193). Medusa 2 cm. 
in diameter and half as high, with gonads ez> 
tending along almost the entire length of radial 
canals ; tentacles 4 in number and very long, 
the base swollen and colored green: Florida to 
New England; vety common at Woods Hole in 

7. Tnu Eschacholtz. Hydroid form minute; ^^ ^^ 
medusa hemispherical with a long mannbrinm 
sometimes extending out of tbe bell, at the end 
of which are 4 frilled projections surroundii^ the 

mouth; tentacles numerous; gonads extending the length of the radial 
eanala and the manubrium: 5 species. 

T. fonnoaa Agassiz (Fig. 194). Diameter 4 to 8 cm.; gonads and 
oral lobes milk white: New England coast; often common, especially in 
tbe spring. 


Fault 6, .SQUOREIDAE. 
Trophosome: mostly nnknown. (gonosome: mednn often of Urge 
dze and more or less disc-shaped, with from 8 to 100 radial eanftls; 
gonads nsnally ribbon-like; 8 or more lithocyats; 8 or more margioal 
tentacles: abont 7 genera. 

Key to the genera of ^qttoreidae here described : 
Oi Hannbrinm abort. 

b, Badial canals 8 to 20 1. Halopub 

bt Radial canals 16 to 100 2. JSqvoOA 

a, Mannbriom large and long S. Ztoodaotyi^ 

1. Halopsib a. Agassis. Hedosa dist^-like in adult and hemispfaer- 

ioal ID youth; radial eanals 12 to 20 in 4 groups; marginal litfaocysts, 

tentacles and eirn numerous; 

manubrium short with 4 oral 

lobes: 1 species. 

H. ocellata A. Ag. Di- 
ameter 7 cm.: New England 
coast; rare. 

2. JEvJOiXJL Finn and 
Fig. 195-^B««™. te,mu (iuy«). LesueuT. Hydroid form mi- 

nute and mostly unknowa; 
mednsa disc-shaped or hemispherical, with a short, wide manubriiun 
and nnmerona radial canals, lithocysts, and tentacles: 10 species. 

A. (Bhegmatod^ A. AgassiE) Mnnla 
A. Ag. (Fig. 195). Radial canals 20 to 
40 with an equal number of gonads; tea- 
tacles numerous, long and slender, with a 
spur above the base of each ; diameter 3 
to 10 cm.: Vineyard and Long Island 
Sounds; very irregular in its occumoce. 
A. alhida (A. Ag.) Radial canals 
and tentacles 80 or more in number; 
above each tentacle is a spur; diameter 7 
em. : New England coast 

S. Ztoodaottla Brandt. Hydroid 
form imknown; medusa arched and with 

a large sac-like manubrium with ezten- Fit' 1S6 — ergoiaelvla prvrnto*- 
sive frilled oral lobes extending beyond 

the velom; sobumbrella with rows of warts between the radial canals: 
1 species. 

Z. gnsnUndica (P^ron and Lesuenr) (Hg. 196). The largest Amer- 
ican hydromedusan, measuring 12 cm. or more in diameter; radial eanals 


and tentacles 80 to 100 in number: Greenland to North Carolina, the 
southern variety being pink. 


Trophosome: unknown in most genera. Gonosome: medusa ocel- 
late and without lithocysts, with a short manubrium and usually 4 to 8 
radial eanals: about 14 genera. 

L MsxjOBXTVic Oken. Hydroid form minute; medusa bell-shaped; 
8 radial canals and numerous long tentacles with ocelli at their base: 
4 species. 

M. campanula Agassiz. Color of medusa light ochre, tentacles and 
gonads darker; manubrium short with convoluted lobes; height and 

diameter 2 cm.: Cape Cod to Greenland, 
often abundant; Europe. 

2. Laodzoka Lesson {Lafaea Lamou- 
roux). Hydroid an unbranehed colony with 
^* l»7— ^J*to^ cofconrta a fiUform hydrorhiza; hydrothecae tubular; 

gonangia oblong, often forming encrusting 
masses around the stem; medusa hemispherical when young, but flatter 
as adult, with 4 radial canals and numerous tentacles, with basal cirri 
and ocelli: 6 species. 

L. calcarata A. Agassiz (Fig. 197). Hydroid form usually parasitic 
on sertularians ; medusa transparent with 2 tentacles at birth, but many 
later, which are quite rigid; manubrium short, with fluted sides; diam- 
eter 25 nun. : Massachusetts Bay to Florida. 

Obdeb 5. T&AOHOlflEDUSAS. 

Trophosome: wanting in most forms, so far as known; where pres- 
ent, of minute size and allied apparently to the Tubulariae. Gonosome: 
free medusae, usually rather large, more or less bell-shaped, with a 
velum and 4, 6, or 8 radial canals, along which on the subumbrella are 
the gonads; manubrium usually long, often extending beyond the velum; 
tentacles often very long and sometimes springing from the exumbrella; 
lithoeysts with concretions of entodermal origin and either freely pro- 
jecting or enclosed in pockets; development apparently direct in most 
eases, without alternation of generations, the animals being essentially 
open-ocean animals, most of which are not bound to the shores by a 
hydroid generation, and where the latter is present it is apparently in a 
d^enerate condition : 5 families and- 80 species. 


Key to the families of Trachomedusae here described : 

«, Radial canals 4 or 6. 

6, Gonada not plate-like, nanally UDdulating 1. Pbtabidak 

b. Gonads plate-like. 3. Qebtokudab 

Si Radial canals 8 2. AaLAunaaE 

Family 1. PETASIDAK 

TrophoBome: mitiate and apparently radimentaiy, bo far as known, 
pixibably wanting in many oasee. Gonosome: medusa with 4 or 6 radial 
canals; gonads elongate and much folded or sac-like; tentacles either 

Flf. 108— OoalMMaat awirtaaM. A, hTdrold (Perkins) ; B, m«dDa« <Hajer>. 

with or without a pad-like duster of modified nettle cells near the distal 
end for purposes of adhesion; niannhriuin short: about 14 genera. 

1. Oonorainra.* A. Agossii. Trophosome:minute,sofarasknown. 
Gonosome: medusa with 4 radial canals, along the entire length of which 
the sinuous gonads extend; adhesive pad near the extremity of each 
tentacle; numerous lithocysts present: 7 species; cosmopolitan. 

0. mnrbMU Mayer (Fig. IDS). Trophosome: solitary hydra-like 
individuals 1 mm. hi^h with 4 tentacles. Gonosome: medusa 20 mm. in 
diameter and half as high; mai^nal tentacles from 16 to 80, long and 
stiff and green at the base; gonads hrown; manubrium short with 4 
frilled oral lobes: Vineyard and Long Island Sounds. 

0. vertens A. Ag. Similar to the above, but higher than wide: 
Pacific coast from Washington to Alaska. 

2. IbOBOKTmAf Potts. Trophosome: a minute hydroid witbont 
tentacles and solitary, but multiplying by lateral budding. Gonosome: a 

• See "The DeTelopmeot of aonlDDems morbachll," b; H. P. FerklOB, Proc. And. 
Nat. Set., 1S02, p. TSO. 

t See "On the Mednsa of Hlcrabjdra," etc., by Edirard Potts, Quart. Jonr. Klc 
8ci., Vol. SO, p. eS3, 1906. "Mlcrobydra Id 190T," Proc. Delaware Co. Inrt., VoL B, p. 

89, 1908. 



medusa whieh buds from the hydroid, bell-sbapcd, wilh 4 radial canals 

Slid 8 tentacles: 1 spMes, in fresh water. 

H. iTderi Potts (Fig. 199). Hydroid cylindrical, witb a crown of 

nematocystfl around the mouth, .5 ram. 

long, often branched near the base 

into two equal individuals; medusa .3 

nun. hig^ and .4 mm. wide at birth; 

DO sense organs or gonads observed: 

on stones in rapid streams in Phila- 
delphia; Qennany. 

3. OxABrxDAOUBTA Lankestef 

(LimnoeodiKm Allmaii). Trophosome: 

minute, without tentacles. Gonraome: 

disc-like medusa with 4 radial canals; 

tentacles numerous, of several dif- 
ferent lengths; litbocysts numerous; 

manubnum long: 2 species; distribn- 

tioQ world-wide. 

0. aovetU* Lank. <Fig. 200). 

Diameter about 12 mm.; gonads 4, 

suspended from the radial eanals, greenish in color; oral lobes, large, 
erenolated, greenish; bell translucent 
with a faint bluish tint; 4 long, about 
28 shorter and 192 shortest tentacles: 
in a fresh-water aquarium in Wash- 
ington containing tropical water lilies; 
also in similar places in London, Mu- 
nich, and Lyons; pnibably introduced 
from South America. 

Family 2. AOLAUBTDAE. 

Trophosome: wanting. Gonosome: 
medusa with 8 radial canals, free 
lithocysts and gonads in ben^-like 
"* ^''^ISSSmS^'V""'**' "■*»««« ""^ numerous tentacles: 5 
Key to the genera of AgUtundae here described : 
O] Qonada 8. 

6, Gonads tmme on manubrium 1. AULAUaA 

6, Gonads borne on radial canala 2. AaT.i.NTHA 

0, Gonads 2 3, Pexsa 


1. AsLAVSA P6ron and Lesueur. Gonads 8, on maDubrium; 8 litho- 
eysts: 1 epeoiee. 

A. hemlstoma P£r. and Les. Medasa cyliDdrical or octagonal, 4 mm. 
high, tmncated above, transparent; radial canals 
8; tentacles numerous, very short; 18 finger-like 
gonads suspended from the manubrium: cosmo- 

8. Aqlaxtka Haedcel. Qooada 8, on snbom- 
brella: 3 species. 

A. dlgltalifl (O. F. Muller) (Fig. 201). Me- 
dusa elongate, miter-shaped, 30 mm. hi^ and 15 
mm. wide, with 8 radial canals, iHukish and trans- 
parent; tentacles numerous; gonads elongate and 
suqwnded from the upper end of the subumbrella; 
n«.a>l mouth with 4 everted lips: North Atlantic; often 

^'"laiS^'"''* common on the New England coast. 

3. PsKSA McCrady. But 2 gonads present, 
which are tbick and elongate and on opposite sides of the umbrella; 
6 lithooysts; numerous tentacles; 1 speciea. 

P. incolorat* UcCr. Bell thimble-shaped and colorless; gonads 
yellowish; tentacles long and brittle and easily broken off; 3 mm. high 
and half as wide: coasts of North and South Carolina; rare^ 


TrophoBome: wanting. Gonoe'ome: medusa 
hemispherical; manubrium very long; 6 or 8 en- 
closed titbocysts; radial canab 4 or 6; gonads plate- 
like : 2 genera. 

loxion Lesson. Manubrinm extending far 
beyond the velum and with a square mouth; 4 
radial canals, between each pair of which are 1 
to 3 centripetal (i.e., extending from the cirenlar 
oanal upwards) canals, and 4 to 12 tentacles: 20 

L. axigna (Quoy and Oaimard) (F^. 202). 
Bell hemispherical, 20 mm. wide: Onlf Stream; 
If editerranean ; occasionally on the New England 



TrophoBome: wanting, so far as known, development being direct, 
the animals living in the open ocean. Qonosome: medusa with lobed 


margin; tentacles stiff and extending from the exumbrella; gonads on the 
subumbrella; gastrovascular cavity a wide central space, either circular 
in outline or with radial pouches or canals extending outwards; ring 
canal follows the marginal lobes but is often absent; lithocysts free 
and often projecting, with entodermal concretions; a thickened ecto- 
dermal ring is at the edge of the umbrella with prolongations called 
peronia extending to the base of the tentacles, and often others also, 
called otoporpae, extending upwards from the base of the lithocysts: 
2 families and 50 species, of which a few are found along our coast. 

Family ^OINIDAE. 

Radial pouches of gastrovascular space present: 11 genera. 

1. OxnrooTAiiTKA Haeckel. Tentacles, marginal lobes, and radial 
pouches 8; otoporpae present; the larvae live parasitically in the bell 
of the mother or some other medusa where they bud off new larvae from 
a stolon-like prolongation of the aiHcal 

end of the umbrella: 5 species. 

0. octonaria McCrady (Fig. 203). 
Diameter 7 mm. ; manubrium cone-shaped 
with 4 lips: common at Beaufort, North 
Carolina, the larvae infesting Turritopsis 
nutncula; cosmopolitan. ^'^ ^^^TSoK)** ^^^'^^ 

2. CmmrA Eschscholtz. Tentacles 

and radial canals 9 to 24; the larvae live parasitically in the bell of the 
mother or some other medusa: 10 species. 

0. lativentris Gegenbaur. Medusa flat, transparent, about 16 mm. in 
diameter; tentacles, marginal lobes, and stomach pouches 10 to 12; litho- 
cysts on each lobe 4: Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. 


Free-swimming, colonial Hydromedusae. The individuals forming a 
colony are in a high degree polymorphic, there being several orders of 
individuals all of which are in communication with one another by means 
of the common gastrovascular space. Each order performs a distinct 
function in the colony, the division of labor being similar to that which 
obtains among the various organs of the body of one of the higher animals. 
Two general types of structure are met with among the Siphonophora. In 
one (Fig. 204) the various individuals bud off from a long axial tube, 

^ See "The Slphonophorae of the Ctiallenger/' by B. Haeckel, Challenger 
Beporta, YoL 28, 1888. 



of as 

204— >Dlagrftm 
»bore (Mc- 

the upper end of which is expanded to form a float called the pneumato- 
phore which contains air or a gas and serves to keep the colony right 
side up in the water: in the other type (Fig. 205) no such axial tuhe 
is present, the various individuals budding off from the under side of 

the enormously enlarged float. By far the greater 
number of siphonophores are of the first type. The 
individuals budding off from the axis immediately 
back of the pneumatophore are swimming individ- 
uals or nectophores^ these are present in pairs, and 
each has the form of a hydrozoan medusa without 
the manubrium. Following the nectophores at in- 
tervals on the axis are similar groups of individuals, 
each group consisting usually of (1) the bract, a 
flat, scale-like protective individual; (2) a club- 
shaped palp; (3) a nutritive individual or gastro- 
zooid, which is the mouth and stomach of the colony ; 
(4) a long tentacle with nematocysts; (5) repro- 
ductive individuals or gonozooids, which are usually 
unisexual. A colony of this kind swims about slowly 
in the sea and may be several feet in length and 
contain thousands of individuals. A modification of 
this type is seen in the deep-sea siphonophores of 
the genera Stephalia and EhodaUa, in which the 
pneumatophore is very large and the axis short and 
thick. In StephaUa a mouth is present at the terminal end of the axis, 
which forms the chief gastrozooid: the axis is thus in this case directly 
comparable with the manubrium of a medusa, 
of which the pneumatophore would be the bell. 
In Rhodalia the axis has lost its character of a 
gastrozooid, not having u mouth at the lower 
end. These animals are probably primitive 
siphonophores and seem to indicate the deriva- 
tion of the group from a medu^n instead of 
from a mixed hydroid and medusan stock. They 
also form a connecting link between the two 
general types of Siphonophora, those with an 
axial tube and those which have none. 

Siphonophores are essentially pelagic animals, although some forms 
are found in deep water. They belong to the open ocean, especially of 
the warmer parts of the world, and are among the most beautiful and 
conspicuous animals found there. The order contains about 250 species, 
grouped in 4 suborders. 

Marrich). 1, pneama- 
tophore ; 2, necto- 
pbore; 8, bract; 4, 
goDozoold; 6, gastro- 
soold ; 6, dab ; 7, ten- 

Big. 205 

Diagrain of a Porpita 
(Delage et H4roaard). 

8IPH0N0PH0RA 123 

Key to the suborders of Siphonophora: 

Oi Pnemnatophore present. 
6a Pneamatophore very large ; nectophores absent 

Cx Pneumatophore a disc, with a large central gastrosooid. . . .1. Duooniotae 
c^ Pneumatophore more or less cylindrical, without a large central gas- 
trosooid 2. Ctbtovmcsam 

ds Pneumatophore usually small ; nectophores present ; colony usually 

elongate 8. Phtsonictax 

a, Pneumatophore absent ; nectophores very large ; colony swimming rapidly. 

4. Caltoonbotae 


Siphonophores with a veiy large diso-like pneumatophore and with- 
out swimming individuals (Fig. 205). The pneumatophore has a com- 
plex stmeture; it contains a number of air ehambers and beneath its 
eenter is a single laige trunk which bears the principal mouth and 
stomach of the colony. Surrounding the trunk are small reproductive 
individuals which bear the gonads, and surrounding them near the rim 
of the dise are long daetylosooids or tentacles armed with nemotoeysts. 
The whole colony bears a striking resemblance to a medusa: 36 species, 
grouped in 2 families. 


Pneumatophore a circular or elliptical dise without marginal inden- 
tations: about 30 species. 

1. VsLELLA Bosc. Disc elliptical and very flat and with an ele- 
vated ridge passing diagonally across it, which acts as a sail as the 
animal floats on the surface of the water: 13 


V. mutica Bosc (Fig. 206). Length of 
disc 4 em., breadth 2 cm.: along the South 
Atlantic coast, occasionally off New England. 

2. PosviTA Lamarck. Dise circular, and Fig. 200— FeteOa mutiea 
Without the sail: 8 species. 

P. Unnieana Lesson (Fig. 205). Diameter of disc 3 to 5 cm.: along 
the South Atlantic coast, occasionally off New England. 

Suborder 2. CYSTONECTAE. 

Siphonophores with a very larg^ pneumatophore from the under side 
of which project nutritive individuals, no large central trunk and no 
swimming individuals being present. The colony floats on the surface 
of the water, often carried by currents and the wind long distances, 
and can sink beneath the surface by compressing the pneumatophore 

• See "Tbe Porpltldae and VelelHdae," by A. AgaRsIs, Mem. Mub. Comp. Zool., 
Vol 8, 1883. 


and driving oat the air or gaa through a pore in its upper side. In 
order to rise to the surface again it fills the pnenmatophore with a self- 
generated gas. The suhorder contains 30 species grouped in 5 families. 
With the aboTe-deacribed characters : 4 genera and 10 species. 

Phtsaua Lamarck. Pnenmatophore 
with a dorsal crest with transverse septa: 
4 species. 

F. pelaglca Bobc. Portoguese man-of- 
war (Fig. 207). Pneumatophore up to 12 
cm. long, pear-shaped with iridescent col- 
ors; tentacles long, sometimes stretching 
10 or 16 meters, and with powerfnl stinpng 
organs: in the Qnlf Stream from Florida 
to TiDe<rard Sonnd and occasionally to the 
Bay of Fundy; often common. 

Suborder 3. PHYSONECTAE. 

Siphonophores with a pnenmatophore 

with a long trunk or axis from which hnd 

off nectophores and successive similar 

groups of individuals, eaeh group containing usually a bract, a gastro- 

zooid, a palp, a tentacle, and a gonozooid: 9 families and about 75 


Two longitudinal rows of alternating nectophores; trunk long, bear- 
ing numerous groups of individuals: 30 species. 

OurvuTA Qnoy and Oaimard (Ntmomia A. Agassiz). Four to 6 
nectophores in each row; individnal groups not all of the same impor- 
tance, there being secondary gronps lacking the gastrozooids between 
the principal groups: several species. 

0. cara (A. Ag.), Length of colony about 11 cm.; Newport and 
Massaohnaetts Bay. 

Sdbordeh 4. CALTCONECTAE. 

Siphonophores with very large swimming individuals (nectophores) 
and without pnenmatophore or palps, the individual groups consisting 
each of a nutritive and one or more reproductive individuals, a covering 
bract, and a short tentacle. The colony swims rapidly, in contrast to 
most siphonophores, being partly sustained l^ a drop of colored oil 
present in each neetophore : 5 families and 96 species. 


TwD aeetophores present: ID geners and abont 35 speoiM. 

DlFUXa Cuvier. Neetophom conical and very large; the remain- 
der of colony can be retracted into a groove in the neotoi^ores and is 
constantly being shortened by the breabing off of 
the terminal and oldest gronpe of individuala, eaoh 
group (which is called an Budoxia) thus separated 
leading on independent life and becoming sexually 
mature: 6 species. 

D. bipartite Coeta (Fig. 208). Total length 30 
mm. ; length of the nectophores 10 mm. ; body trans* 
parent: tropical and subtropical Atlantic; Mediter- 
ranean; occasionally on Kew England must; often 
very common. 

These animals have usually an alternation of 
generations, in a few (Pelagia), however, the medu- 
soid generation and in others (iMcemana) the 
hydroid alone being present The medosoid plays pi^, 208 

a much more conspicuous part than the hydroid. oipium Ma«i4t« 
The lattOT is a small, usually non-colonial animal 
called the soyphistoma, which is less than a centimeter in height and 
resembles the fresh-water Hydra in appearance (Fig. 217, A). It differs 
from Hydra, however, in that the aboral end is fixed to the bottom in a 
cnp formed of the perisarc, in the possession o£ four longitudinal folds 
of the entoderm called mesenteries which project into the gastroTaECnlar 
space and o£ an ectodermal gnllet. The scyphistoma is an asexual 
animal and reproduces by budding exclusively. New scyphistomas may 
be produced by a process of lateral budding from stolons sent off from 
the foot. The medusoid generation is produced by a process of terminal 
budding called strobilation (IV- 2I7,B). The scyphistoma grows in 
height and a series of constrictions appear which divide it into a number 
of discs. Each disc is called an epbyra (Fig. 217, C) and is a young 
medusa or jellyfish, which on becoming free grows in time to be a sexual 

The medusa which is tfaus produced is oftoi a large animal; Cyanea 
may be two meters and more in diameter with tentacles thirty-flve 
meters or more long. It is called acraspedote because the vclom, which 
is go characteristic of the craspedote Hydromeduaae, is wanting or 
rudimentary. The periphery of the bell is lobed or scalloped and may 
or may not have tentacles. The manubrium is sometimes very long and 


large and extensively branched and in the Rhizostomaia the mouth is 
closed by the coalescence of its sides, small pores remaining through 
which nutriment is taken in. The gastrovascular space is complex in 
form and usually consists of four radial pouches forming a large space 
in the center of the animal and additional radial canals which often 
branch and may be joined at their outer ends by a circular canal. 

The gonads are four in number and -often brightly colored; they 
are specialized portions of the entoderm and appear in the interradii of 
the gastrovascular space. In many si>ecies four large pockets, called the 
subgenital pockets (Fig. 216, S) and probably respiratory in function, 
are present in the subumbrella directly beneath the four gonads. Beside 
each gonad are usually a number of cylindrical mesenterial filaments, 
armed with nettle organs. 

The finer structure of the Scyphozoa is essentially like that of the 
Hydrozoa, The mesoglea is different, however, in that it is much firmer 
and usually cellular. The sense organs are also different, being perhaps 
modified tentacles, and are called tentaculocysts or rhopalia. 

The Scyphozoa are all marine and among the most familiar animals 
along our shores. The class contains 5 orders and about 180 species. 

K^ to the orders of Scyphozoa: 

Ox Body stalked and sessile, there being no medusa stage. • . .1. STAtTBOHEDUSAE 
Ot Free-swimming medusae present 

(x Medusa with distinct constriction about its middle .2. Gobonatab 

6t No such constriction present 

Cx Tentacles present either on the margin or the subumbrella. 
di Medusa cuboidal in shape with 4 long marginal tentacles or groups of 

them 3. Cubomedusas 

dt Medusa with 8 or more tentacles on margin or subumbrella. 

4. Seilsostomeae 
Ct No tentacles on margin or subumbrella 5. Rhizostoicae 


Body conical in shape with aboral surface usually drawn out to 
form a stalk by which it is temporarily attached, representing a sexual 
scyphistoma ; margin with 8 prominent lobes, each with a cluster of short 
knobbed tentacles; without sensory organs but often with maiginal 
adhesive pads (marginal anchors) in the angles between the lobes: 25 
species and 2 families, the animals usually attached to seaweed in 
shallow water. 


Margin with 8 lobes, each with numerous knobbed tentacles; animal 
attaches itself temporarily to algae, along which it crawls : 5 genera. 

* See "Lucernariae and Tbelr AUies," etc., by H. J. Clark, Smithsonian Contrtbw 
to Knowledge, Vol. 23, 1878. 


E^ to the genera of Lucemariidae here described : 

•) AdheaiTe pads abaeut 1. Lucebkiaia 

«, AdbeelTe pads present. 

b. Stalk quadrate 2. HaUCXTStub 

t. Stalk cylindrical 3. HlLIHOCrATHUS 

1. LtrozEKAau O. F. UiiUer. Hai^n&l adhesive pads absent; stalk 
eytindrieal: 8 epeciee, 1 American. 

L. qiudtiGomifl Miill. Height 7 cm.; diameter 5 cm.; color green, 
gray, or reddish; tentacles on each lobe 100 or more: Cape Cod to 
Greenland; Enrope. 

8. HALiOLTsm Clark. Eight 
marginal adhesive pads between 
the lobes; stalk quadrate: spe- 
cies, 2 American. 

H. auricula Clark (Fig. 209). 
Height and diameter 3 em.; color 
variable; tentacles on each lobe 
100 or more: Cape Cod to Green- 
land; Enrope; Alaska. 

H. ulpisx Claric. Height 20 
mm.; diameter 25 mm.; tentacles 
alender, about 70 on each lobe; 
marginal pads yery large and as 

long « the tonUde.: C.p. Cod lo ^ j„,_j,.,„„,„ „„m. Mjm. 
Greenland; Adriatic Sea. 

S. HumooXATKUB ClaA. Ifarginal adhesive pads present; 4 
gaatrogenital pockets present in rabumbrella wall of the gastro vascular 
pouches; stalk cylindrical: 2 species. 

H. Ia(Mi* (Haeekel). Height 3 cm.; diameter 7 nun.; tentacles on 
each lobe 70: Cape Cod to Greenland; rare; Europe. 

Ordeb 2. OOBONATAE. 

Hednsa with a constriction about ite middle; margin in most cases 
with 16 lobes, long tentacles and rhopalia: 5 families and 27 species, 
which are osually found in the open ocean. 


Uarginal lobes 16; tentacles 4 or more; iliopalia 4: 4 genera and 
8 itpecies. 

PisiTETixa Steenstmp. Twelve tentacles; bod; conical; 4 deep 
snl^nital pockets (funnels); gonads horseshoe-shaped: 3 species. 


P. hradntliliift Steen. (Fig. 210). Mednea about S cm. high and 4 
«m. wide; ooLor reddish: Qreenland; Golf Stream; cosmopolitan. 

mg. 210 F1«. 211 

Flc. 210— PeriphvUa hsaeiniUna (Hajer). Pis. 211—Samttho« pmmeUUa <lUyM). 

Family 2. BPHTB0P8IDAE, 

Usually 16 marginal lobes; 9 rhopaUa and 8 or more tentacles: 
3 genera and 11 species. 

1. Navbithos Kblliker. Gonads 8; tentacles 8; marginal lobes 16; 
ectoderm of boll with clusters of small crystals: 6 species. 

K. pnncUU Koll. (Fig. 211). Medusa 10 mm. broad and 4 mm. 
high; mai^nal tentacles stiff: cosmopolitan; Gulf Stream; common. 

S. ZiiwoKX Eschscholtz. Similar to 
Nausithoe but with sac-like gastric pouches : 
2 species. 

L. TOcaicnUta Esehs. (Fig. 212). 
Uedusa cylindrioal or tbimUe-shaped, 13 
mm. high and 16 mm. wide: Gnlf stream; 
often in swarms. 


Body more or lees cuboidal in form, 
with a single interradial tentacle or a 
group of tentacles at each of the 4 comeiB, 
the bases of which are in moat forms 
expanded to form prominent flattened 
structures called pedalia; rhopalia 4, between the tentacles; 4 wide gas- 
tric canals in which aro the plate-like gonads; false velum (velarium) 
present, which together with their enei^tic swimming movements gives 
the animals the appearance of craspedote medusae: 1 family and aboni 
16 species. 

8CTPH0Z0A 129 


With the characters of the order: 6 genera. 

1. Taxota F. Uiiller. Four tentacles, with prominent pedalia; 4 
claBters of gastric cirri: 1 species. 

T. haplonesub F. Uiil. (I^g. 213). Heduan 9 cm. high and 5 cm. in 
diameter; exumbrella covered with wart-like 
etnsters of nematocysts : Loi^ Island Sonnd 
to West Indies. 

2. OHnopSALMira Agaesiz. Four groups 
of about 8 tentacles each, each groap ex- 
tending from the fingers of a palmate peda- 
linm ; fingei^like sacs extending into the cav- 
ity of the hell from near the hase of the 
monabrium : 4 species. 

0. qnadntmuiiiB Ag. Medusa 10 cm. 
high and 14 em. in diameter: North Caro- 
lina and southwards, often common in 
ahaUow water. "»■ ^^^TSI^, ixipbmema 



Konth quadrate, with 4 loog, oral lobes, often folded and frilled; 
marginal tentacles hollow, often very long; rhopalia mai^inal: 3 familiea. 
Key to the families of SemtBoitomeae: 

a, Ver7 loQE msrgliiBl tentacles 1. PELAOIIDAI 

«, No long marginal teotaclee. 

A, Louk tentacles on sabainbrella ; no mai^nala 2. CTAimSAX 

&, Short maniinal tentacles 3. Udubuai 

Fakilt 1. PELAQUDAK 

Large, brightly colored medusae, disc-like 
or hemispherical in form, with wide, simpls, 
radial gastral pouches and no ring canal, and 
very long oral lobes and marginal tentacles: 
6 genera and 18 species. 

1. PzLAftiA Fgron and Leenenr. Eif^t ten- 
tacles and 8 rhopalia; 16 marginal lobes; exum- 
brella covered with warts of nettle cells; devel- 
opment direct, no hydroid stage being present: 
Fl». 2lt—PelagUt ejoiMlto 7 species. 

(Maier). p cyaneU» P6r. and Les. (Fig. 214). Diam- 

eter 5 em.; height 4 cm.: coast of Florida and the Carolinas, oeeasionally 
s £ar north as New EngUnd. 


2. Daottlohztba Agasais. Forty marginal tentaeles; S rfa<^)atia; 
48 margioal lobes: 5 species. 

D. qninqnedirha (Desor). Diameter up to 25 cm.: Long Island 
and Yinej'ard Soanda to the tropics. 

FuoLY 2. CTAm:n>AE. 

Lai^ disc-8hap«d medusae; radial pouches of the gastrovasenlar 
cavitj veiy wide and rami^ing at their distal ends; no ring canal and 
no Bubgenital pouches: 4 genera, con- 
taiDing the lai^est medusae; 6 species. 
Cyamxa P^ron and Lesueur. Eight 
groups of very long tentaeles which ex- 
tend from the subambrella; oral lobes 
very long, wide, and volimunoos, between 
which and the tentacles are the 4 lai^ 
buncbes of gonads which have evagi- 
nated from the gastrovascular cavity; 
8 rhopalia in as many mai^nal indenta- 
FTB. 216-C»«.«. c<^uata ™-. "''^ " ^ species. 
?S^ii'«"XJ'tEe''Sn1i,.?4 Ti 0. capillata (L.) Tar. uctio P4r. and 

" ■ ' Les. (Pig. 215). Disc usually 10 to 60 

cm. in diameter, but specimens 2 m. in 
diameter have been seen with tentacles 40 m. long; color variable, nsualfy 
purpli^ red or brown; the largest jellyfish : conunon from North Carolina 
to Greenland; a li^t-brown variety called C. fulva Agassis occurs in 
Long Island Sonnd, and a bluish-white variety called C, venicolor Ag. off 
tbe Carolina coast 


Badiat eanala nar- 
row and branching, 
forming a complex sys- 
tem with a circular 
canal joining the distal 
ends : 10 genera and 17 ; 

AoBilXA P£ron 
and Lesueur. Oral 
lobes long and rather 
narrow; . mai^inal ten- 
tacles minute; body flat and disc-like; 4 lai^ subgenital pockets; 9 
riiopalia in as many marginal indentations: 5 species. 




a. joung glrabllla ; C, an ephf ra. 

A. ftmita (L.) w. fl»Tidal» fir. and Les. (Pigs. 216 and 217). IKse 
may be 30 em. or more in diameter; color white or blniBb witb pink 
gonads: very common along the entire Atlantic coaat, breeding throngl^ 
out the summer, the scyphis- 
toma stage lasting throughout 
the irinter. 


Mai^nal tentacles absent; 

8 oral lobes very large and much 

bnnehed extend from the cen- 
ter of the subumbrella vith 

sucking pores along their edges 

which take the place of a month, 

the mouth being usaally obliter^ 

ated; oral tentacles border the 

pores: 63 BpecieB, 

1. Stoholofsvb Agassiz. 

Body hemispherical; the fused 

oral lobes form a thick cylinder at the bottom of which are 8 pairs of 

frilled lobea and a central mouth opening; 8 rhopalia: 1 species. 

8. Bwlaacris Ag. 
(Fig. 218). Diameter 
18 em,; color of exum- 
brella brown : from 
Florida to North Caro- 
lina and occasionally to 
the coast of New Eng- 
land; often common. 
S. Bhopilkka 

I Haeckel. Body hemi- 

Bpherieal; 8 separated, 
3- willed oral lob eg 
from which numerous 
club-shaped filaments 
hang: 3 species, one of 
which, R. eseulenta, ia 
the edible jellyflsh of 
China and Japan. 
S. TenUll (Fewkes). Diameter 35 cm.; 8 rhopalia; color yellowish: 

Linig Island Sound to North Carolina and southwards. 

FIff. 218 — Stomotopk%t wtelaaurU (Usyer). 


Class 3. ANTHOZOA. (AcrmozoA.) 

Corals, sea anemones, etc. C(»- 
lenteratea in which the polyp form 
alone is present, no medusa gener* 
ation appearing. The body (Fig. 
219) is itanally cylindrical in form 
and is attached either permanently 
or temporarily at one end, which, 
in the sea bnemones, is called the 
foot or pedal disc. The other and 
flattened end is the oral disc; in its 
center is the month surrounded by 
Fie. 2i9-Di««T»m o( . loDgihidiD.i ^°^°'*' tentacles, which may nnm- 

K??e?2rm'oS?£';'3"i;Sr.U\TS.'»eit.V;; ^'^ fro-n «" to several hund«d. 

5w^;re's.?tTnriV?hri^''c>A'aSr.'ie7.' The mouth is not round, hot an 

i^«™t';f^^ "'"'"'"" """"■"• '■"'^'»= elongated sUt, at one or both ends 
of which is a prominent, ciliated 

groove called the siphonoglyph, through which the genital products may 

reach the outside (Fig. 220). The mouth does not lead directly into the 

gastrovascular space, but into a 

tube lined with ectoderm called the 

gullet which opens into the gastro- ' 

vascular cavity below. This cavity 

is divided into a number of com- 
municating chambers by six or 

more wide longitudinal ridges called ""Z 

the mesenteries, which spring from 

the body wall and project towards 

the center of the cavity; in the *'<> 

upper portion of the body, certain * '' 

of these mesenteries join the body 

wall with the wall of the gullet 

(Fig. 220), thus dividing this part 

of the gaafrovaseular apace into 

small chambers which are continued ^k- S20 — Diagram of a. crota seetlDii 

of an anthoioan throush the gullet 

above m the hollow tentacles, while (Weysae). l, sIphonoBlypli ; 2, gallet; 

. 8, prtmary meaentertes ; 4. sMondary 

m the lower portion of the gastro- mesenterlea ; B, terUarj meaetltenes; 9, 

vascular space the edges of the mes- 
enteries are free. 

Along the free edge of each mesentery is a convoluted thickening, the 
meBentcrial filament, which is of great importance inasmuch as it contains 


the gonads, and also nematocysts^ at its lower end lalso, in many species, , 
are long threads called acontia charged with nematocysts which can be 
protruded from the mouth and also, in some cases, through pores (cin- 
elides) in the body wall. The mesenteries bear the retractor muscles, each 
of which appears as a prominent ridge on one side of it. At the upper end 
of the body is usually a strong sphincter muscle which draws this end 
together and closes the mouth. The body wall consists of the two main 
cell layers and the mesoglea, which contains nucleL The mesenteries are 
composed of mesoglea and entoderm; the important retractor muscles and 
the gonads being thus of entodermal origin, the latter migrating later 
into the mesoglea of the mesenteries where they are found. 

Very characteristic is the skeleton, which most Anthozoa possess. This 
is eomposed either of calcium carbonate or a horn-like substance called 
oeratine, both of which are secreted by the ectoderm and serve to elevate 
the colony in the water, bringing it into a favorable position for main- 
taining itself. 

The Anthozoa are in most cases unisexual. The ova and sperm are 
thrown into the gastrovascular space, where in many cases a portion of 
the development may be carried on. In some sea anemones, the young are 
carried awhile in pits on the side of the body. After a short free life, the 
young animal settles to the bottom, and in most cases becoming fixed, 
develops into the adult animal. Asexual reproduction by budding is veiy 
general and leads to the formation of the colonies which are so character- 
istic of the group. All of the Anthozoa are marine animals and are espe- 
cially numerous in the warmer parts of the world. Corals are of impor- 
tance to man because of the coral reefs, banks, and islands they help to 
form. The only species which have commercial importance are the red 
corals of the Mediterranean and Japan which are used in the manufacture 
of jewelry. The name of the class originated with Ehrenberg, who in 
1831 divided the polyps as then known into two groups, the Anthozoa or 
flower animals and the Bryozoa or moss animals. The class contains 
over 2,000 living and many fossil species, which are grouped in two 

Key to the orders of Anthozoa: 

Oi Eight pinnate tentacles present 1. Alotonabia 

o. Tentacles simple and usually numerous 2. Zoanthakia 

Order 1. ALOTONABIA.* 

Colonial Anthozoa with 8 pinnate tentacles and 8 mesenteries (Fig. 
222, B) . A siphonoglyph is present on but one side of the polyp, or not 
at all. The retractor muscles are all on the same side of the mesen- 

* See "Alcyonaria of Porto Rico/* by C. W. Hargltt and C. R. Rogers, Bull. IT. 
8. Fish. Com., VoL 20, p. 207, 1900. 


teries, that which looks towards the siphonoglyph. The skeleton eon* 
sists of calcium carbonate or ceratine spicules imbedded in the mesoglea, 
but formed by cells of ectodermic origin, which may be fused together in 
the center of the colony so as to form a compact axis: in a few genera 
a skeleton is lacking. The mesoglea, stiffened thus by the spicules, 
together with the outer ectoderm, is called the coenenchym. The polyps 
are seated in depressions in the ccenenchym, into which they can usu- 
ally retract, and are in communication with one another by means of 
entodermal canals (Fig. 222, B). The Alcyonaria are often brightly col- 
ored and phosphorescent and are among the most conspicuous objects in 
the tropical seas. The order contains about 33 families and over 600 living 
species, grouped in 5 suborders. 

Key to the suborders of Alcyonaria here described : 

Oi Colony fixed and stationary. 

hi Polyps rise from a stolon 1. STOLomirERjL 

&i Colony erect. 

Ci Central skeletal axis absent 2. Alctonacea. "^ 

c. Central skeletal axis present 3. Goroonacea "^ 

Os Colony not fixed or stationary 4. Peitnatui^gka ^^ 

Suborder 1. STOLONIFERA. 

Colony consists of independent polyps which rise from a mem- 
branous or ribbon-like stolon ; they are not continuously joined but may 
be united by transverse tubes or plates: 3 families. 


Polyps not joined together except by the creeping stolon from which 
they spring; spicules usually absent: about 15 genera. 

OoKmruLBiELLA Verrill. Upper portion of polyp retractile into the 
rigid lower portion; spicules present: 1 species. 

0. modesta Ver. Pol3rps 6 to 18 mm. high and 3 mm. in diameter; 
color of stolons and lower part of polyps yellow or brown : Casco Bay to 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, from 30 fathoms to deep water. 

Suborder 2. ALCYONACEA. 

Colony usually branching, without central axis; ccBnenchym with 
spicules and usually fleshy: about 10 families and over 100 species. 


Colony simple or branching and more or less massive; polyps elon- 
gate and joined by entodermal canals; ccenenchym with numerous 
spicules: about 12 genera. 

ALOTOimnc L. Colony composed of short, thick lobes and soft or 
leathery; x>olyps long and, with the exception of the outer end with the 


tentacles, entirely bnried in the mass of the ocenenehjmi whieh forms 
the bulk of the colony: numerous species. 

A. camemn Agassiz. Colony yellowish or reddish in color, lobed 
or arborescent and 4 to 10 cm. high: from Long Island Sound to Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, from low water to 80 fathoms. 


Colony more or less dendritic, consisting of a sterile trunk and 
branches bearing polyps; consistency soft and leathery; polyps not 
retractile, with tentacles folded over oral disc when at rest: 10 genera. 

Spovoodss Lesson. Colony massive or dendritic ; spicula in periph- 
ery of polyps so numerous that neither the polyp nor their tentacles 
are retractile; polyp surrounded by giant spicules which project from 
its base beyond the tentacles: 40 species. 

S. portoiicensifl Hargitt. Colony about 45 mm. high, whitish in 
color, densely spinose : near Porto Rico, in 75 fathoms. 

Suborder 3. GORGONACEA. 

Sea fans, sea whips, red coral, etc. Colony usually branching exten- 
sively and with a central skeletal axis, composed of compacted spicules, 
which is either calcareous, horn-like, or composed of calcareous alternating 
with horn-like s^ments; a rind of coenenchym containing spicules covers 
this axis, in which the polyps are imbedded, being joined together by 
entodermal canals: about 11 families and over 250 species. 


Colony erect, branching, with a dense, calcareous axis of fused 
spicules surrounded by canaliferous coenenchym bearing spicules: about 
3 genera. 

CoBALLTinc Lamarck. Red coral. Pol3i>s white in color and re- 
tractile; spicules and axis red; axis thick and longitudinally ridged by 
entodermal canals, very hard, forming the red coral of commerce: about 
a dozen species, in the Mediterranean, eastern Atlantic, and off the coast 
of Japan« 

C. nobile (Pallas) {C. ruhrum Lam.). Colony up to 30 cm. high: in 
the central and western Mediterranean, being fished principally off the 
eoast of Africa and Italy. 

Family 2. GOBGONIIDAE.' 

Colony erect and branched, often in one plane; axis horn-like, occa- 
sionally horn-like and calcareous; polyps occur in rows and on two sides 
only of the stem and branches: 12 genera. 


Ooieoxu L. Colony arborescent, often fan-shaped, the branohes 
being in the same plane and often anaatomosing bo as to form a network; 
polyps retractile: uomerous species. 

a. flabeUtun L. Sea fan (Fig. 221). 
Colony a network with meshes 2 to 6 mm. 
wide, yellowidi or reddish in color and ap to 
50 cm. high and wide: Sooth Atlantio and 
West Indies, in shallow water. 

O. acerosa Pallas. Colony dendritic, 
with long, slender branches, the smaUer 
branches being arranged pinnately, tip to 80 
cm. hig^, straw-colored : Weet Indies, in shal- 
low water. 

Omv<miafiab«aii» Colony branched and erect, with the 

polyps scattered over entire surface; axis 
hom-Iike or horn-like and calcareons; ctenenchym thick; polyps rather 
large and projecting: 10 genera. 

1. EnnosA Lamouroox (Fig. 222). Colony arborescent; tmnks 
cylindrical; polyp edges bil"**^ -"• -«""»»■ 
axis horn-like: numerous sj 

'. A. (Hlrsitt) entire eolonr: B, (Cbnter) croM nctic 
.. eipaoded polyp ; S, longltudlDal Kctlon ol polyp ; S, ci 
ncted polyp 1 4, ceutnl siIb ; C, entoderm^ cftUO. 


E. cruw Edwards and Haime. Caloiiy np to 60 «m. high and baU 
as broad; diameter of trunks 8 to 15 cm.; ccBnencbym thick, corky: 
West Indies. 

S. PLKzauxBiJ.& Kiilliker. Colony arborescent; trunks cylindrical; 
axis bom-like and calcareous; cup edges smooth; ccenencbyin usually 
vei; thick. 

P. dichotonu Dana. Stem 12 to 20 mm. thick; brancbes smooth, 
club-shaped; color brownish: West Indies; very common. 

Sdbohdeb 4. PENNATULACEA.* 

Sea pens and sea feathers. Colony not fixed, but capable of inde- 
pendent movement and consistii^ of two parts, a stalk which is im- 
bedded in sand or mnd, and an npper part called the rachis, which bears 
tbe polyps and may have the fonn of a feather, a rod, a broad plate; a 
central calcareous or horn-like axis usually present ; outer layer of mesoglea 
permeated with spicules forming a crust; polyps 
large and in communication with one another by 
entodermie canab and dimorphic, the autozooids 
being of ordinary structure, the smaller siphono- 
zooids having no tentacles or gonads and reduced 
mesenteries and serving for the infiow and outflow 
of water through the entodennal canals : 15 families 
and over 200 species. 


Sea feathers. Rachis elongate with paired lat- 
eral branches or pinnulae; siphonozooids confined 
to lower side of rachis : about 4 genera. 

PxnATXTLA Lamarck. Pinnnlae long, trom 20 
to 50 in number on each side, bearing the autozooids 
on their upper margin: several species. 

F. acnleato Danielsen (Fig. 223). Length 10 
em.; rachis with nnmerous spines among the sipho- 
nozooids; color deep red, stalk rose-colored, becom- ^^- '^^ 
ing whitisb at the base: Gulf of St Lawrence to ^"^vt^rtuj*'""'" 
Carolina, in 100 to 500 fathoms; common; Europe. 

P. grtadlis (Ellis) {P. boreali» Sars). Lei^h op to 60 cm.; color 
orange; breadth 14 cm.: Newfoondland to Nantneket, in 100 to 600 

• See "Die PeanatQUaeo," br A. KSIUker, rraoktort, 1870. 


Sea pens. Stalk short and thicker than the quadrangular rachis 
which b long and slender and b«ars the autozooids in oblique rows; 
sntozooids retractile; aiphonozooids confined to lower side of rachia: 
1 genus. 

FmnoULDlA Lam&rck. With the charactera of the family : 2 species. 

F. armata Verrill. Let^h up to 60 em.; auto- 

zooidB deep purple; rachia yeUowish below and 

brownish above: Newfoundland to Nantucket, in 

100 to 400 fathoms. 

Fault 3. BENHXIBAB. 

Rachis broad and circular or reniform, with 
the poljps confined to the ui^r surface; no axial 
skeleton: 1 genus. 
Ranua rtntformit EzmiXA Lamarck. With the characters of the 

(CambH^^Satnral family: 10 species. 

B. renifoimis (Pallas) (Fig. 224). Upper part 
pink or violet in color, polyps white; 7 cm. long: on the Carolina coast, 
in shallow water; West Indies. 


Stony corals and sea anemones. Anthosoa, often of large size, moat 
of which secrete a stony or horn-like skeleton. The tentacles are usually 
simple (in the Australian sea anemone, Actinodettdrort, branched) and may 
number from six to several hondred. 

The mesenteries (Fig. 220) are usually Dumerous, consisting of six 
primary pairs (protocnemea) which alone are present in the most primi- 
tive forms, and numerous secondary mesenteries (metacnemee) which 
are usually unilateral, that is, in pairs, both members of which are on tbe 
same side of the gullet, and arise in series, the younger and smaller pairs 
appearing between the older and larger ones. The gullet is joined with 
the body wall by all of the protocnemes (except in Edwardsia) and usnallj 
by certain of the metacnemes, the two pairs of protocnemes which join 
the siphonoglyphs with the body wall being called the direetives. The order 
contuns 1,600 species, grouped in three suborders. 

Key to the suborders of Zoantharia: 
a, SkeletoD present ; antmalB mostly colonial. 

6, Skeleton hom-Uke 1. AvrtPATBAXU.^^ 

b. Skeleton calcareooa S. HADBErosAau. - 

a. No skeleton: animala moetl; solitary 2. AOTiRuaiAi^ 



Black corals. Colonial Zoantharia having the appearance of alcyona- 
liansy with a hlack, horn-like central axis and a thin CGsnenchym in which 
are no spicules; polyps usually with 6 tentacles and 6 mesenteries: 3 
families with about 100 species, most of which live in the deep sea. 


Colonies composed of long, slender stalks and branches; polyps 
with 6 tentacles, 6 primary mesenteries, and with or without 4 or 6 
secondary mesenteries; axis beset with spines and with a central canal: 
about 30 species. 

1. AvnPATHza Palla& Colony branching; axis with long, numer- 
ous spines: about 15 species. 

A. lariz Esper. Colony up to 1 m. high and comx>osed of a few 
long main stalks each bearing 6 longitudinal rows of parallel branches 
from 3 to 10 cm. long: West Indies; Mediterranean. 

2. CzKSiPATEES Blainville. Colony not branched but consisting of 
a simple long and flexible and often spiral stalk: several species. 

C. spiralis (L.). Colony <a meter or more long and spiral: West 
Indies; Mediterranean; Indian Ocean. 


Sea anemones. Skeleton not present; animals usually solitary; 
often very brightly colored and of large size, occurring in all parts of 
.the world, in all depths of water; the animals usually attach themselves 
' temporarily to some more or less stationary object by the broad sucker- 
like foot, but can usually move about slowly; some live in the sand and 
a few are free-swimming: about 400 species, grouped in 4 divisions. 
Key to the divisions of Actiniaria: 

Ox Eight longitudinal ridges on the outer surface of the body. . . .1. Edwabdsiab 
Os At least 12 ridges or none at all. 
hx But 2 rows of tentacles, an outer marginal and an inner. .2. Cbbiantheab 
ht Tentacles not in tw.o rows. 

Ci Animals colonial 3. Zoantheae 

0t Animals solitary 4. Hbxactiniab 

Division 1. EDWABD8IAE. 

Solitary sea anemones, small and slender, usually imbedded in the 
sand, the foot being pointed for burrowing; with 14 to 48 tentacles and 

• "Report of the Actinia," etc., by J. P. McMurrich. Proc. XJ. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 
16, p. 119, 1893. "Synopsis of North American Invertebrates, The Actiniaria,'* by 
G. H. Parker, Am. Nat., Vol. 34, p. 747, 1900. "The Actinians of Porto Rico^*' 
by J. B. Duerden, BulL XJ. S. Fish. Com., Vol. 20, p. 323, 1900. 



8 meBenteries (protocnemes), 2 additional pairs of mdimentary protoe- 

nemes and a few small metacnemes being also present; outer surface 

characterized by 8 longitudinal ridges and often incrusted with sand 

and other foreign substances: 4 genera and about 20 species. 

1. Edwabosia Quatrefages. Form slender, prismatic; tentacles 16 

or less in 2 circles of 8 each, of which the outer circle is the larger; 

2 siphonoglyphs : several species. 

S. elegans Yerrill. Number of tentacles 16; length 25 nmL: north 

of Cape Cody in shallow water. 

£. leidyi Yer. Number of tentacles 16; length 

30 mm.; diameter 1.5 mm.; parasitic in Mnemiopsis 

leidyi: Vineyard Sound and southwards; common. 

2. Sdwabobzslla Andres. Form cylindrical; 

tentacles more than 16, usually at least 24, of which 

8 are in the outer row: several species. 

S. lineata YerrilL Number of tentacles 18 to 30; 

length 25 to 35 mm.; diameter 3 mm.; color brown: 

from Yineyard Sound southwards, in 4 to 12 fathoms; 

common among worm tubes, rocks, etc. 

S. sipunculoides Stimpson (Fig. 225). Tentacles 

Fig. 225 20 to 36; length 12 cm. extended; diameter 4 mm.; 

Bdwardtieiia color brown : Cape Cod and northwards, in shallow 

(Torrey). water. 

Division 2. OERIANTHEAB. 

Solitary sea anemones, long and slender, usually imbedded in sand 
or mud, with numerous tentacles in 2 rows, an outer, marginal, and an 
inner, circumoral row, and with numerous mesenteries; retractor and 
sphincter muscles weak or wanting in the adult, ectodermal muscles 
acting as retractors; but 1 siphonoglyph present; ectoderm with nu- 
merous gland and nettle cells which discharge sufficient mucus and 
nematocysts to form a long tube in which the animal lives: several 
genera with about 20 species. 

OsBiAHTHire Delle Chiaje. Lower end rounded and provided with 
a terminal pore: 2 species on the Atlantic and 3 on the Pacific 

C. americanuB* Yerrill. Marginal tentacles up to 125 or more; 
length of body up to 60 cm. extended; diameter 25 mm.; color brown: 
Cape Cod to Florida, in shallow water. 

* Bee "The Strnctnre of Cerlanthos americanns,*' by J. P. McMurrlch, J<rar. 
Morph., Vol. 4, p. 131» 1890. 


0. iK^eallB' T«r. (Fig. 226). Tentaelea very nnmeroas; length of 
tN>dy op to 45 cm. extended; diameter 4 cm.: Long leUnd Sonnd to Bay 
of Fmidy, in 7 to 150 fathoms; veij rare 

sonth of Cape Cod. 


Usnally colonial sea anemones Bpringing 
from an incrnsting or atolon-like base; ten- 
tacles numerous, in 1 or 2 rows ; mesenteries 
with a characteristic arrat^ment ; 1 sipbono- 
glypb present: about 8 genera and over 75 
species, many of which are epizoio in habit, 
being inemsted on hermit crabs, sponges, 
hydroids, etc.; several genera. p^ 2^^ 

1. ZoAMTBUS Cuvier. Polyps clavifonn certatHKat borwHi 
or cylindrical, eloi^ate, asnaUy rising singly (Kingalej). 

from a network of stolons, and with no foreign bodies inemsted in their 
outer surface : numerons species, 

Z. sodatna (Ellis). Polyps about 17 mm. high, springing from 
stolons or rarely an incrnsting membrane, or from one anotber; tentacles 
48 to 60: West Indies. 

8. EPUOAJiTBirB Qray. Surface of body inemsted with sand and 
other foreign bodies; coUmy consists of several individuals rising from 
a merobrane-Uke base which may cover a variety 
of living or non-living objects. 

E, amerlcanns Verrill (Fig. 227). Tentacles 
38 or more; height of polyp 25 mm.: attached to 
stones or to hermit crabs in 20 to 400 fathoms, 
from New Jersey to Gulf of Saint Lawrence. 


Solitary sea anemones, often of large size, 
with 6 paiia of mesenteries in the simplest forma, 
and approximate multiples of 6 in the higjier ones, with osnally 2 siphon- 
oglypbs and a large number of tentacles; the animals osnally fasten 
themselves temporarily to rocks, etc., by the flat foot, which acta like a 
sucker, and can move slowly from place to place : abont 300 species. 

J l.a. KlagUej, TnfU Coltef* 


Key to the families of Hexactiniae here described: 

0, Pedal dUc nbacnt ; UBuall; sand dweUen 1. Haloahpidac 

«, Pedal dioc present. 
(i Acontia absent. 

C Bod; tuberculated. 2. Bonodidae 

o. Body not tnbercnUted 8. Pabaotioab 

It Acontia preaent 1- Saoabtiidax 

Fauily 1. HALCAHPIDA£. 

Pedal disc absent, the lower end being ronnded or pointed sod often 
swollen; mesenteries few in niunber, 6 pairs of protocnemes with 4 
to 6 pairs of metacnemes being present; no Special sphincter; tentacles 
12 to 36: about 6 genera. 

1. Haloahfa GoBse. Body long and slender with longitadinal 
grooves and composed of 3 sections, an oral retractile portion, an inter- 

(from Parker). 

mediate portion usually coated with sand, and a pedal portion ; 2 siphono- 
glyphs: several species, which live in sand and mud. 

H. farinaceg Yerrill {Fig. 228). Tentacles 12 in 2 rows; body 
25 mm. long extended and 3 mm. in diameter; color whitish, with 
longitudinal bands of brown; disc yellow: north of Cape Cod, in 8 to 
10 fothoms. 

i. BlOlDlDM Agaasiz. Twelve tentacles in a single row ; month with 
a proboscis (conchula): several species. 

B. paraaiticnm Ag. (Fig. 229). Body 30 mm. long extended and 
6 mm. thick : parasitic on Cyanea, fixing itself by the month on the manu- 
brium, subnmbrella, or in the gastrovascular cavity; also in the sand: 
Cape Cod to Bay of Fandy. 

3. Eloaotis Andres. Body slender and very contractile; tentacles 
abort and blunt or capitate and in two rows: 5 species. 

E. piodncta And. (Fig. 230). Tentacles 20; body with 20 longita- 
dinal ridges, 25 cm. long extended; diameter 16 mm.; color whitish or 
salmon : Sonth Carolina to Cape Cod, bnried m the sand or on the noder 
side of stones io shallow water. 


Family 2. BUNODIDAB. 

Body often of Ui%e size, with a strong entodennsl sphincter and 
nBoall; a tuberculated outer Borfaee; about 10 genera. 

1. BiniosES Gosse. Outer surface with loDgitndinal rows of tnber^ 
cles; tentacles rather short, retractile: 15 species. 

B. atsUa Verrill (Fig. 231). Body 50 nun. high; oral disc 35 mm. 
wide; tentacles 48 to 72: north of Cape Cod, in shallow water. 

2. Avi^AomiiA Verrill. Oater surface with longitudinal rows of 
tubercles on upper half; lower half smooth: several species. 

A. capitate Ver. Body 15 cm. high and 35 mm. in diameter; ten- 
tacles 06 in 4 circles: North Carolina to Florida, in shallow water. 

3. ErtAOTU Verrill. Outer surface of body with a band of tigg 
pits around its middle: 1 species. 

E. pn^flTft Ver. (Fig. 232). Height 10 mm.; diameter 12 mm.; 

tentacles about 96; egg pits as many as 30 or 40: Paeifie coast from 
Pnget Sound to San Francisco. 

4. Tbaua Gosse. Outer surface with scattered tubercles; body 
short and thick and more or less covered with sand, bits of shell, etc.; 
tentacles short and thick : several species. 

T. crassicomifl (0. F. Muller) (Fig. 233). Height 5 cm.; diameter 
12 em.; tentacles 160; color reddish with gray tubercles: northern seas, 
extending southward to Puget Sound and Cape Cod, in 14 to 40 fathoms; 

r.&itiLT 3. PAltACTIDAE- 

Anemones with a strong sphincter and a smooth outer surface : about 
10 genera. 

1. PAXAOTja Uilne-Edwards. Body with longitudinal grooves; ten< 
taeles slender, not very numerous, and all of equal length: several 

P. raplfoimla (I^esson) (Fig. 234). Body SO mm. high extended, 
and 25 mm. in diameter; surface nearly smooth, pinkish in color; pedal 


disc small; tentacles short: buried in the sand near low water mark; from 

Cape Cod to Hatteras; Europe. 



Anemones with a sphincter and with acontia; cinclides usually present; 
tentacles usually numerous: 20 genera. 

1. SA0ABTXA Gosse. Outer surface smooth; oral disc not lobed; 
cinclides present; tentacles in 3 or 4 cycles and retractile: many species. 

S. luciae Yerrill. Body 8 mm. high^ 6 mm. in diameter, olive green 
in color, with about 12 longitudinal orange stripes; 84 tentacles in 4 rows: 
very common on stones and shells in tide pools; Long Island Sound to 
Massachusetts Bay and farther north. 

S. lencolena Yer. Body elongate, 6 cm. long extended, 10 mm. in 
diameter, with a translucent flesh color; tentacles 96, in 4 rows: common 

Fig. 234 Fig. 235 Fig. 236 

Fig. 23^— ParaetiB rapifprmis (from Parker). Fig. 280 — Saaartia tMdeBta (from 
Parker). Fig. 236— IfetrMiitm dianlhus (from Parker). 

under stones and in the sand in shallow water from North Carolina to 
Cape Cod. 

S. modesta Yer. (Fig. 235). Height 6 cm.; diameter 15 mm.; color 
yellowish; tentacles 60: buried to the tentacles in sand; Long Island and 
Yineyard Sounds. 

2. METRmiTnc Oken (Actinoioha Blainville). Outer surface smooth; 
pedal disc broad; oral disc lobed; cinclides present; tentacles very 
numerous and short: several species. 

M. dianthns (Ellis) (M. marginatum Lesson) (Fig. 236). Length up 
to 10 cm., width 7 cm.; color variable, but usually brownish or yellow- 
ish : the largest and one of the commonest sea anemones on the Atlantic 
coast; New Jersey to Labrador, from low-water mark to 90 fathoms; 
Pacific coast; Europe. 

3. Adaxbxa Forbes. Pedal disc adherent, the animals fixing themr 
selves to the shells of hermit crabs or to crustaceans; a band of cindidial 
tubercles around the base of the column, the rest of which is smooth. 

A. tricolor Lesson. Height 75 mm. ; diameter 45 mm. ; tentacles 500 
or more in laige individuals : on hermit crabs; North Carolina to Florida, 
in shallow water. 



The stony corals. The poljrps are either solitary or colonial, and 
s«orete from the ectodenu a very hard, ealcareoiu skeleton (Fig. 237). 
This nsnally takes tbe fonn in each case o£ a cnp into which the polyp 
or zooid can retract itself and wbicb consists esaentially of a system of 
radial vertical plates or septa projecting into the interior of the polypj 
bat always covered with the three layers of the body wall and alternating, 
in a general way, with the mesenteries (Fig. 238). The outer edges of 
these stony septa nsnally join an outer wall called the theca, which is 
the onter part of the cap in which tbe polyp sits. In the middle of the 
cap is often a central column (colomella). As tbe polyps grow, tbey 
constantly bnild np the theca and the septa, withdrawing from the 

Sig. 237 Fig. 3S8 

Vtg. 837 — Dtlgnmof ■ coral colon; (Boai). 1, eitended coral poljrp: 2, retraeted 
coral polyp ; S, loogltgdlail wcUon of a coral polyp ; 4, caleareons cup from wblcb the 
poljp tuia beep removed: S. eolamell* ; 6, lepu: 7, tbeca ; 8. Ubolae. Fig. 288 — 
Crosfl Bertiod of a coral, the stoay Bkeletooa belns black tBoas). 1, uptum ; 2, mewD- 
tery ; 3, tbeca. 

deeper portions, which may become cat ofF by horizontal partitions — 
the tabnlae. The colonies increase in size by growth and bnddlng of 
the polyps, producing, in this way, the coral reefs which are such an 
important feature of tropical seas. All the reef-forming corals live in 
ahallow water, 300 feet being the majcimnm depth in which they are 

Tbe suborder contains over 1,000 species, grouped in 3 divisions. 
Most of the species are found in tropical or subtropical waters, a few, 
however, oeeurring in temperate and even in Arctic seas. 
Key to tbe divisions of Madreporaria: 

a. Coral porous ; septa not more than 12 1. PKBT0K4Ta 

Oi Coral solid ; septa usnall; oumerous. 

bt Septa withoDt cross bars 2. Afobosa 

ft. Septa with croes bars 3. Funoaoka 

• 8«e "Tbe Florida Reefs," by L. F. Poartal^E, Bull. Comp. Zool., Tot. 6, p. 102, 
1880. "The TortusM iDd Florida Reefi," by A. AgiHrii, Hem. Am. Acad., Vol. 2, 
18S2. "The 8tODy Corals of the Porto Rlcan Watew," by T. W. Tansban, BnlL 
C. ft Fish. Com., Vol. 20, Pt 2, p. 281, IBOO. 



Corals whoUj or partly porous or reticulate; zooida amall with Dot 
more than 12 septa (Fig. 239), which are Bometimes indistinet : 2 
families, which include many important 
reef-building corals. 

Colony usually branched, the eoral 
being porous and containing canak con- 
necting the polyps, which are usually small 
and crowded; mesenteries in bilateral pairs; 
enp small, deep, without columella and with 
6 or 12 septs: about 8 genera and over 160 

Fix. 339 — Cnps of Porttea 

AoaoPOKA L. (Madrepora L.). Colon; 
branched, being either flabellate, radiate or 
thick and little branched except towards the periphery; zooida project- 
ing; terminal polyps with 6, lateral polyps with 12 tentaclee; color 
usually due to symbiotic algae: many species, in most tropical seas; 1 
species in the West Indies. 

A. mnrlcata L. Colony lai^ (1 m. by 50 cm.], and usually spread- 
ing, with 3 common varieties; A. cervtcomis Lamarck, which is loosely 
branched, A. proUfera I^m. (Fig. 240), in which 
the branches are more crowded and often fused 
together, and A. palmata Lam., made up of largo 
£an-shaped masses: West Indies and Florida. 


Colony with & variety of forms, nsnally iOr 
emsting and massive, often forming thick 
branches, bnt rarely dendritic; zooids small and 
elose tt^ther; coral porous and made up of a 
system of trabecnlae and cross bars: aboat 12 
genera and 100 species, many of which are reef- 

PoBiTBS* Lamarck. Cup with about 12 
Bfaort septa; columella present but often indistinct: many species, 2 
West Indian; often forming very large colonies. 

P. poritos (Pallas). Colony more or less branching, there being 
3 well-marked varieties; P. clavaria Lam., consisting of very thiek 

r a. ECatbbiiD, Pcoc. V. B. Nat Uu., Vol l<t, 


npri^t branefaes; P. furcata Lam. (Fig. 241), to irtiich the branohea 
are slender, and P. divaricata LeaQenr, in which the branehes are quite 

Fl8. 242 

writM (VUKbU). Fig. 242— OeaNM 
tfiaa). A, the entire MloDT : B, I (liisl* 

- slender (6 mm. in diameter, or less) and spreading: West Indies and 

P. astTMides Lam. Colony not branching, but more or lees globoBe> 
often vith thick lobes: West Indies and Florida. 

Division 2. AFOSOSA. 
Coral solid ; cup with usually nomeroos septa (Fig. 242, B) : abont 10 

Key to the families of Aporosa here described : 

a, Hofltt; BolitaiT corals 1. TuBSiNouiDAa 

a. Colonial corals. 

fti Zooids Dot coDtiKHoas 2. OctnJKIIUB 

b, Zooida close together or cooflaent 3. Astbeouk 


Mostly solitary corals, with nnraeroue septa and without a true 
theea, imbedded in the sand or attached to some object: about 50 genen 
and several hundred species, of which the greater number are fossil, 

FXiABSLLini Lesson. Coral solitary, flattened more or less, tapering 
towards the base, which is attached in youth but may become detached 
later: over 50 specie*, 

F. goodel Verrijl, Height up to 80 mm.; greater diameter 12 cm,, 
lesser 43 mm.; color in life salmon with brown stripes; a very fragile 
coral : Hewfoondland to Florida, in 200 to 500 fathoms. 
Familt a. OCULINIDAE. 

Colony usually dendritic, with large zooids more or less widely m^ 
anted from one another; coral compact with 12 to 48 distinct septa and 
QBually B columella: about 22 genera. 

OonmiA Lamarck. Colony dendritic with spirally arranged zooida: 
many spedee. 


O. diffusa Lftm. (Fig. 242). Colony ver; mnch branclied, the 

branches forming an angle of about 30° ; cnps 3 mm. in diameter: North 

Carolina to Florida, often common in shallow water. 

P iHTT. T 3. ASTR£n>AE. 

nsnall; colonial corals with the zooids so crowded that there t> 

little or no space between them, and in some cases being conflnenk; 

oolony compact and massive or erect; a few species are solitary: hon- 

dreds of genera and species, bo- 

ing the largest family of corals. 

1. AsTBXHBiA Edwards and 

Haime. Colony incrusting, the 

zooids being distinct and more 

or less isolated, with 6 septa of 

the 1st cycle, 6 smaller ones of 

the 2nd, and incomplete 3rd and 

4th cycles: 4 American species. 

A. danae Agassiz (Fig. 243). Colony small, containing from 6 to 

SO iodividnals, incrusted on stones, shells, etc., np to 10 cm. in diameter 

and 6 cm. high: Florida to Cape Cod, in shallow water; common. 

2. Okbioella Dana. Colony usnally massive with sooids distinot 
and separated by deep concave spaces: numerous species. 

Slg.243 — ^tnmipla ihwuMi (from DsTeuport). 

O. annularis (Lamarck) (Fig. 244). Colony ^obose; cnps 2 mm. 
in diameter with 12 septa of the first and 12 of the seCMid order: Florida 
and the West Indies. 

3. Ueakskiha Lamarck. Zooids conflnent; tentacles, mesenteries, 
and septa arranged in rows; the mouths of the polyps distinct: nomerons 

U. meaadriteB (L.) (Fig. 245). Colony 4 to 8 cm. or more long 
and half as broad with a single large main groove and large septa; 
columella present: West Indies and Florida. 


K. ainnOM Leeaeor {Platygyra viridxa Les.) (Fig. 246). Brain- 
eoral. Colony mcrasting and m&saive, 25 cm. in diameter or more; 
surface made 
npof namerODS 
flinaoDa ridgfl% 
which are the 
septa, and 
groovee: West 
Indies and 

DmsioiT 3. 

Solitary or 
colonial corals 
in which the 
septa are join- 
ed by cross 
bars or eynap- 

ticnla: 5 f&mi- 

Flg. E46 — Ucondrlna »inuota (Tanghfto). 



Coral solitary or colonial, with additional ridges (dissepiments) 
on the inner wall of the cap between the septa: about 15 genera. 


Blainville. Colony with 
distinct zooids, crowded 
and more or less polyg- 
onal, and forming 
ronnded, nnbrancbed 

8. radians (Pal- 
las). Cups about 3 mm. 
by 2 mm., rounded, with 
the fourth cycle of septa 
incomplete : West Indies. 

». „., ™ ,. . S. sideifla (Ellis 

Tig. Z4T — Sldvrottrea tiderea (Vaushau). 

and Solander) (Fig. 

247). Cops about 5 mm. by 4.5 mm., aubhexagonal, with 4 complete cycles 

of septa: West Indies. 

• Bee "The Coral Sideraitnea," by J. B. DnerdeD, Poh. Cam. Init., No, 20, 1M4. 


Family 2. FUNGIIDAE. (Mushsoom Coral,) 

Coral solitaiy or colonial, often of large size, flat and disc-like in shape 
with numerous septa; the living disc covers the septa and from its surface 
rise veiy numerous tentacles; the embryo gives rise to a conical coral called 
a trophozooidy the upper part of which expands, breaks off, and becomes 
the adult coral, a process which may repeat itself a number of times: 
about 12 genera. 

FxnroiA Dana. Coral solitary and of large size, convex on the 
upper and concave on the lower side; without siphonoglyph : numerous 
species, 1 American. 

F. elegans Verrill. Coral round and thick, about 6 cm. in diameter: 
Gulf of California. 


Very soft and delicate jellyfishes which live mostly in the surface 
waters of the sea. The body is usually more or less spherical, pear-shaped 
or cylindrical in shape, and is both radially and bilaterally symmetrical. 
Its outer surface is without hard skeletal structures and bears eight 
longitudinal bands of cilia, which are the characteristic ''combs" 
(Fig. 240) and the organs of locomotion. Each of these bands is com- 
posed of a series of transverse plates formed by the fusion of long cilia. 
The animal has an oral and an aboral end which are opposite each other. 
At the former is the mouth, an elongated slit which leads into a deep 
flattened cavity lined with ectoderm, called the stomach. It is into this 
space that the food is taken and digested. At the aboral end of the 
body is a slight cavity which is connected with the eight bands of cilia 
by four ciliated grooves, and in which are calcareous concretions and 
sensory cells. The sense organ thus formed is called the statocyst and 
is an organ of equilibration. 

Many ctenophores have a pair of long retractile tentacles which 
project from a pair of deep pockets in opposite sides of the body (Fig. 
249). These tentacles have short branches or pinnae and their ectoderm 
is provided with numerous peculiar adhesive cells which aid in cap- 
turing and killing the prey ; they are very retractile, and can be wholly 
or partially withdrawn into the pockets. Other tentacles and projec- 
tions are also present in certain species. ^ 

* See "Ctenophorae/* by L. AgasslE, ContribntlonB to the Nataral History of 
the United States, Vol. 3, p. 156, 1860. "Die Ctenophoren des Oolfes v. Neapel," 
by C. Chun, Fauna u. Flora d. Golfes v. Neapel, Vol. 4, 1880. "The Ctenophores of the 
San Diego Region,** by H. B. Torrey, Univ. of Cal. Pub.. Vol. 2, p. 45. 1904. "Cteno- 
phores of the Atlantic Coast of North America.*' by A. O. Mayer, 1911. 


It Till be seen that a longitudinal plane passed throngh the body 
which ineladea the mouth aiid atomach divides the body into two sym- 
metrical halves; a transverse plane, od the other hand, reveals a radial 
typ« of stmcture. 

The gastrovaBColar space consiBta of a complex system of narrow 
tabes (Fig. 248) lined with entoderm which join the inner end of the 
stomach, and communicate with the outside abo 
by means of either one or two pores at the aboral 
end of the body. Eight of these tubes which lie 
immediately beneath the eight longitudinat bands 
of cilia form the most important part of the sys- 
tem. The space between these gastro vascular tubes 
and the outer ectoderm ie Slled with the soft jelly- 
like me^enchyne which differs from the mesoglea 
of the other ccelenterates in that it arises aa the 
reenlt of the proliferation of definite cells during 
the early development of the animal; in it are 
nuclei and muscle fibers. 

All ctenophores are hermaphroditic, the gonads of"^'t"o^ph^r^^" 
consisting of a pair of bands, one male and the 'isfareri.'i,''«bor«flnd 
other female, which lie aide by side against the jVuiliMl"''cSnkl»'i"'3i 
outer wall of the main longitudinal canals of the m'outh"^6,'Btom«cri. *' 
gastro vascular space, the genital products reaching 

the oater sea water through the mouth. The young animal passes 
through s complex metamorphosis before reaching the adult condition; 
but there is no alternation of generations. Certain genera may exhibit 
ptedogenesis, reproducing in the larval stage, and again as adults. 

Ctenophores are common maiine animals, often occurring in enor- 
mous schools. They are noted for tlieir delicacy and beauty, the rapidly 
vibrating combs refracting the light and showing a rapid play of 
changing colors. They arc also often highly phosphorescent at night. 
Their food consists of cniBtaccans, fishes, and other Rmall animab, often 
including their own kind. The subphylum contains two classes and less 
than 100 species, 21 of which occur o£F the Atlantic coast. 

Key to the classes of Ctenophora: 


A pair of long tentacles present, in certain cases in the larval stage 
only, oral lobes being then present in the adult: 3 orders. 


K^ t« the orders of Tentaculata: 

a. Body more or ]es8 globooe or crlindrical. 

bi Louk tentacles preseat 1. CrulPPlDA 

(, No tentacleB in adalt animal; oral lobes present 2. Lobata 

«! Body cwmpreaoed and ribbon-like S. Cibtida 

Order 1. OTDIPPIDA. 

Body epherical or t^lindrical or compreesed id the plane transverse 
to the tentacular a^ds; tentacles very long, on opposite sides of the 
body, springing each from a deep pocket: several families. 
Body spherical or ovoid, with the 8 rihs of eqnal 
length: 4 genera. 

1. Plxitbobbaohia Fleming. Body but very little 
compressed; comhs rather long but not reaching the oral 
or ahoral areas: about 8 species. 

F. pilena (Fabricins) (P. rhododactyla Agassiz; P. 
bachei A. Agassiz) (Fig. 249). Body about 20 mm. long 
and IS mm. wide, and very transparent; tentacles aboat 
16 cm. long and white or rose-colored, with long pinnae : 
from the south side of Long Island to Greenland; breeds 
Tig. 240 in Angost and September; Europe; Pacific coast. 

PimirobraoMa p. bnumea Mayer. Body 12 mm. long, ovoid; stom- 

(Hajer), _ ach of an opaque yellowish-brown color; each tentacle 
C, comba; with a knob-shaped end: coast of New Jersey; rare. 

eocea as In 2. HSBTXVBIA Lesson. Body much compressed, the 

tentacular axis being the wider; the 4 subtentaeular 
combs longer than the 4 snbventral ones: 1 American species. 

U. ovnm (Fabricins). Body about 5 cm. long and ovoid in outline; 
tentacles, combs, and sense organ light pink in color: Arctic Ocean to 
New Jersor; rare south of Cape Cod. 

Order 2. LOBATA. 

Body ovate, compressed in the plane transverse to that of the stom- 
ach; mouth wide, with a lai^ and prominent oral lobe on each side of 
it; at the base of each lobe is a pair of long projections called auricles; 
tentacles of the ordinary kind wanting in the adult, but nomerons, deli- 
cate, fllamentous tentacles may fringe the mai^in of the month and 
the auricles; aboial sense oi^ns sunk in a pit; a larval cydippiform 
stage present, which has a pair of tentacles issoit^ from pockets and 
in certain genera may have sexual reproduction: several families. 

auricle ; 2. oral lobe ; 


Oral lobes of medium size; auricles short: 3 geaettL 
BoLlMoras Agassiz (fiotina Mertens). With the oharacteristica of 

the family; combs not prolonged onto the oral 

lobes: 6 genera. 

B. infnadibnliim (0. F. Miiller) (fi. alata 

Ag.) (Fig. 250). Body up to 15 cm. long, of 

a transparent bluish-white color: from Yine- 

yard Sound to Labrador, often very common 

north of Cape Cod. 

Faiclt 2, UN^!MIIDAE. 
Lobes large, each bounded on each side 
hy a deep lateral furrow which extends to the 
aboral end of the body; auricles long and 
slender: 4 genera. 

liimaOFBlt Agaasiz. Auricles long and 
large; combs prolonged onto the lobes almost to 
their oral ends: 3 species. 

H. Iddyi A. Agassiz (Fig. 251). Body up to 10 cm. Irng and very 

transparent, at night very phosphorescent: Long Island and Vineyard 

Sounds and south to the Carolinas, often in large 

swarms; often parasitized by a sea anemone, 

Edwardaia leidyt. 

H. gardeai Ag. Length 4 cm.; lobes rather 
small and covered with warts ; body translucent or 
bluish in color: Chesapeake Bay to Florida; 

Order 3. 0E8TIDA. 

Body flattened in the plane of the tentacles 
and BO enormously extended in the plane of the 
stomach that it has the shape of a ribbon which 
may be a meter or more long by 8 cm. hi^; 4 of 
the combs (the subtentacular) are very short, the 
ScST ':^rt5*'ioii'; 'a^ other 4 are very long; tentacles more or less rudi- 
mentary, tentacle sheaths deep : 2 genera. 
OlBTira LeeneoT. With the characters of the order: 2 species. 
O. Tsneiis Lee. Yenus' girdle. Body transjiarent, shimmering with 
violet, blue, or green : tropical seas, occasionally brought t« our shores by 
the Gulf Stream, fragments of the animal being occasionally seen on the 
New England eoast 


Class 2. NTTDA. 
Tentacles absent: 1 family. 
Body conical or ovate and com pressed, with a mouth and stomach bo 
Tery wide that the body is much the shape of a compressed thimble; combs 
extend the length of the body; a network 
of canals throughout the body which 
ramify off from thegastrovsacularcanab: 
2 genera with few species; they are cos- 
mopolitan, often occurring in lai^ 
Bwarma, and are noted for their voracity, 
sometimes swallowing other ctenophores 
lai^r than themselves. 

BntOE Browne (Idj/ia Fr^minviUe). 
Body more or less conical or ovoid : abont 
14 species. 

B. orata Chamisso and Eysenhardt 
Body often tapering from the mouth to 
the aboral pole and much compressed, 10 
cm. long, pink in color towards the north, 
milky white towards the south: Chesa- 
peake Bay to Florida; cosmopolitan; 

B. cncTunis Fabrieins (B. roaeola 
ng. 2B2-B«-««««<«u.(M.yer). Agassiz) (Fig. 252). Body 10 cm. long, 
9 cm, wide and 6 cm. thick and rose color: Vineyard Sound to Labrador, 
often very plentiful towards the north. 

VERMES. (The Loweb Wobms.*) 

Worms of primitive stnieture and often of small size, asaally without 
paired locomotory appendages or a distinct head, and with non-metameric 
and often permanently ciliated bodies. The animals are usually sluggish 
of movement and in veiy many cases either sessile or parasitic. 

The Vermes form a polymorphic group of animals, the eight subphyla 
of which do not necessarily bear a close genetic relationship to one another. 
They, however, have many structural features in common and many of 
the classes bear a definite relation to the trochophore larva which justifies 
the placing of them in a common group. This would rank immediately 
beneath the annelids and the other groups in which the trochophore 
represents an ancestral form. 

The class Vermes, as formed by Linnsus, included all invertebrate 
fiTiTinnlg except arthropods. Lamarck divided the invertebrates into several 
classes, of which one was Vermes, including in it both the unsegmented 
and segmented worms. This arrangement, although it has been followed 
by Claus, Hertwig, and other modem authors, is not now usually adopted, 
and the Vermes, when used as the name of a phylum, generally include 
the lower worms alone. 

The phylum contains 8 subphyla. 

Key to the subphyla of Vermes: 

Ox Animals mostly non-burrowing. 
hi Animals mostly locomotory. 
Ci Animals mostly not minute and very often parasitic. 

di Flattened worms ; very many parasitic 1. Plathelmhtthss ' 

d^ Round and thread-like worms; often parasitic. ...2. Nemathelminthes ' 
e. Animals minute and aquatic. 
d^ Crown of cilia at forward end ; animals mostly in fresh water. 

. 3. Tbochelmimthes 

dt No external cilia ; animals marine 7. GHiSTOGNATHA : 

h^ Animals sessile. 

Ci Animals colonial V. . .4. Bbtozoa - 

Ct Animals not colonial. 

dj Animals with a two-valved shell '. . .5. Bbachiopoda " 

d. Animals form tubes 6. Phobonidba 

a. Marine worms which burrow in the sand and mud 8. Sifunculoidba 

* Bee '^Vermes/* by H. Pagenstecher and M. Braun, Bronn's Klassen und 
Ordnmigen des Thierreichs, Band 4. 1893. "Textbook of the Embryology of Inverte- 
bntes, Part I/* by B. Korschelt and K. Heider, translated by B. L. Mark and W. M. 




Flatworms. Flattened or in some cases cylindrical worms of soft 
teztme which are found in the water or in moist earth, or which live as 
parasites in animals or plants. The body is without a distinct head or 
paired Appendages and is not metamerically segmented. A body cavity is 
also wanting in most of them, the spaces between the internal organs being 
secondarily filled with a vesicular connective tissue, called parenchyma. 
The outer surface of the body is either la ciliated epithelium or a thick 
unciliated cuticula and no hard skeletal structures are present except 
chitinous hooks and spines. The mouth is usually in the ventral surface 
in the Turbellaria and at the front end of the body in the other groups, 
and an anus is not present, except in the Nemerteci. A mouth and tm 
alimentary tract are wanting in the tapeworms. The nervous syst^n 
consists of paired cerebral ganglia forming a brain at the forward end 
and nerves extending to various parts of the body. Special sense organs, 
when present, consist of simple eyes, tentacles, or statocysts. The excretory 
system consists of slender tubes extending throughout the parenchyma, 
the final branches of which end in fiame cells. It opens to the outside 
either through a single pore or through several paired pores. No special 
respiratory organs are present, and except in the Nemertea, no circulatory 
organs or blood fiuid. The reproductive organs )are complex, except 
among the Nemertea, hermaphroditism being general. Asexual reproduc- 
tion by budding or fission is common in certain groups. 

J7i9tory.— Certain of the parasitic flatworms have been known from 
time immemorial. Linnsus included all invertebrates except arthropods 
(his Insecta) in the class Vermes, one of the orders of which was the 
Intestina, or worms proper. Cuvier (1798) first called attention to the 
fundamental distinction between the unsegmented and the segmented 
worms, to the former of which Rudolphi (1808) gave the name Entoeoa, 
most of the unsegmented worms as then known being parasites. It was 
this author who, following however 2jeder in his general classifications, 
laid the foundation of pur present classification of paiiasitic worms, of 
which he formed five orders, the roundworms or Nematodes, the Acan- 
thoeephala, the Trematodes, the tapeworms or Cestodes, and the bladder- 
worms or Cystici, F. S. Leuckart and von Baer showed that these groups 
did not necessarily bear a genetic relationship to one another. Vogt in 
1851 first joined the four orders of flatworms to form a class which he 

Woodworth, 1895. "Flatworms and Mesozoa, Nemertliies, Thread-Worms and 8a- 
gitta, Rotifers," etc., Cambridge Natural History, Vol. 2, 1896. "Lea Ver- 
mldiens,** by Delage et H6ronard, Traits de Zool. Concrete, Vol. 5, 1897. "A 
Student's Textbook of Zoology,** Vol. 1, by Adam Sedgwick, 1898. "A Treatise on 
Zoology, Part 4,** edited by B. Bay Lankester, 1901. 


called Platelmia, \diile of the three orders of roundworms he formed the 
elass Nematelmia, an arrangement which is still maintained. 

The subphylum contains 4 classes. 

Key to the classes of Plathelminthes : 

Ox Kg anus; no blood yesseU; animals mostly hermaphroditic, with very 
complex genital orgaiiB. 
bx AnimalB with rare exceptions free-living ; body ciliated externally. 


b, Aniwmla parasitic ; not ciliated externally ; mouth when present at for- 
ward end (with some rare exceptions). 
Oi Intestine and month present; animak small and unsegmented. 

2. TBEUAT0DE8 ' 

Oa Intestine and mouth absent; animals usually long and segmented. 

3. Gestodbs 1 
Oa Anus, anterior proboscis, and blood vessels present; animals mostly 

unisexual and free-living, usually long and bandlike 4. Neioebtea. 


Soft; free-living flatworms, mostly under an inch in leng^, which are 
found either in the water creeping slowly over stones or plants or living 
in moist places on the land. The body is flat in shape and usually elon- 
gate, but in some cases nearly circular. The external surface is ciliated 
and from it is exuded the slimy secretion of numerous glands, in which 
are often contained minute rod-like bodies called rhabdites which are pro- 
duced in certain glandular cells either of the integument or of the paren- 
chyma. A few turbellarians possess functional nettle cells which, however, 
they have acquired from hydrozoans they have eaten, and a few have 
adhesive papillae or suckers. 

No body cavity is present, the spaces between the organs being filled 
with the parenchyma. The mouth (Fig. 263) is usually near the middle of 
the ventral surface but may in the different species vaiy in position from 
the forward to the hinder end. It opens into a muscular phar3aix which 
is usually of large size and one of the most prominent organs in the body : 
it can usually be thrust out of the mouth so as to form a proboscis by 
means of which the animal takes and often digests its food. An intestine 
is not present in the Acala : in the other turbellarians it is either a tubular 
or a branched structure. An anus is not present, fecal matter being dis- 
charged through the mouth: in certain cases, however, the intestinal 

• Bee "Rep. Invert Vine. Sd.," by A. B. VerriU, Rep. U. S. Com. Fish, for 1871 
and 1872. "Beob. fiber die SflBswasser Tarbel. Nordam./' by W. A. Sllliman, Zelt. 
f. wlaa. Zoo!., Vol. 41, p. 48, 1886. "Tnrbellaria," by L. von Oraff, Bronn*B Kl. u. 
Ord., Vol. 4, Abt. 1, Acoela und Rhabdocoellda, 1904-08. "Tnrbellarla," by same. 
"Die SliBswasserfanna Deutscblands,*' 1909. "Verglelchung der Nordamerlkanlacben 
und Enropftlscben Turbellarienfauna," by same, Proc. Sev. Int. Zool. Cong., 1910. 
"Aooda, Rbabdocffila, nnd Alloeoccela des Ostens der Verelnlgten Staaten," ftc, by 
Zelt f. wi8g. ZooL, Vol. 99, p. 321, 1911. 


branches open to the ontside. The excretory system consists of a median 
canal or one to four pairs of longitudinal canals which open to the 
outside through usually paired pores and numerous small canals which 
penetrate the parenchyma in all directions and end in flame cells. The 
nervous system consists of a pair of ventral nerve cords, the anterior 
ends of which are enlarged to form a brain and which are joined by 
numerous transverse commissures. From the brain nerves go to the eyes 
and tentacles, when these organs are present, and also to the sensitive 
anterior end of the body. 

The reproductive organs are very complex, the animals being with 
Hare exceptions hermaphroditic, and differ somewhat in the various groups. 
The genital opening, which is either single or double, is in the ventral 
surface back of the mouth. Most species lay their eggs in capsules 
which are attached to plants or stones. A few reproduce also asexually, 
by transverse fission. 

Habits and Distribution.— 'M.ost turbellarians are aquatic animals, 
living either in fresh or in salt water; only the Terricola are terrestrial. 
The largest aquatic form (Leptoplana gigas) may be 15 cm. in length, 
while the largest land turbellarians (BipaUidae) may be 45 cm. long; the 
smallest forms are of microscopic size. They are with few exceptions 
carnivorous animals, living on small animals of all sorts: a few are 

History. --0, F. Miiller in 1776 first separated the turbellarians and 
nemerteans from the other flatworms and placed them in the genus Pla- 
naria. Ehrenberg in 1831 named the group Turbellaria. In 1851 Yogt 
placed it with the other fiatworms in the class Platelmia. The present 
arrangement of the group is due principally to von Graff and Lang. 
About 1,100 species of turbellarians are known, grouped in 2 subclasses. 

Key to the subclasses of TurbeUaria: 

Hi Minute marine forms without intestine 1. Acoela. 

o. Intestine present 2. Coelata 

Subclass 1. ACCELA.* 

Small, delicate marine turbellarians which fetre found free-swimming 
and also among the rocks and seaweed along the shore. They are often 
brightly colored, and in one genus at least (Convoluta) the pigment is 
due to a symbiotic lalga. No intestine is present, the food, which consists 
of minute animals and plants, being introduced directly into the paren- 
chyma. The mouth is often near the front end of the body, a proboscis 
being often absent. Eyes are usually absent, but a statocyst lies over the 
brain. The reproductive system is simple in structure, in many species 

« Bee "TorbeUarla, I. Ac<BU^*' by U von Graff, Das Tierretch, 1900. 


no VBflB deferentia or oviduots being present. The anbclase eontaios 2 
fomilies and about 40 speciea, of which 6 have been fotmd in America. 
Key to the families of Accela: 

0, One geaitBl pore preseDt 1. PBOFOmujI 

a. Two genital porea present 2. Oortolhtidab 

Family 1. PROPOBIDAE. 
Bat one genital pore present; position of mouth varioos: 5 genera 
and 14 species. 

1, GKiiDia von Oraff. Uonth in ventral surface behind the middle; 
pharynx absent ;barsasemi- 

nalis absent; 2 male copn- 
latoiy oi^ans, each witli a 
ehitinooB stilet : 1 species. 

0. spinon V. Or. (Fig. 
253). Length 1.4 mm.; 
color light yellow: Woods 

2. AxArxMm von Or. 
Body elongate ; bursa aem- 

inalis and pharynx absent : I 

1 species. 

A. ganlineri v. Or. 
(Fig. 254). Length np to 
6 mm. ; width 1 mm. ; color 
red, bnt yellow at the two 
ends: Woods Hole, with 

Polychanu comAKw, which ^ ^53 ^ j„ 

it resembles, bnt is moch „^ 253-cwM(« .pinw. (ron Gt^B). 1. .ub- 
less nnmerous than It; g??iiGil!?iK;^7^dli^fvSb«#r'i:',GlS: 
movements rapid. <^"* > 2. mootfi ; 3, ot«j ; 4, Kenltsl pore. 

Two genital pores present, the female pore being in front of the 
male; bnrsa aeminalis present; motith near the middle of the body: 5 
genera and 25 species. 

1. ArHJUfOBTOKA CErsted. Body cylindrical or flattened beneath 
and narrowed behind; mouth near the middle; statocyst present; eyes 
absent: 2 species. 

A. divanicolor CErst. (Fig. 265). Body very variable in shape, 
elliptical, with yellow at forward end; middle usually violet; length 
1 mm.; width .25 mm.: Newport, R. I., and Woods Hole, among algae in 
shallow water, common; Europe. 


2. FoLTOHOBrs S£ark. Body broad and flat vith either one or wv- 
eral eandal filaments: 1 species. 

P. candatns Mark (Fig. 256). 
Body with parallel sides and a deep 
notch in the hinder margin, from which 
1 to 3 candal filaments arise; color red; 
length 4 mm. ; width 1.5 mm. : on slones 
along the beach from Casco Bay to 
Long Island Sound; often abundant; 

Subclass 2. CCELATA. 
'_ TnrbellarianB with intestine: 3 


Key to the orders of Ctelata : 
a, Small forma with a atraight Intee- 

tine 1. Rbabdoc(elida ' 

pig, zoB Fig. 258 Oi UaDally larger forma with branched 

Fig. 29& — Aphanottoma tUverilcolor iatestiue. 

male genital pare. Fig. ZSH— Poly- 2. TkiCLADIDA 

SSth"? V^Sri^VVemal; ^Xl *• ^"^'^^^^ -»•■ """^ '■"«« branches. 

Obdeb 1. BHABDOO(ELIDA. (Fia. 267.) 
Marine, fresh-water, and land tnrheltarians of small 
size in which the intestine is a straight and nnbranched 
or at the most only slightly lobed tube or sac; yolk 
glands present or not; either 1 or 2 genital pores pres- 
ent: 23 families, grouped in 2 suborders with over 350 
species, of whidi about 75 have been found in this 
country; about half the species marine. 

Key to the suborders of Rhabdoccelida : 

Hi Intesdne a etralght tabe 1. RHAsnoccELA 

«, Intutiiie sac^haped with irregular aides. .2. All(xoc<ela 

SCBORDEE 1. RHABDOCfELA.* grim c? i rhab- 

Soaelld (Dolvtl- 

Body cylindrical, fnajform, filiform, or lamellate in 'i*°*nf X t's'^'i' 
shape; intestine a tube or sac, usually with strai^t Jf^".! |' '"^^ 
sides; usually 2 eyes and occasionally sense pita and I'^^'^'iui'i'dom* 
statocysts present; either a single median or a ptur of ^i ovacj. 
excretory canals present; many forms reproduce asexually, by terminal 
budding : 16 families and 275 species, 48 American. 

• Bee "HonogTephte d. Tnibellarien, I. EtMbdocoltda," by L. too Graff, 1882, 


Key to the families of Rhabdocala here described : 
a, Forward end not In torva of • proboacU, or where a. proboBcia is preaeat 
it cannot be retracted into a Bbeatb. 
hi Ovarf and yolk glands not distitict. 

Ci Single median excretory tmtik present 1. Gatenuudak 

C A pair of excretory trunks present 2. Micsobtoiudak 

t, Orar; and 7ulk Elands distitict from each other. 

c. Pharynx sac-ahaped and parallel to ventraJ surface 3. Daltzlliidax 

c^ Pharynx rosette-shaped and perpendicalar to ventral surface. 

4. TYPHix>n.AniDAX 
Oi Forward end in form of a proboacis which cao be retracted into a sheath. 

b, Ooe genital pore present 5. Poltctbtididab 

b. Two genital pores present 6. Gtratkicidak 


Honth in Tentral surface near forward end; no preoral branch of 
intestine; pharynx simple; excretory pore at hinder end, with a single 
median excretory trunk; testis and ovary median and single, the former 
in front of th« latter; p^ment eyes wanting; reproduction asexnal as 
well as seznal, chains of individuals forming: 6 genera and about 25 
species, 14 American. 

1. STXHOBTOmni* Schmidt. Body colorless; intestine often colored 
brown, reaching almost to the hinder end of the body; a pair of ciliated 
sense pits in front of brain and 1 to 2 pairs of light-refracting organs 
behind it: 16 species, 5 American, all but 
one in fresh water. 

8. leocopt (Dugte). Chain consisting 
of 8 or less individuals np to 4 mm. long; 
li^t-refracting organs concave and 2 in 
nnmber: eastern and central states; Eu- 

rope; common. n 

S. grandfl Child (Pig. 258). Chain 
consisting of 4 to 6 individuals 2 to 2.6 j. 

mm. long; color orange yellow: in fresh " 

and brackish water; common. (.Vll'^^'T'luuHST^S 

2. BHT»OHOBOOLKt Leldy. Forward ^^J^l^""" "'*■ '" • ^- "'*■ 
end of cylindrical body elongated into 

proboscis-like appendage at the base of which are the mouth and a pair 
of sense pits : 2 species. 

K. llniplez Leidy. Body yellowish white, 5 nun. long : Philadelphia, 
at the bottom of clear brooks. 

• br 


Month in ventral saiface near forward end; pharynx simple ; a pur 
of exeretory tubes present; sense pits and usually pigmented eyes pres- 
oit: 36 species, 6 American. 

1. HlOSOBlOMinc Schmidt. Preoral branch to intestine present; 
forward end of body not probosois-like; hinder end tapering; chains of 
individuals formed; 15 species, in both fresh and salt water. 

U llnsai* (0. F. Miiller). Body 1.8 mm. long; chain consisting of 

18 individuals 7 mm. long; color yellowish or pink; 2 red eyes present; 

nettle cells presoit whidi have been derived from ingested 

hydras; binder end with a tail on which are adhesive 

papillae: eastern statea; Eorope. 

H. davenportl von Graff (Fig. 258). Chain consisting 
of 4 individuals L5 nun. long; hinder end with numerous 
papillae; body colorless; intestine yellow; eyes abeent; 
Long Island and Vineyard Sounds; on nlva and fucus. 

Large sac-ahaped pharynx present; month near for- 
ward end of body; single genital pore present; ovary dis- 
tinct from yolk glands, which are either 1 or 2 in number 
and usually unbranched ; testes paired ; pigment eyes usually 
_^ present; penis usually with complex chitinoufl 

'*S?*»rtr P"^* ^^^^ ^'l species, mostly in fresh 
(Ton (Sin. water; 17 American. 

Daltzliu Fleming (Vortex Ehren- 
berg). Body rounded in front and tapering to a point 
behind; body not pigmented but often colored by toochlo- 
reUae; 2 black eyes present, near which and the forward 
end is the mouth j genital pore in posterior third of body : 
46 species, 13 American, all in fresh water. 

D. armigara (Schmidt). Length 1 mm.; penis with 2 
short cbitinous rods, each of which has a spinose terminal 
branch: central and eastern states; common; Europe. 

D. dodgd von Oraff (Fig. 260). Penis with cbitinous Fir. 260 
parts of unequal size and shape forming a transverse row ta^H 

fastened to a basal piece; length 1 mm.: the commonest TmooU^' 
apeoiee; eastern states; in fresh and brackish water. ^^toaSna 


Pharynx roeette-iliaped, springing from the ventral wall of the 
inteatine and perpendicular to the ventral body surface; ovary distinet 


from yolk glands; testes paired; rhabdites usually prominent: 60 specieS| 
all ezeept one in fresh water, 8 American. 

1. Ttfhloflava Ehrenberg. Excretory ducts open with the mouth 
into a common space, which opens to the outside; without genital 
atrium; dermal rhabdites absent; testes very small, near the phaiynx; 
eyes absent: 2 species. 

T. Tiridata (Abildgaard). Body 1 nmi. long, tapering at both ends, 
behind to a blunt point, colorless, but usually colored green by soochlo- 
reUae; phaiynx near middle of body with the genital pore behind it: 
eastern states; Europe. 

2. Oabtbada Schmidt. Excretory ducts open as in Typhloplana; 
with genital atrium; eyes usually absent; dermal rhabdites absent: 27 
species, in fresh water, 1 American. 

0. hofmanni Braun. Body 1.5 mm. long, cylindrical, rounded in 
front, tapering to a blunt point behind; phaiynx somewhat in ftont of 
middle of body and just in front of genital pore : eastern states; Europe; 

3. Mbsobtoma Elhrenberg. Excretory ducts open as in Typhlo- 
plana; rhabdites very prominent; testes dorsal or lateral to the yolk 

glands; genital pore in hmder third of body; mouth near 
the middle; 2 eyes present; zoochlorellae absent: 13 
species, 2 American. 

M. ehxenbergi (Focke) (If. wardU Woodworth) (Fig. 
261). Body flat, up to 15 mm. long and 4 mm. wide, but 
usually much less, tapering to both ends; forward end 
blunt, hinder end pointed: central states; Europe; vivip- 


Two ovaries, yolk glands, and testes present; forward 
Sic 261 ^^^ forms muscular retractile proboscis; rosette-shaped 

Jfetoftoina pbaiynx forward of the middle of body; but 1 genital 
(Woodw!^r{h) po™: 16 species, 2 American. 

xiaiS^^ PEOVOBKTvcEira von Graff. Male genital canal 

with a poisonous spine : 2 species. 
P. helgolandicus (Metschnikoff). Length 1.7 mm.: Long Island and 
Vineyard Sounds to the Arctic Ocean; Europe; common. 


Ovaries, yolk glands, and a single testis present ; forward end forms 
a retractile proboscis; mouth with a rosette-shaped pharynx near 
of body; genital pores separate, in hinder part o£ body; \ goons. 


Otkatbix Ehroaberg. With the characters of the family : 2 speoieB. 

O. hemutphroditiu Ehr. Body 2 mm. long and very contractile, 

transparent: in fresh and salt water; eastern states; Europe; very common. 

Fresh-water and marine tnrbellarians in which the intestine is an 
irr^nlar sao or tnbe often with lateral diverticula; 1 or 2 genital pores 
present; testes and ovaries consist of numerous 
foUicles: 7 families with about 75 species, 30 

Intestine sac-shaped and without lateral diver- 
ticula; pharynx variable and in forward part 
of the body ; genital pore single 
and in hinder third of bod;; 
ovary and yolk glands distinct : 
30 species, 10 American. 

PLaeioSTOinni Schmidt. 
Two or i eyes present ; pharynx 
lai^, sac-shaped: 10 American 
species; marine. 

F. Tilsoni von OraS (Fig. 
202). Length 1.5 mm.: com- 
mon at Woods Hole. 

^a„ OaDEB2. TRIOLADIDA. _ Fiy.^268_-DU««m of 

"•tJS^"- (rio- 263.) U^'^^J; TZiat\ 

*Y,moStb'- Marine, fresh-water, and J-nxT^vI-'io^^ :'"^ 

8,*^5'tS*{SJe. terrestrial turbellarians in which JS?';i»&.f iiT uKS 
the intestine is composed of 3 
main trunks with many branches, one trunk extending forwards from the 
pharynx, and the other two backwards; body flattened, with sensitive lobes, 
projections or tentacles and a pair of eyes at or near the forward end, 
and in certain species a ventrally situated sucker; mouth and genital pore 
in or behind the middle of the body; proboseis well developed: about 430 
species and 6 families grouped in 3 suborders. 

Key to the suborders of Tricladida: 
«, Aquatic triclads. 

b. Fresh-water triclBde; plaDariane 1. PAixnaaOLk. 

b, Uariae triclads 2. Mamiooila. 

0, Terrestrial triclads il. Tkbkioola 




Planarians. Trielads with a eentral mouth, a single genital pore 
behind it and an elongate, flattened body, which are foond in fresh water 
under stones and on plants, also in wet places under leaves, in mud, etc.; 
their food consists of crustaceans, snails, aquatic insects, etc., also of 
dead animals, and they are themselves preyed upon by fish, insect larvae, 
etc.; they possess remarkable regenerative powers and certain species 
(PUmaria macukUa) are known to multiply by fission; the eggs are laid 
in cocoons which are attached to stones and plants : 1 family and about 
100 species, in fresh and often brackish water. 


With the characters of the suborder: about 6 genera. 
Key to the genera of Planariidae here described : 

Oa Bat 1 pharynx present 

hx Anterior margin roanded or angular 1. Planabia 

\ Anterior end tnincated 2. Dbndbocoelum 

Oa Many pharynges present 3. Phagocata 

1. Plavabia O. F. Miiller. Body elongate, flattened, 
rounded or angular forward, usually with a pair of lateral 
angular projections (auricles), and pointed behind; 2 eyes, 
each in a colorless area; usually a pair of lateral, elon- 
gated, and colorless sense spots near the eye: many 
species, about 9 American. 

P. macuUtat Leidy (Pig. 264). Body thin, slightly 
convex, elongate, tapering to the acute tail, 20 mm. long 
or less; head end trapezoidal, wider than the body, with 
an acute median and 2 lateral projections; mouth in 
hinder half; dorsal surface spotted irregularly with black; 
ventral surface whitish: North America; the commonest 
fresh-water planarian. 

Fig. 264 




p, pharynx. 

• See "Contributions to the Morphology of the Tarbellaria/' etc., by W. M. 
Woodworth, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., VoL 31, p. 1, 1897. "Regeneration in Plana- 
rians,*' by T. H. Morgan, Arch. f. Bntwickelungsmech., Vol. 10, p. 68. "The Move- 
ments and Reactions of Fresh Water Planarians," by R. Pearl, Q. J. M. S., Vol. 46, p. 
609, 1903. ^The Reactions of Planarians to Ught," by H. E. Walter, Jour. Bz. 
ZooL, Vol 5, p. 38, 1907. "Die SOsswasserfauna DeutschlandB : Tricladlda," by 
L. B9hmlg, 1909. 

t See "The Life History and Normal Fission of Planaria maculata/' by W. C. 
Cortls, Proc Bos. Soc. Nat Hifit., Vol. 30, p. 515. 1902. 



P. torva M. Scholtze (Fig. 265). Body 13 mm. long or less; head 

rounded in front and not wider than the body; color brown or blaek: 
eastern and central states; Europe. 

P. gonocephala Dug^ (Fig. 266). Body 25 mm. long or less; head 

Fig. 266 Fig. 266 Fig. 267 

Fig. 265— PIonoHa torva (B5hmlg). Fig. 266— PloiMirfa gonooephala (Woodworth). 

Fig. 267---?tonaria luffubria (Bdbmlg). 

as in P. maculata; body with parallel edges as far back as the genital 
pore; color brown or greenish: eastern states; Europe. 

P. Ingnbris Schmidt (Fig. 267). Body 20 mm. long or less; head 
somewhat wider than body, rounded or bluntly triangular; color light 
brown to black; ductus ejaculatorius receives the secretion of numerous 

glands which appear on its inner surface : eastern 
and central states; Europe. 

P. simplissima Curtis. Body 8 mm. long or 
less, black in color; head end blunt, without lat- 
eral projections; pigment wanting over eyes; 
testes few, 4 to 5 on a side: eastern states. 

P. dortocephala Woodworth (Fig. 268). Body 
elongate, 15 mm. or more long, with acute angular 
front end and a pair of acute angular auricles; 
color brown: Illinois; common. 

P. morgani Stevens and Boring. Body 10 
mm. or more long, with a rounded or truncated 
front end, colorless: eastern states. 

2. DE]n>&oo<ELV]f GSrsted. Body elongate 
and flat with a truncated head end which bears a 
large sucker and a pointed tail end; head set off 
by a slight constriction from the body and with la 
pair of short, rounded, lateral projections; mouth near the middle: 
several species. 

D. graiA Wilhelmi (formerly called D. lacteum 0. F. Miiller) (Fig. 
269). Body 10 to 26 mm. long and 3 nmL wide or less, milk white in color 
with the dark-colored intestine showing through; ventral sucker at front 
end ; 2 eyes and frequently 1 to 6 accessory eye spots present : eastern states. 

Fig. 268 

Fig. 269 

Fig. 268 

Planaria dortocephala 


Fig. 269 

Dendrooaslum grafji 




3. Fs&SOOATA Leidy. Body elongate uid flftt, with a rounded head 
end and a blnnt tail end; many pharynges present whieh lie in a eom- 
mtai chamber and when extruded reach the exterior 
tbroogfa a aingie orifice, bnt wbidi open eeparat«ly into 
the intestine : 1 species. 

P. gradlii* (Haldeman) (Fig. 270). Body 30 nun. 
long and 4.5 mm. wide or lees, black in color; 1 large 
pharynx present at the junction of the 3 main intestinal 
trunks and abont 22 additional pharynges which are 
joined to the 2 lateral trunks; eastern states, often 
plentiful in brackish water. 


1, pbairngea 


Marine triclads. Intestinal branches bnt Uttle rami- 
fied ; month in hinder half of body ; uterus behind genital 
pore: 5 families and about 30 species, which live on 
seaweed, stones, or shells, or are parasitic; 10 species on 
east coast of America. 


Body flattened, with otocyst bat no sense pits; front 

end more or less troneate, often with a pair of ten- 

tacle-Uke projections; 2 eyea, at some distance from front end: 2 genera. 

Pbooxbodu Girard (Gunda 0. Schmidt). Body elongate, truncated 

in &ont with projecting, tentacle-like comers: 16 species. 

P. wbeaOandl Girard (Pig. 271). Body elongate, 5 

mm. long and 1 mm. wide, blackish in color; tentaeles 

whitish: coast of New England, often common under Btone« 

and among algae in shallow water; Europe. 

P. warrani (Girard). Front end more or less trun- 
cate; body elongate, yellowish or brownish in color, 4 to 12 
mm. long, and 2 to 3 mm. wide: New England coast; not 

Body elongate and flattened and colorless; 2 eyea present; rhab- 
ditea absent; 2 uteri present with independent openinge to tho outside; 

• 8«a "ContribnttoDB to tbe Morpbolog? of the TurbelUrla," by W. M. Wood 
vortb, BdIL Uob. Comp. Zool., Vol. 21, p. 1. 1861. 

t Sm "Uarlne PUDirUna of the flew BnsUnd Cout." bj A. E. Teriill, Tnn*. 
Conn. Acad., Tol. 8, 1893. "TrleUdeiuattidlen I. TrlFladidK maricoU," by L. Bflbmlg, 
ZdL f. wlM, Zool.. ToL 81, p. B**, 1908. "Od tba N. A, Usrine TrlclailB," by 
I. Wllbflml, Biol. Bnll., Vol. 15, p. 1, 1908. "TrlclBden," by ume, Die FBona n, 
Flim d. Gollei V. Neapel. 1909. 

t 8m "SrnoBlldliim pelladdDln," etc., by W. U. Wbeeler, Jour. Morpb., Vol. B, p. 
ICT. 18»4. 





e^ capsules attached by a slender pedicle : 2 genera and 4 species, para- 
sitic or commeDsal on tbe gillfi and outer surface of Ltmultw polypkemw. 
1. Bbellohka Leidy. Anterior end tapering; posterior end wide, 
with a glandular disc for attachment: 3 species. 

B. Candida (Oirard) (Fig. 272). Body 15 mm. long, 
4 nun. wide, gray in color; egg capsule 2.6 to 4 mm. long; 
testicular sacs 60 to 100 in number: often very eommon. 
B. propinvna Wheeler. Body 8 mm. long; testicular 
sacs about 170 in number; egg capsule 1.25 mm. long; not 
so common as the above. 

B. wliHlftii Wilhelmi. Body 6 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, 
the greatest width being in front of the pharynx; sucker 
not set off from body; on lAmuhts; not common. 

2. STKOiZLlsnill {?heeler. Body elongate, taperii^ 
towards both ends, which are blunt; posterior rami of intestine imit«, 
forming a single median trunk: 1 species. 

8, peUncidnm Wheeler (Fig. 273). Body 3 mm. long; testicular fol- 
licles lai^, about 14 on each side of the body; egg capsules 
.75 nun. long. 


Land planarians. Intestinal branches simply lobed; 

position of mouth variable; uterus small, behind the genital 

pore; body oval or elongate, and usually brightly colored, 

and with a creeping sole on the ventral surface: 5 families 

and about 400 species which occur mostly in 

tropical countries, living in damp places. 

Fauilt 1. BIPALIIDAE. 

Body often very elongate, usually brightly colored, and 

with longitudinal or transverse stripes ; head end broadened, 

forming plate with numerous marginal eyes; mouth median 

or post-median; genital pore back of mouth: 4 genera and 

about 90 species. 

FLAOoosPHAl-tra von Graff. Body often enormously 

^^^* elongate; head plate thin, much broader than long, and 

tncnuS '*''''' * semicircular margin: 15 species. 

(von QMiT). p. knrnulB (Mosley) (Fig. 274). Body 10 to 20 cm. 

(in some cases 45 cm.) long, narrow and with parallel sides, 

yellowish in color; with 7 longitudinal stripes; sole white: greenhouses in 

America and Europe; native country unknown, although possibly Samoa. 

" bj L. TOD Ontt, 

Fig. 273 




Body elongate, with more or less parallel sides; head not distinct, 
with 2 spherieal eyes near the front end; mouth near the middle: 7 
genera and abont 100 species. 

SKTVOEODsmra Leidy. Head end very contractile and often ex- 
tended like a proboscis; body more or less cylindrical; eyes small: 35 

B. vylvaticiu Leidy. Body somewhat fusiform, thick, convex above 
and flattened below, 10 mm. long, 3 mm. thick and 1 mm. wide; forward 
end narrowed and very extensile; color gray with two longitudinal 
stripes on the back and a transverse spot near the middle: eastern 
states, in woody places. 


Marine turbellarians, often of large size, with thin, leaf -like body; 
intestine with very numerous branches which ramify to all parts of the 
body; eyes numerous; otocysts, tentacles and stiff tactile cilia also often 
present; no yolk glands; 2 genital pores; mouth central or posterior; no 
asexual reproduction: 225 species grouped in 2 suborders. 

Key to the suborders of PolyclacUda: 

Oi No Buckera present 1. Acottuea 

0, A ventral Backer present 2. Gottlba 


Polyclads without a sucker; genital pores near hinder end of body: 
3 families. 

Key to the suborders of Polycladida : 

Ot Two dorsal tentacles present *. 1. Planocebidae 

Oa No tentacles present 2. Leftoplanioab 


Two dorsal tentacles, usually containing ocelli; mouth central; 
eopulatory apparatus directed backwards; mai^inal and cerebral eyes 
present or absent : about 8 genera and 45 species. 

1. PXiAVOOEBA Blainville. Body oval or elliptical and flattened; 
tentacles slender, situated at some distance from front end of body with 
a cluster of eyes at the base of each; cerebral ocelli inconspicuous; 
genital pores separate but near together: about 25 species. 

P. nebnlosa Girard. Body convex and rather thick, 29 mm. long and 
10 nun. wide, and usually olive green in color with a median dorsal 
stripe; mouth central: Charleston to Cape Cod, under stones. 

•See "Die Polycladlen des Oolfes von Neapel/* etc., by A. Lang, Fanna a. 
Fkna d. Golfes v. Neapel, xi If onographle, 1884. 


K Wbeeler (Tig. 275). Body oval, 6 mm. long tnd 4 mm. 
vide; edges remain in contact with the sarfaee over which the uiim*I 
is moving; color grayish: Vineyard Sonnd, mantle cavity of Fvigitr. 

Flf. 2TS Fl 

■If. 3TE — nanaeara tnqvWna (WhMler). 1, tentacle; 2, lotei 
4, male Keoltal pore ; 6, lemale genital pore. Pis. 2T6 — 
•IHpHoM (VeriiU). 1, tentacle; 2, montb. 

S. Sttloohiti Ehrenherg. Body oval or elliptical and flat; t«n- 
taeles short; pharynx with several accessory lobee; genital pores near 
hinder end of body : 10 species. 

8. allipticiu (Girard) (Fig. 276). Body flat and thin with imdu- 
lating margins, 20 mm. long and 6 mm. wide, yellowish-brown in color, 
irregnlarly radially veined; tentacles small, white, each with a claster 
of ocelli ; 8 to 12 frontal and cerebral and numerous marginal ocelli pres- 
ent: New England coast, the commonest of the larger 
marine planarians, especially south of Cape Cod. 

Body broad, flat, thin, without tentacles; mouth cen- 
tral ; pharynx lobed ; nsually 4 groups of ocelli, 2 cerebral 
and 2 dorsal; marginal ocelli sometimes present; male 
oopulatory apparatus directed hackwards: 4 genera and 
abont 60 species. 

Iaftoflava Ehrenberg. Body foliaceous with nnda- 
lating edges; no marginal ocelli; genital pores rather 
n, 277 widely separated, the male pore being distant from the 

^^himt end of the body: 25 species. 

(Verriii). l. Variabilis (Girard) (Pig. 277). Body elliptical, 

18 mm. long and 8 mm. wide, yellowish -brown in color; ocelli conspicuous, 
the cerebral clusters containing about 30 each and the dorsal clostera about 
16: New England coast, often abundant. 


L. f olinai VerrilL Body very changeable, 25 mm. long and 15 mm. 
wide, yellowish or pink in color; ocelli very ntuneroos, small, and ineon- 
spienons: New England coast. 


Polyclads with a sucker in the ventral surface behmd the genital 
pores: 4 families with about 110 species. 


Body elongate and without tentacles ; cerebral ocelli on the anterior 
margin of the body; mouth immediately behind brain; pharynx long and 
tubular: 1 genus. 

PnosTHioaTOinni Quatrefages. With the characters of the family: 
8 species. 

P. gradle Girard. Body thin and translucent, yellowish-white in 
color, 4 mm. long and 1.25 mm. wide; ocelli in 4 groups: New England 
coast; not conmion. 

Class 2. T&E1IAT0DE8* 

The flukes. Soft, flat or round worms which live as parasites on 
the skin or gills of fishes and other aquatic animals or in the internal 
organs of vertebrates and also of many invertebrates. The smallest are 
of microscopic size, the largest may be a number of centimeters in 
length. The outer surface of the adult body is an unciliated cuticula in 
which suckers and chitinous hooks or spines are present, which enable 
the animal to fix itself to its host. No body cavity is present, the 
spaces between the organs being filled with the vesicular parench3rma. 

The mouth is at the forward end of the body (except in Bucephalus), 
The intestine is, with a few exceptions, bifurcate and is without anal open- 
ing: the food consists of the blood and other juices of the host. The excre- 
tory system consists of two main portions, the excretory vesicles and the 
excretoiy tubules. The latter ramify throughout the parenchyma and end 
with flame cells. The former consist of a pair of lateral canals which 
receive the tubules and open to the outside through a pair of anterior pores 
in the Monogenea and a median posterior pore in the Digenea. The nerv- 
ous system consists of a pair of ganglia just back of the mouth which 
are joined with each other by a commissure and of nerves which pass to 

* See "Platbelmintbes, I. Trematodes/' by M. Brann, Bronn's Klassen, etc., 
Bd. 4, p. 806, 1892. "Die thleriscben Paraslten des Henscben/* by same, 1903. 
"lUoBtrated Key to tbe Trematode Parasites of Man/' by C. W. Stiles, Bull. No. 
17, Hyg. Lab., Treas. Dept, 1004. "Index Catalogue,*' etc., 'Trematoda,** by same. 
Boll. No. 37, same, 1908. "Trematodee," by M. Ltlbe, Die Sttsswaaserfauiia DeotschL, 


the various organs. Several pairs of large longitudinal nerves pass to 
the hinder part of the body. 

With a few exceptions all trematodes are hermaphroditic, the male 
and female pores being either confluent, in which case a genital atrium 
is often present, or side by side and near together in the ventral sur- 
face. The arrangement of the genital oi^ans is complex and varies 
somewhat in the three orders of trematodes. The egg is composite in 
structure, consisting of an ovum and several yolk cells. 

Habits and Distribution.—The young trematode leads a free life for a 
short time and then seeks its host. The most primitive trematodes are 
external parasites and the entire life may be passed on a single host. 
The- higher forms, on the other hand, are internal jparasites and live in 
two or more hosts, the adult host being different from the larval host, 
and the passage from one host to the other being accompanied by a 
metamorphosis. The former are called monogenetic and the latter dige- 
netic trematodes. Many of the latter are dangerous parasites to man 
and his domestic animals. 

History.^ThiB class was established in 1808 by Rudolph!, who 
included in it the genera, Monostoma Zeder, Amphistoma Rudolphi, 
Distoma Retzius, and Polystoma SiCder. It was not until 1858 that the 
distinction between the ectoparasitic and the entoparasitic forms found 
expression in the classification, when P. J. van Baieden formed the groups 
Monogenea to include the former and the Digenea for the latter. In 1892 
Monticelli showed the need of subdividing the Digenea and established the 
following suborders : the Heterocotylea, the Aspidocotylea, and the Malaco- 
cotylea, the first of which coincides with the Monogenea. This subdivision 
was generally adopted, but is now being abandoned in favor of the simpler 
one of van Beneden. The explanation of the complex metamorphosis of 
trematodes was first given by Steenstrup in 1842. Thomas and Leuckart 
discovered almost simultaneously in 1881 the life history of the common 
liver fluke {Fasciola hepatica), and the latter author and Looss have 
played the principal part in the investigation of the entire group. 

About 2,500 species of trematodes are known, which may be 
grouped in 3 orders. 

Key to the orders of Trematodes: 

Ot Ectoparasitic trematodes (except Polystoma) ; hooka usually present in 

the suckers or sucking discs 1. Monooknea. 

Os Mostly entoparasitic trematodes; no hooks in the suckers or sucking 
hx Either a large ventral sucking disc or a mldventral row of suckers ; no 

oral sucker 2. Asfidooottlba. 

\ Usually either 1 or 2 median sackers ; oral sucker present (except in 

Bucephalus) 3. Digenea 


Obdbb 1. HONOOENEA.* 

Honog«netic trematodes [Yig. 278). UBually external parasites on 
8sb snd other aquatic animals. Uost forms live on bnt a single host and 
are found most often on the gills, 
being that part of a flah's body where 
the blood is nearest the surface and 
vhere a parasite is also protected; / 

some, however, live in the month and fi 

some in the cloaca. The gen as R] 

Polyttoma is entoparasitic. The or- l9 

gaDS of attachment are at the eztremi- ¥ 

ties of the body. At the hinder end 
is a large disc more or less sharply 

set off with either suckers or hooks, ^^ STS-Di.™™ of a mononneUc 
or both these organs. At the for- i^^Ao?'Snik«; VTl'Man; "^Tagina^ 

wnrH (>nd in nimnllv K nnir nf xiipIifTii "• exi^retotv pore ; '%, iDtesUne' ; T. pos- 

wara ena is OBuauy a pair oi sucKera ^^^^ socring disc ; 8, hook ; 9. gen^ui 
with the mouth between them. These ^",igj^; ■'"a'Se'ru?"*' o^r^^i^' 
may, however, be absent or their place SI^^^E^^^'u'^^SISSl'''* "' ^''" ' 
may be tak^i by a single oral sucker, 

b; paired glands, or by tentacle-like stmctnree. The order contains 4 
families and about 500 species. 

K^ to the families of Monogenea,: 
a, Large posterior sucking disc without suckers or margiiial hooks. 

6, A pair of anterior suckers or eucker-like projectioDB with mouth between. 

1. Tbibtouidae 

h, A single anterior sucker, or none 2. MonooonUDAK 

Oi Disc-like posterior region with either paired auckerB or marginal hooks. 

b, Posterior region with Backers 3. Poltstouidak 

b. Posterior regloti without sueken 4. GtsodaCttudax 

Hoetly broad, flat worms, with a pair of anterior suckers or sncker- 
like membranes, one on either side of the month, and a lai^ posterior 
sucking disc in which hooks are often located, the anterior suckers 
being without hooks; a pair of eye spots often present; intestine bifur- 
cate and often much branched; genital pores near the forward end, the 
male and female openings being in some cases separated from each 
other: on the skin or gills of marine fishes or in the month or cloaca; 
about 11 genera. 

• "NotM 00 Trematode Paraaltei of Ftihes," br B. T.lntoo, Proc V. S. Nat. 
Hiu., "Vol 30, p. eOT. 1898. "Notes on Some Biotle Spedei of Bctoparaiitlc 
Tiematodes," by B. Goto. Jour. Scl. Coll,, Imp. CdIt., Vol. IS. p. S63. 18SB. 
"8ri>op*la of the Trematodea, Part I. The Eeterocot;lea," by H. 8. Pratt, Am. 
Nat., ToL 84, p. e4S, 1900. "Fiih Farailtes of tlM Wooda Hole Begtou," t? B. 
UntMt, Bull. nab. Com., Vol. 19, p. 400, 1901. 


Key to the genera of Triatomidae here described: 
a, SuckiiiK dirc not aet off from body and with 7 radial ridgea. . .1. TnsTOUA 
0, Sucking disc set off from bod; and without radial ridges, 
b. Body elongate ; sacking disc terminal with many minute hooka. 

2. NmsoHiA 

b. Body elliptical ; auckiuf disc ventral with Uric hooka 3. Epibdella 

1. Tbistoha. Ca- 
vier. Body very flat, 
circular, or oval, with 
a pair of anterior sack* 
era and a large yentral 
Backing disc in which 
are 7 radial ridges and 
small hooks; intestine 
with side branehas; 
genital pores near the 
margin of the body; 
many testes present: 
n aboQt 10 species. 

T. cocdnanm Cav. 
(Fig. 279). Body about 
16 mm. long and 16 
mm. wide and red in 

'*"™~aS^'SS2i*2?i?FS. 2*781°°'°"'"" **>'°'= on the gills of 

the Bwordflsb. 

% ViTZBOHU Ton Baer. Body elongate, with sacking diso terminal 
and without radii; 2 large snokers at forward end; numerous testes: 1 
species, in salt and fresh water. 

If. atnrlonls (Abildgaard) (Fig. 2S0). Body red- 
dish, 16 nun. long, 5 mm. wide; sucking diso globose: on 
gills of the sturgeon. 

S, 'EraozLLA Blainville. Body elliptieal and flat; 
Backing disc ventral without ridges, but often with 
papillae; i small eyes; 2 testes: several species. 

S. Inuupnal Linton (Fig. 281). Length 12 mm.; 
width S mm.: on skin of Daayatis centntra; Woods Hole. 

Flat and circular or elliptical worms without paired m&KMa 

anterior suckers and with a single posterior sucking plate, (UonUnlu). 
which is sometimes very small: on the skin, ^lls, or in the u^^"e^.'^T8. 
cloaca of marine fishes; 7 genera. 

Hovooomx Taschenberg. Sucking disc with 8 radial ridges; 
1 to 3 testes : on the skin or gills of skates. 


X. floridiiM Pratt (Fig. 282). Body 1.3 mm. long and .68 mm. irid«; 
oral Boeker present; intestinal branches joined at hinder end and pn>- 
kmged in a median ececnm : on the gills 
of Uyliobatii freminviUei. 


Body flat and broad, vith a more 
or less distinct disc or r^on at the 
hinder end bearing snckeis, nsnally 
paired, the number of which may vary 
from 2 to 120, and also in most oases 
hooks; anterior snckeis either present 
or not: on gills of fishes and in the 
month, nose, and urinary bladder of 
amphibians and reptiles; about 21 
genera and 3 subfamilies. 

Key to the subfamilies of Poly- 
a. Anterior snckers absent: either 2 or 6 Ftf. 1tn—Epibd«tt« ba*v>*< 

posterior .uck™.l. Poltstomtfiax E«to«nci?£f u'ing. 278. 

a. Anterior snckers present ^ 

b. Posterior BQcken 4 to 8 2. OcrooomjHAX 

h. Posterior snckeis ver; nnmeroas 3. MiOBOOonunAZ 


Posterior sucking disc distinctly set o£F and with 
2 or 6 la]^ suckers arranged in pairs and also 2 
or more large books; paired anterior suckers absent: 
about 5 genera. 

1. FoLTlTOMA Zeder. Body withont anterior 
and with 3 pairs of posterior suckers; vagina paired 
with an opening on either margin of the antorior 
portion of the body: on the gills of trog tadpoles 
as larvae, and in the urinary bladder of amphibians 
and in the mouth, nose, and urinary bladder of 
turtles as adults; 6 species, 3 in America. 
McaoeoWeMritrnM P. oUonfon R. R. Wright. Disc attached at 

Reffreacea its anterior end; intestine with no side branches; 

as In Fls. 218. 

body elliptical; cirrus with 16 spines, alternately 
large and small; length 2.5 mm.; width 1 ma.: in urinary bladder of 
maA, paioted, aod snapping turtles. 


P. conuutnm Leidy. Body lanceolate, 6 mm. long, with 3 pain ot 
minute hooks between the anterior pair of suckers, and 1 large and 2 
■mull pairs between the posterior pair: in the 
nose of the food terrapin. 

P. haualU Goto (F^. 283). Bod; orate; 1& 

mm. long and 1 mm. wide; disc hexagonal with 

3 pairs of small hooks between the anterior pair 

I and 1 pair of lai^ hooks between the posterior 

pair of snckers; intestine without side branobes: 

' in the urinary bladder of Eino- 

tfernum pennaylvanicuvt. — 

2. Sfhtxaotba Wr^ht 
and UacCatlum. Body elon- 

gate with a small posterior 

fik. 2S3 — PaivdoMa disc containing 2 large suck- 

luu»alH (Goto). „ , " 

axitnneet ers: 2 species. 

«ilnPtg.a78. g ^^^^ ^^ ^^ jj^^ 

(Fig. 284). Body tapering at both ends, 4 nun. long 
and .6 mm. wide; disc wider than body; testes nu- 
merous: on skin and gills of Necturua maculattu. 


Posterior region with 8 (4) laige suckers; paired 
anterior suckers present: about 12 genera. 

Key to the genera of OctocolyUnae here described: ) 

a, PoBterior diac-like resion with tnedi&n 

hookB. 1. DlSOOCOTTLE p^ 2St 

0, Median hooks not present. sphuranura otlert 

2. Dkitopsou SSS5S.S' 
1. DisooooiTia Diesing. Body "i""«-378. 
elongate with small hooks in the poste- 
rior disc; posterior suckers slightly stalked and with 
strong chitinous support; vagina Y-shaped ! sevetal 

D. salmonifl Shaffer (Fig. 286). Body lanceolate; poa- 

Plf. 285 terior suckers slightly raised and with 1 pair of hooka: 
Dlicoeoty{« ^ , ■ „ 

tatmonit 5 nun. long : on the gills of the rainbow trout. 

Rereron^s 2. DlOUDOPBO&A Ooto. Body elongate; posterior 

suckers either stalked or not and acting as pincers; each 

sucker with a chitinous frame work in form of a Greek cross: on the 

gills of the Sparidae and other marine fishes. 


D. aiBnls (Linton). Body stteniiate, apatulate; anterior portion 
•Uiptieal; poet«rior portion cylindrical; posterior suckers with long 
stalks; length 12 to 40 nun.: in the mouth of the flonnder. 

Paiied anterior suckers present; posterior disc-like region elongate 
and bearing numerous small sackers, which may be found only on one 
aide, making the animal asymmetrical; 4 genera. 

KiOBOOOTTUt van Beneden and Hesse. Pof*-""- 
r^on bearing 10 to 120 pairs of minute sessile su 
on gills of marine flshea; man; species. 

M. longlcaadft Goto. Sucker disc more thai 
the length of the body ; about 120 pairs of sncken 
«nt; 7 nun. long; 2 mm. wide: on the gills of the 
fish; Newport. 

M. pogonlM MacCallnm 
286). Sncker disc about a tb: 
the body; length 12 mm.: on Po 
eromia, often very nomeroos. 

Ifinnte forms occurrii^ o 
gills of fresh-water and marine 
body minnte, nsnally without sd 
era, but with 2 to 4 retractile I 
tacles at the forward end 
and a disc at the hinder end 
armed with numerous books: 
about 9 genera. In the genus 
Gyndaclylvt a curious pedo- 
genesis often occurs. A young individual will come 
to sexual maturity before it is bom and while it is 
still in the matenial uterus, and produce young in its 
nteroB. This last individnal may also have young in 
its uterus, and 4 generations may thus be found, one 
inside of another. 

Otkosaottlits Kordmann. Uinute, elongated 

womiH with 2 short anterior projections and a posterior disc bearing 

about 16 marginal hooks and 2 large central ones; no eyes present: 

4 species. 

a. slBgans Nordmano (Fig. 2S7). Length 1 mm.; width .2 mm.: on 

the gills and skin of the carp and other fresh-water fishes. 

Fig. 2Re— V<cnKwlvI« 

Fix- 2 


Obdeb 2. ASPIDOOOTTLEA. (Fio. 28S.) 

Uoaogenetic and digenetic trematodea which attach tbemaelTea to 
their hoet by means either of & median row of Backers or a yery large 
ventral auddng disc in which are sacking pita or de- 
pressions and on the margin of which are often sense 
organs; books and anterior suckers not present and 
intestine not bifurcate: in the intestine of fishes and 
reptiles and in mollusks and crustaceans ; 1 family and 
a small number of species. 

Dtasnm ot the 

1 moQtb 
a, tDtesUne 
8, KCDltBl pore 

S> Tolk Klindi 

0, uterus 

7, teidi 

8, nntnl lackeni 


With tbe obaracters of the order: 8 genera. 
K^ to the Ajnerican genera of ABpidobothridae : 
a, Bod7 crllndrical witb a midventrKl row of snckers. 

1. Stickocotiu 
a. Large ventral sacking disc CMitainlng 3 or 4 loDgitu- 
dioal rows of depresaions. 
i. Three rowi present 
Oi Median depreBsions very elongate transversely, the 

lateral depressione being roond 2. CoTiLOOASTxa 

C All the depressions transverselr elongate. 3. Cottlasfis 
bi Four rows present 4. Aspidoqastb 

vr BOCKUia aiBC 

1. STtOBOOOTTiiB Cnnningbam. Body cylindrical 
uid elongate with a midventral row of 20 to 30 suckers extending tbe 
length of the body: 1 species. 

S. nephropia* Cunn. (Fig. 286). Length of adult 17 to 105 mm., 
with 20 to 27 suckers; length of tbe larva 3 to 7 mm., 
with 7 to 22 snckera: adult lives in the liver of Raja 
and the larva encysted in tbe intestinal walls of lob- 
sters and lai^ crabs on tbe Atlantic coast; Europe. 

2. OomoOAflTSB Monticelli. Sucking disc long 
and narrow with 2 lateral rows of round depressions 
and a median row of very elongate transverse depres- 
sions; 2 testes; marginal sense oi^ans: 2 species, in 
the intestine of marine and fresh-water fishes. 

0. ocddentalisf Nickerson (Fig. 290). Sucking disc witb 132 to 144 
depressions; length 10 mm.: in the sheepshead in Minnesota. 

■ lam trom a 




as In I>1g. 288. 

■ See "Ueber die geacbJecbtiFeUe Form von GUcbocotrle nepbn^lB CnnD.," hj 
r. Odbner, ZooL Anc ToL 21, p. BOO, ISSS. 

t "Cot7loK«8ter Dcddentall* n. ap. and a BevliloQ of tlie Family Aipldo- 
bothridse," bj W. S. Nickerson, ZooL Jabrb. Abt C. 87s., Vol. IS. p. 607, 1902. 
"Synopsis of the Trematodea, Fart II. Xbe Aipldoeotyle^" etc, by H. 8. PiBt^ 
An. Nst, ToL 86, p. 887, 1602. 




Fig. 2 

notiiioffi — 






S. OoTTiAiFtB Leidy. Sucking disc broadly elliptical with 3 raws 
of transveisely elongated depressions; marginal sense organs and 2 eyes 
present: in the mantle cavity of mnssels aod tlie intes- 
tine of turtles; 2 species. 

0. insignia* Leidy (Fig. 291). Length 1£ mm.; nnm- 
faer of depressions aboat 29 : on the kidney 
of Anodonta; common. 

4. AspnwaABiiB von Baer. Small 
worms in which the body consists of a cyl- 
indrical anterior portion and a very large 
elliptical ventral disc in which are 4 longi- 
tadinsl rows of sucking depressions, nnm- 
berii^ 64 to 120 and with marginal sense 
oigans; 1 testis: in the intestines of fishes 
and in fresb-water pelecypods and marine 
gastropods; several species. — .-•^. ~w. 

A. Mochicola V. Br. (Fig. 202). Body elongate; nnmber of depres- 
sions about 64; Length 3 mm.; 34 marginal sense organs: mostly in the 
liver, pericardium, and kidney of Unio and Anodonta; Europe. 

Obdeb 3. DIOENXA-t (Fio. 293.) 
Entoparasitic, digenetic trematodee living in two or 
more hoete, to which they attach themselves by means of 
either one or two median 
suckers. One of these is al- 
ways an oral sucker and at 
the front end of the body, ex- 
cept in Bucephalus; the second 
sucker, when present, is either 

on the ventral surface or at the binder end ^ 

of the body and is caUed the acetabulum. 

A few blood-infesting forms are without 

suckers. In the Holostomidae an additional 

oi^an of attachment in form of a large disc 

or projection back of the acetabulum is also 

present. Hooks are never present in con- 
nection with the suckers but in some cases 

with the genital organs, and the body is 

often covered with small spines. The median 

A aplduiriu t«r 

u Id Ftg. 2S8. 

I of a 

Fig. 293— DUvrai 

dlgenetio tremiHodt 

ham, altered). 1, oral inck- 

er; 2, brain; 3, geultal 

pore ; 4, IntestlDe ; 0, cir- 

:eptaculum scml- 

;' fo. Lbu- 

rcrBcmnal; 11. volk Klftnds; 
12, teitlB ; 13, excretorr 

• See "Od the Bablti aad StTDCtare of Cotrlaipla InilgDiB," etc, bj H. [^ 
OrtKun, ZooL Jabrt). At>t. t. Anst., Tol. 21, p. 201. 

t See "Sjnoptls of Uie Tremitodes, Put II. The Aipldocot;lea and the Hals- 
coeotrlea," etc, b; H. 8. Pratt, Am. Nat, Vol. 36, p. 887, 1902. 


cxcntoiy poie is at the hinder end of the body and the genital pore is 
in the ventral surfaoe or on the margin of the body. Special sense 
organs are with rare exceptions absent. The life history is known of 
but very few trematodes. The yonng animal passes out of the host in 
the egg, on leaving which it is nsnally a ciliated larva called the 
miracidinm; this larva seeks an intermediate 
host, often a moUuak, in the body of which it 
passes its larval life, living actively or encysted 
in some of the compact tissues. It here 
passes through one or more metamorphie stages 
which finally result in the production of young 
individuals, called cercariae, each of which has 
usually a locomotive tail (in Bucephalus two) 
(Fig. 294), which sometimes seek still another 
intermediate host, and are destined to develop 
into the adult worms. If, now, the host harbor- 
ing these larval worms be devoured by the Anal 
host, the young worms pass into the intestine or 
some other hollow organ of the latter and become 
mature. Tailless cercariae, which are quite numerous, do not leave the 
first intermediate host, but pass directly with it into the final host. 
Digenetic trematodes are common parasites, the adult worms being 
found in almost all vertebrate animals. The larval worms are usually 
found in snails, small fish, and other small animals. Some of them are 
dangerous parasites to man and bis domestic animals. The order con- 
tains about 2,000 species, grouped in 2 suborders. 
Key to the suborders of Digettea: 


Mouth in the middle of the ventral surface; intestine sae-Iike aad not 
bifurcate: 1 family. 


But one sucker present which is at the front end of the body; month 
in the middle of the ventral surface; intestine sac-like and not bifurcate; 
genital pore at hinder end: in intestine of fish, in both fresh and salt 
water; the larval forms in bivalve mollusks; 2 genera. 

BvOEFKALiTB von Baer {Gasterortomum von Siebold). Tolk glands 
in two distinct groups of follicles ; male genital pore at end of a papilla : 
i species. 


B. cndlMwnis (Rndolpbi) (F^. 295). Lengtb 1.4 mm.; width .5 
HOD.; in Tylominu marintia and other marine fiabes; larva (Fig. 2S4) in 
gonads and other organs of the ojster, often eaufiing 

Month at the anterior end, in the oral sucker; in- 
testine bifurcate (with a few exceptions) : 4 dirisions. 
K^ to the divisions of Prottomata: 

a, Bnt 1 SDcker present 1. Monobtouata 

», Two anoken present 

&, Acetabnlum at hinder end 2. Ahphistoiiata 

h, Acetabnlum in ventral surface. fik- 390 

e, Additional organs of attachment not present. BuceBitalut 

3. DiBTOMATA rcS^^Sth 

Ot AdditSonal sncklng disc or projectloD preaenL ^"oth^"' ' f'' """'*''■ 


n Fig. Wi. 

Division 1. HOHOSTOHAIA. 

Oral sucker alone present; arrangement of orgaoB similar to that of 
the Distomata: in vertebratoB, especially birds and sea turtles; several 


Large trematodes in which the intestinal trunks 
join at the hinder end; genital pore in anterior half 
of the body; ovary in front of testes: in the air 
passages of birds; 6 genera. 

Otolooolitx BrandeB. Intestinal trunks with- 
out lateral branches; uterus entirely between the 
trunks: 10 species. 

0. mntabile (Zeder). Body elongate, attenuate 
forward and about IS mm. long; testes small, the 
binder one near the juncture of the intestinal tmnks; 
in GaUinago and other birds. 


Body nsnally elongate, with a collar-like rim 
around the head; testes and ovary in hinder end of 
body, the testes being in same transverse plane with 
«5Sai»*^^aiSoa?iH« ^6 intestinal trunks between them: in turtles. 

R^ereoni FBOirooEPKAi.iTS Looss. With the characters of 

■einJlf. 298. jj^g family: several species. 

P. rssicapitlB (Leidy) {Fig. 296). Length 25 mm.; width 3 mm.; 
testes lobate: intestine of Sphargia coriacea. 


DiviBiOM 2. AUPEI8T01UTA. 

Body often more or less corneal, with the oral ancker at thb front 

end and the aoetabnlum at the hind end of the body; intestine bifor- 

eate, the phoiynx often having & pair of lateral pockets; testes 1 or 

2 in number, large, and situated in front of the small ovary; yolk 

glands usually lai^; genital pore in the forward 

part of body: in aU classes of vertebrates, nsoally 

in the digestive tract; 3 families. 

With the characters of the division: 8 genera. 
1. FutAxrHifToifUii Fishoder. Oral sucker 
mdimentary; acetabulum laige, with the excretoiy 
pore just dorsal to it; no pharyngeal pockets: in 
the stomach and intestine of 
X^SiV-SSSJ" vertebrates, principaUy mam- 
(fromBr.«n). j^,g. ^^^^ ^5 specles. 

p. carrl (Zeder) {P. comcum Zed.) (F^. 
297). Body conical, 10 mm. long: in stomach of 
sheep and cattle; rare in this country. 

2. DtnosiaovB Diesing. Aeetabulnm large, 
with the excretory pore in its center; pharyngeal 
pockets present: in rectum of amphibians; sev- ^^ 
eral species. I 

D. tamporatiu* Stafford (Fig. 298). Body 
conical; about 3.6 mm. long: in rectum of frogs; 
not uncommon. 

Body flattened or cylindrical and often cov- 
ered with minute spines, with the oral sucker 
at the front end and the acetabulum in the ven- •■'hiF^^s. 

tml surface; intestine, with a few exceptions, 

bifurcate, the 2 trunks being either short or long and branehed or 
simple; usually a pair of testes (in a few species several pairs) ; a single 
ovary, which is smaller than either testis, and often a large receptaculum 

• See "The lite History of rHploaiecos tempoc«tOi," etc, b; L. R. Cij, ZooL 
Jfthrb. Abt t. Anat, Vol. 28, p. S93. 1909. 

t See "An Inrentocy of the Oenen and aabseneia of the Trcmatode Family 
Faedondse," bj C. W. SUIei >nd A. EawaH, Arch, de Patu., Tal. 1, p. 81, 1808. 
"Weltere BeltrBse inr Kenntnlsi der Trematodea Fauna XgratoaM," etc., tj A. 
Loou, ZooL Jahrh. Abt. t. Sys., Bd, 12, p. 6S1. "NacbtrBgIl«be BeDwrknnfen," ete^ 
by A. Loom, ZooI. Aqi., Bd. 23, p. 601. 1900. 


Bftminia present; the uterus is a long tube, containing eggs; yolk glands 
eitber branched or compact: parasitic as adults in the intestine and 
other hollow organs of vertebrates; over 1,700 species, the family rela- 
tionships of which are as yet more or less obscure. 
K^ to the genera of Diatamata here described: 

«! Hermaphroditic distomes. 
(i Ovary in front of testes. 
Ci Utenifl does not extend back of testes. 
di Intestinal tnmks with lateral projections ; ovary and testes branched. 

1. Fasoiola 
4 Intestinal tranks without lateral projections. 

ei Genital pore back of acetabulam 2. Pasagonimub 

«^ Genital pore not back of acetabalnm. 
ft Mouth surrounded by spines. 

ffx A single row of spines 3. £3ghiivosioma 

ih A. double row of spines 4. Stephanoohasmits 

/a No Spines around the mouth. 

^1 £iZcretory vesicle winds between the testes 5. Aicphimeeus 

fft £iZcretory vesicle does not wind thus 6. AzTGiA 

e^ Uterus extends back of testes. 

di Mouth surrounded by 6 long papillae .7. Bunodeba 

da No such papillae. 
€i Intestinal trunks reach to about the middle of the body. 

ft Yolk glands branched and in middle area of body 8. BEinnai 

/a Yolk glands compact and at end of body 13. Miobophaixus 

«^ Intestinal trunks reach the rear end of body. 
ft Genital pore near front end of body. 
gt Genital pore near pharynx ; in lungs of frogs and toads. 

9. Pneuiconoecbs 

fft Genital pore in front of oral sucker 10. Obphalooonimus 

/a Genital pore near acetabulum ; yolk glands compact and lobate. 

gi Testes 2 in number 11. Gobgodbbina 

fft Testes 9 in number 12. Goboodbba 

Vm Ovary behind testes. 

Ci Hinder end of body not telescopic 14. Halipboub 

e^ Hinder end telescopic 15. Heioubus 

h^ Ovary between the testes 16. Cluvostoicum 

Oa Unisexual distomes. 17. Sghistosoica 

1. Fasoxoia L. Body broad and leaf -like, covered yrith minute 
spines and with a short conical anterior end at the base of which is the 
acetabulum; intestine, excretory vesicles, and genital glands richly 
branched; genital pore in front of acetabulum: in liver of herbivores; 
about 4 species. 

F. hepatica L. liverfluke. Length 18 to 50 mm.; width 4 to 13 
mm.; conical anterior end distinctly set off; body thin and flat: in the 
gall passages of cattle, sheep, man, and other animals, causing 
liver rot, which is often very fatal to herds ; intermediate host a snail of 
the genus Lymnsa; cosmopolitan, but rare in America, except in southern 
Texas, in Florida, and a few other places. 


T. iu«nk* (Bassi) (Fig. 299). Length 20 to 100 mm.; width 11 to 
mm.i bodjr flesh-colored and thick, with anterior end not distinctly 

PlK. 300 
_.. BefereiiceH m lo PI«. :.-.. 
D Ward). RelereDces sala Fix. 293. 

Fit. 1 

ParnBonimiH tctitermanl 

set off; in the gall passages of cattle; common in the southwestern 
states; life history unknown. 

2. pABAOoannrs Brann. Genital pore 
just behind the acetabnlnm; body thick, 
ovoid; intestinal trunks long and nn- 
branched; testes lobate; yolk glands veiy 
voluminous; utems very short: encapsuled 
in the lungs of mammab; 1 species. 

P. westermani (Kerbert) (Fig. 300). 
Body red in color, 8 to 20 mm. long; 4 to 
8 mm. wide: in lungs of eats, dogs, and 
in eastern Asia, in man. 

S. EoHnrosTOitA, Rudolphi. Body 
elongate and spiny; acetabnlnm near front 
end; month snrronnded by a reniform 
ridge in which is a row of spines, inter- 
rupted midventrally : many species. 

E. ecbinatnm (Zeder). Number of 
spines about 37; body 18 mm. long; 
1.5 mm. wide: in intestine of ducks, 
chickens, geese, and swans. 

4. Stepkavookaucub Loose. Body 

elongate and spiny; acetabulum near for- 

of spines: several species, in 


SttplUEHoeliatiitua catua, 
«ltb eitcDded cirrna (Pratt). 
Pji., prepbirrDi ; Pb,,^bar}|D 

ward end; mouth surrounded by 2 


8. cams Linton (Fig. 301). Number of spines 36, 18 in oaeh row; 
bo^ 6 mm. long; 1 mm. wide: in rectnm of the gray enapper. 

6. AJuruiMSBira* Barker. Body laaceolate; acetabulum in forward 
half with the genital pore in front of it; ovary near the center of the 
body; yolk glands divided into two regions; testes, which 
may be lobate, in a row behind it with the excretoty 
vesicle winding between them: several species, in land 

A. pModofelineiu (Ward) (F«. 302). Body not 
apinose; length 10 to 21 mm.; width 1 to 2.5 mm.: in the 
liver of cats, 

6. Azreu Looes. Body elongate; acetabulum near 
the middle, ovary far back of it, and between the two 
is the nterua; testes baok of ovary: in fish. 

A. loonl Uarshall and Qilbert. Length 6 mm.; 
breadth .5 mm.; body not spinose; yolk glands back of 
aeetabnlnm: in mouth and stomach of wide-mouthed black 
bass, pike, and dc^sh. 

7. BVNODEBA Raillet. Body 
ovate; mouth surrounded by 6 con- 
tractile projections; acetabulum near fie. 302 
center of body, with genital pore in ^"^^^ 
front of it; testes in hinder part of {warS'. 
body; ntems sac-like: in fresh-water ■b^id'f^'"^8. 

^ flsh. 

B. nodnloaa (Zeder). Length 1 to 3 mm.: in 
the intestine of the pereh and other fishes; inter- 
mediate host the crayfish, being found in cysts in 
various organs. 

8. BamRKf Pratt. Body elongate and spinose; 
Tig. Sta— Ranter acetabulnm near the middle of the body with the 
*Be?ereneS"*' genital pore between it and the oral sucker; ovary 

m1dPIk-z«3. just back of aeetabnlum; testes lohate and just 

baek of ovary : in reptiles. 
E. BlUptlciU Pratt (Pig. 303). Body elliptical; genital pore at left 
edge of body; 4 mm. long; in mouth of Heterodon platyrhimu, the blowing 
viper, and other snakes. 

9. PaxntOXEOXBt Loosb. Body elongate; suckers small, acetabu- 

• See "Tbe Trematode Oenna Oplitborchia," hy F. D. Baiker, Arch. S. Fanisit., 
Tiri. 14, p. S13. 1911. 

t Bee "De«crlptioiis o( Foar Dtstomes," br H. 8. Prttt, Hark Aqd. Vol., p. 26, 

1 Bee "On tbe Amerlcaii BepreieaUtlTes o( Dlstommn varlegatam," by J. 
Stafford, ZdoI. Jahrb. Abt f. Bfa., Bd. 16, p. BBS, 190S. 


Inm often mmnts; ovaty and t«Bt«fl back of aoatabnlTim; large reeep- 
taculnm §emiius pmant; nterua nsnally in loagitadinal folds: in Inogs 
of amphibians; 8 species. 

P. dmlliplaxiu (StafEord) (Fig. 304). Length S mm.; width 2 mm.; 
body spinose; testes small; uterus very volominooB and dail-eolored: 
in the longs of frogs and toads. 

10. OxiXAXOSOmnn Poirier. Body broad, , 
spinose ; acetabulum near center of body ; yolk 
glands; genital pore in front of oral Backer; 
excretory vesicle extensively branched; ovary jost 
back of acetabulum and testes back of it: in 

0. TWicandiii Nickerson. Body elliptical, 2 nun. 
long: in intestine of sofi-sbell tnrtles in Minnesota. 

11. GoBOOOEUVA Loose. Body elongate and 
without spines; acetabulum large and in forward 
half of boc^ ; back of it are the yolk ^ands, whieh 
are a pair of compact bodies; the ovary is back of 
these; testes 2 in number; aterus fllls the binder 
balf of the body: 4 speeies, in urinary bladder of 
frogs and toads. 

O. translndda (Stafford) (Fig. 305). Body 
widest in the middle and tapering to 
(suf^rd). both ends; 9.5 mm. long and 1.2 mm. 

'F^!iSs* wide: in the toad and the spring 


12. OOBOODBBA LooBB. Like Oorgodenna, but with 
9 testes in 2 rows in the hinder balf of the body: 2 

O, ampUcava Looss. Body widest in middle; acetsbn- 
lom very lai^; length 3.75 mm., and .75 mm. wide: in 
the urinary bladder of the bullfrc^. 

13. KiOBOFBALLin Ward. Body broad with blunt 
ends; intestinal cceca very short and not reaching acetabu- 
lum; yolk 0ands lobate, in hinder part of body; genital 

pore at left of acetabulum: in firesb-water fleb. Fit. SOB 

M. opaeos (Ward) (F^. 306). Length 1.7 mm.; ''^^S^S^ 
width 1 mm.; ceeopbagus very long: in intestine of Amia settnnam 
calva; intermediate host Cambarue propinqutts. ' 

U. EauPEeuB Looss. Body elongate; acetabnlnm in middla of 
body; yolk glands 2 compact lobate bodies near hinder end; ovary in 
fiwit of them and testes in front of ovary : in ampbibiana. 



H. ocddulis Stafford. Bod; 6 mm. long; 1.6 mm. wide; tvatea in 
oblique plane near aeetabnlnm: in the month of frogs. 

16. HsmuBOB Budolpbi. Small, cjlindrioal womu, the binder end 
of wboee bodies forme an appendix which can 
be invagiuated; entionla tranaverselj Btriped; 
yolk glande compact, behind ovary, whieh is jaat 
behind the teetes: in fish. 

H. appeBdicnlatu (Rnd.). Appendix from 
a third to twice the length of the body; aeetabn- 
lom mach lai^;er than oral sncker; yolk glands 
qtherieal; 6 mm. long: in digestive tnbe of her- 
ring and other marine fish; intermediate host ' 
nsnally oopepods. I 

16. OuxosTOMUit Leid;. Elongated worms 
with month snrronnded by a circular ridge; ovary 

between the testes in middle of body; intestine *^- o^^jf^Jf "" 
without pharynx and with side projections: in u^'lis!^. 

month of birds; aboat 10 species. 

0. marginatam (Rudolphi) (F^. 307). Body 6 to 10 mm. long; 
1 to 2 mm. wide; yolk glands voinminons; in Jirdea and other birds; 
intermediate host, the i 

snnflsh and other fishes. ' -^ 


Weinland. Sexes sepa- 
rate; acetabnlnm near 
front end; male is larger than 
female and has a deep groov< 
its ventral side in which the 
form female lies: several spei 

S in blood of nmmmftla in trop 

l, countries. 

S. lusnurtobtom (Bilha 

(Pig. 308). Body oylindrii 

length of male 14 mm.; Icngtf: 

female 20 mm.: in the blood u^ 

man, chiefiy in Africa, oceaeionally Bti^toioma 

Fia-SOT in this country. (Looh). 

CUmftowHtm 1, onl aucker; 

■Hir^iMtiiai 2, acetabulum ; 

(Oiborn). _ _ 8, male tadlvlfl- 

Beferencea DmsiOM 4. H0L08T01U.TA. nal; 1, female 

■• m n*. 293. iDdlvldual. 

Digenetie trematodes with an oral sucker and an acetabulum, and 
in addition a lai;ge variously constructed adhesive ventral disc or pro- 


jeetion situated just book of the acetabolum; body in most casea made 
Qp of 2 distinct regionB, a wider anterior portion eontaining the 2 
Backers and the disc, the lateral e^ea of which are often rolled in 
ventially and medially, and a posterior portion eontaining the genital 
organs; the genital openings being at the hinder end in a deep depres- 
sion called the bursa copulatriz ; the arrangement of the internal organs 
is similar to that of the Diatamata: in the intestine of vertebrates, princi- 
pally mammals and birds; about 6 goiera and 60 species. 
Key to the g^era of Holoatoinata here described: 

0) Lateral edges of anterior portion not rolled in mediall; 1. DiFLOSToifmi 

Oi EdgeB at anterior portion rolled in. 

i. Anterior portion trough-shaped 2. HEinsTOUUU 

&, Edges of anterior portion luaed midventrally 8. Stbioul 

1. DiPLOITOinTX Nordmann. Body composed of 2 distinct portions ; 
a large sacking disc back of the acetabulum: in the intestine of the 
Crocodilia and of birds ; intennediate hosts, fish ; aboat 15 speeies. 

D. grande Dieeing. Oral sacker and acetabalam small; sacking 

disc at the bottom of a deep cavity, the opening of whieh is on a conical 

projection jnst back of the aoetabalam; 

' length 4 mm.: in the intestine of the 

snowy owL 

2. HxxiBlOinni Diesing. Anterior 
portion of body flattened, the lateral 
edges being prolonged medially, forming 
a. troogh; behind the acetabulnm and 
sometimes projecting over it is an elon- 
gated adhesive elevation : in the liver of 
birds and mammals; about 15 species. 

«g.309 Fig. 310 =• '^**™ (^""'■J <^'«- 3«»>- 

Ffg. ao9— HB«*.iomH« aJatum Length 6 mm.; acatabulum smaller than 

^?h"^'e^ereSt« »^?n FlV" aSs' *''*' '*'^ *a<^«C, «t each sidc of whioh 

AS,\^^X~tl^iZS'^?MoS^''-i\ " a crescent-Shaped opening of glands: 

Th'.t^'»nte*HSr''ena""' '^'^^ *" **** stomach and intestine of the fox 

and dog. 

3. SisioEa Abildgaard {Bolostomun Rndidphi). Lateral edges of 
the forward portion of the body prolonged medially and joined mid- 
ventrally, making this part of tiie body cap-shaped; behind the acetabu- 
lnm is a conical adhesive elevation in a deep cavity: in the intestine of 
birds, rarely in fish and amphibians; about 30 species. 

S. wlegata (Dujardin) (Fig. 310). Conical elevation usually pro- 
jecting from the cup; length 6 mm.; testes branched; genital bursa at 
hinder end: in gulls, grebes, and loons. 

CE8T0DE8 189 

Class 3. CESTODES.* (Tapewobms.) 

Softy flat parasitic worms in which the body is made ap of two 
distinet parts, a head or scolez and a strobila. The scolez contains 
either simple or complex suckers and often hooks, the organs of attach- 
ment: the strobila is composed of a series of similar s^ments or proglot- 
tidSy each of which contains a complete set of male and female genital 
organs. In the simplest cestodes, however, no s^^entation of the body 
OGcnrs and but one set of genital organs is present (Fig. 312). The 
cestodes are digenetic entoparasites which, with a few exceptions, live in 
two different hosts; as idults they live in the intestine of a vertebrate as 
final host, and as larvae in the muscles or some other compact tissues of 
an intermediate host. The latter is some animal which is preyed upon or 
oeeasionally eaten by the final host. 

The scolex is without a mouth or organs of special sense. The suckers 
axe mostly 2 or 4 in number; their place is sometimes taken by variously 
formed sucker-like projections called bothria (Fig. 319). Accessoiy 
auekers (Fig. 318) are also sometimes present, and in a few forms the 
entire scolex is absent or rudimentary and the anterior proglottids are 
modified to form a so-called pseudoscolex, by means of which the animal 
attaches itself. Hooks are often present on the scolex to assist the para- 
site in maintaining its position. In the Taniidae they are situated on a 
central elevation called the rostellum, and in the Bhtfnchobothriidae on 
four long retractile projections called proboscides. 

Bdiind the scolex is usually a narrow unsegmented region called the 
neck, after which come the proglottids or segments, which are derived by 
a process of terminal budding from the scolex and may number from 
three to several thousand in number, in the different species. The seg- 
ments nearest the scolex are the youngest and smallest, those at the oppo- 
site end of the strobila are the oldest and the largest In Crossobothrium, 
however, and probably also in other cestodes, a different and much more 
complex method of growth has been observed,! new segments budding 
towards the scolex as well as away from it. The genital organs are usually 

•See "Die Pftraslten dee Menschen,** etc., by B. Lenckart, 1870. "Cestodes,** 
by M. Bnnn, Bronn's Klassen, etc., Bd. 4, p. 027, 1804 to 1900. "Tapeworms of 
Poultry," C. W. Stiles, Ball. No. 12, Bureau An. Ind., 1896. "Parasites of Fishes 
of tbe Woods Ucle R^on,*' by B. Linton, BuU. U. 8. Fish. Com., VoL 19, p. 405, 
1900. "Die thieriscben Paraslten des Menschen,** by M. Brann, 1903. "Parasites 
of Fishes of Beaufort,'* by B. Linton, Bull, of Bur. of Fish., Vol. 24, p. 821, 1905. 
"Illustrated Key to tbe Cestode Parasites of Man,*' by C. W. Stiles, Bull. 25, 
Hygienic Lab., Wash., 1906. "Tsenold Cestodes of North American Birds,** by B. H. 
Bansom, BulL U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1900. "Die Slisswasserfauna Deutschl.," by M. 
LAhe. 1910. "Index Catalogue,*' etc "Cestoda and Cestodaria," by C. W. StUes 
aad A. Hassan, BuH. 86, Hjg. Lab., Treas. Dep., 1912. 

t See "The Formation of Proglottids in Crossobotbrlum ladniAtam Untoo," by 
W. C. Curtis, BtoL BuU., YoL II, p. 202, 1906, 


immature in the younger segments; those following eontain the mature 
organs, and in the terminal segments these have in most species degener« 
ated, except the uterus, which is swollen with eggs, each of which usually 
contains an embryo. In the typical human tapeworms these ripe s^- 
ments are detached and pass out of the body of the host to the outside, 
where they break open and the young are scattered. In the Bothrioceph- 
aUndea, however, the eggs are laid in the intestine of the host and pass out 
with the feces, the terminal segments often containing no eggs. In some 
fish tapeworms the segments are detached before they are ripe and remain 
free in the intestine. The outer surface of the body is an unciliated 
euticula, while the interior contains la vesicular parenchyma, in which 
muscle fibers as well as the other internal organs and usually also cal- 
careous concretions lie. No digestive system is present, nutrition being 
carried on by absorption through the outer surface of the body. The 
excretory system consists typically of two pairs of longitudinal canals, 
one pair being near each lateral margin, which open to the outside in the 
terminal segment. The two canals on each side are not of the same size, 
the ventral being smaller than the dorsal and often disappearing alto- 
gether. The dorsal and the ventral pair are very often connected by It 
cross canal in each segment, and fine branches extend throughout the 
parenchyma containing flame cells. The nervous system consists of a 
number of longitudinal nerves extending the length of the body connected 
in each segment by a ring commissure; in the scolex is a pair of large 
ganglia forming the brain and usually other ganglia, joined with one 
another by a complex system of commissures. 

Cestodes, with rare exceptions, are hermaphroditic animals, each seg- 
ment containing both male and female organs; in some species each seg^ 
ment contains two sets of genital organs, one on each side (Fig. 322). 
The genital pores are situated either in the margin or in the ventral sur- 
face of the s^^ent. In the lowest cestodes there are three such i>ores, 
through which the vas deferens, the vagina, and the uterus, respectively, 
open to the outside (Fig. 315, B). In most cestodes the vas deferens and 
vagina pass to a genital atrium which has a single external opening, and 
no special uterine pore is present (Fig. 327, B). The arrangement of the 
reproductive organs is complex and varies considerably in the different 
groups of cestodes. 

Habits and Distribution.— The typical embryo of the tapeworm is a 
minute spherical animal called the onchosphere or six-hooked embiyo (Fig^. 
311), which is provided with three pairs of locomotory hooks. Having^ 
been swallowed by its first or intermediate host, either in drinking water 
or on the food of the latter, it woiks its way by means of its hooks into 
the blood vessels and may be carried with the blood to various parts of 

CE8T0DE8 191 

the body of the host It imbeds itself in a muscle or other organs and 
develops into a characteristic larva called a bladder worm. This larva 
is in some cases exactly like the scolez of the adtdt worm and is then 
called a plerocereas. In other cases it con- 
tains besides the scolex some or all of the 
strobila^ sometimes with the genital oigans, 
and is called a plerocercoid. In still others 
it is an ovoid vesicle filled with a fluid and 
containing one or more scolices and no ^ig, 811— A« Bsg of TmtUa 
proglottids and is called a cysticercus, or fSSS^'^mbryo^^'same cS» 
a minute vesicle completely filled with an Jj^ont^^B^^urn^i m^mbntne 

invaginated scolez and called a cysticer- 

eoid. This larva remains quiescent in the intermediate host, but if 
this animal be devoured by the final host the larva is transferred to the 
intestine of the latter and, at once attaching itself to the intestinal wall, 
b^;ins to produce the strobila. In a few weeks or months the entire worm 
is usually formed. 

Cestodes are iimong the most pronounced animal parasites and are 
found in all countries and in all of the larger animals. Man and his 
domestic animals are especially liable to infection and may be the hosts 
of some very dangerous tapeworms. 

Ht9lory.— The common tapeworms of man, including both the adult 
and the larval worm, have been known to science from the time of the 
Greeks. The name T€Bnia for a tapeworm occurs in Pliny, and the name 
Ttema soUum has been employed since the Middle Ages, when it was given 
to all the common tapeworms. The order Cestodes was established in 1808 
by BndolphL It included however only the ladult worms, the larval worms 
being placed by Rudolphi in the separate order CyaticL The relation of 
the adult to the larval worms was not then understood, notwithstanding 
the fact that Goeze and Pallas in the previous century had both clearly 
indicated it, Rudolphi and all the important helminthologists of his time 
believing that tapeworms may develop by spontaneous generation in the 
places where they are found. In fact it was not until 1851 that it was 
finally demonstrated by Kiichenmeister that the bladder worm is the larval 
stage of the adult worm. This investigator showed that if Cysticercus 
pisiformis be fed to a dog Ttsnia serrata will very shortly appear in the 
dog's intestine. He and others afterwards repeated the experiment with 
the tapeworms of the cat and of man and of other animals. In the case 
of the human tapeworms the cysticerci were given to condemned criminals 
and the adult worms were invariably found in their intestines after 
death. Rudolf Lenckart has since been the most active in the study of the 
entire group. 


The clasB contains not far from 1,000 species, which are distribattd 
among 2 subclasses. 

Key to the BubclaBsea of Cestodes: 

0, No Kolei; no Begmentation : aahrjo witb 10 books 1. Gb8TddaiI4 

Oi Body usnall; Begmented and witb a scolex ; embiro with 6 hooks. 

2. Cbstodeb, «. tfr. 

Subclass 1. CESTODABIA. 

Small, nns^meiited worms which live in fishes as adults and in 

mollusks and annelids as larvae; no distinct scolex is present althongh th« 

forwardendhasacontracUlepapillaoraBucker;batl set of genital organs 

present; uteros a winding tube witb an external opening; embiyo with 10 

locomotory hooks and called a lycophora: 2 genera and about 4 species. 

1. Otbooottu* Diesing (Fig. 312). Bod; leaf-like and elliptical, 

irith fluted margins; a small sucker at one end and a peculiar "rosette" 

organ at the other end with a retractile proboscis: 4 


0. fimbrlata Watson. Length ap to 55 mm. ; width 
10 mm.; in intestines of Chimiera; California. 

2. Amfhsuxa. Wagener. Body flat and leaf -like: 
forward end with a small sncker, beside which is the 
uterine pore; at the opposite end are the openings of 
the eirms and the vagina: 2 species. 

A. foUacea (Rudolphi). Lei^th 20 mm.: in th« 
body cavity of sturgeons. 

Subclass 2. CESTODES— Sbtmi* stricio. 
DtBlraiD of Body, except in rare cases, segmented, with a 

<Spencw''froB» Bcolex, which, however, may be rudimentary or rft- 
l.sac/e^l'z.'inale placed by a pseudoscolex ; uterus with an extem&l 
t^'dk ^ute^ opening only in the Bothnocephaloidea; vas deferens 
nerve? sroteni^ ^^^ vagina open usually into a genital cloaca which 
liJm. ^"''^' ^' opens to the outside by a single pore: 5 orders and 
about 90 (renera. 
Key to the orders of Cestodea here described : 
a. Uterine pore present ; genital organa do not d^Kenerate in the ripe MS- 

0, No nterine pore ; ripe segmeota contain tbe grarid ntems and little elae. 
bi Proboocides not present in ecolei. 
o. Four tfothria DBuallj present; folk glands paired; principally in fiataea. 

2. Trbaphtuidka 
o. Four SDcken present ; 7oIk glands not paired ; in land vertebrates. 

b. Poor retractile proboaddes present in scolex ; in fishes. 4. TBTP^ROBarnoaa. 

f B. B, Watson, Univ. tf Cal Feb., VoL 0^ 

CE8T0DE8 198 


Body often long^ with or without distinct segmentation; scolez with 
2 suckersy one in the dorsal and one in the ventral surface, which are 
usually weak and in certain forms are highly modified by the extension of 
their edges, and may be rudimentary or wanting, when their place may 
be taken by a single accessory sucker or ii pseudoscolez ; a uterine or 
birth pore present in the ventral surface; the other two genital pores 
also usually ventral but may^be dorsal or marginal; testes numerous; 
ovary either distinctly or indistinctly paired and in the hinder part of 
the segment ; yolk glands paired in the lateral areas of the segment ; the 
genital organs do not degenerate: about 4 families; either adult or larval 
form usually in fishes. 

Key to the families of Bothriocephaloidea here described: 

Ox Uterus an irregrularly coiled tube 1. Diphtllobothbiidab 

a, Utenui not a coiled tube, usually sac-like 2. Pttchobothbiidab 


Scolez usually without hooks, segmentation in most cases distinct, 
but sometimes wanting; cirrus (penis) without spines; uterus a long tube 
coiled back and forth across the segment: 4 subfamilies and about 15 

Key to the subfamilies of Diphyllohothriidae here described: 

Oi Two suckers present 

&i Scolez very short ; no neck present 1. Liguliitab 

^1 Scolex elongate ; neck usually present 2. DiPHTixoBOTHBnNAB 

Ob But 1 sucker 3. Ctathocephalinax 


Scolez short, triangular, with small suckers and without hooks ; genital 
pores ventral: in the intestine of water birds as adults; larva a plerocer- 
eoid which may be as large as the adult and is found free 
in the body cavity of fishes : 2 genera. 

1. LxGiTLa Bloch. Suckers and eztemal segmentation 
wanting in the larva, and only the forward portion ezter- 
nally segmented in the adult, these segments, however, not 
corresponding to the internal segmentation: 1 si)ecies. 

L. intestinalls (L.) (Fig. 313). Length up to 40 cm. or ^ 3^3 

more; width 10 mm.: in perch, pike, and other fresh-water intMUnalit 

fish as a larva, and in gulls and other water birds as It^^^BriuS 

2. SoHZBTOCEFEALirB Creplin. Suckers and eztemal segmentation 
present and distinct in the larva as well as the adult, and internal and 
eiitemal segmentation identical: 1 species. 



Vlg. 314 — BohtttocephalM gatterotM. 

eod (LlDtoD) ; B, flab contalDloE t] 

vDTm (Cambridge Nataral Hiatorf ). 

t, flgb contalDlDK the larval 

8. gwteiostel (Fabriciue) (Fig. 314). Length np to 30 cm.: ia 
Gasteroateua and other fish and also tbe frog as a larva, and in water birds 
as adult. 

Scolex without hooks and with either 2 small suckers or higfal; modi- 
fled Backers } segmentation distinct; cirrus and vagina open into a 
genital eloaca, the pore of 
which is ventral and in 
^nt of the uterine pore: 
6 genera; in higher verte- 


Cobbold (Bothriocephalua 
Rudolphi; Dibothriocepha- 
tus Liihe). Scolex flattened laterally with 2 deep slit-like snckers; strobila 
long; uterus a long tube coiled Eigzag: over 60 species; in carnivorous 
mammals and water birds. 

D. Utnm (L.) (Fig. 315). 
Length up to 9 m., with several 
thousand segments; onchosphere 
eiliated and free-swimming: larva a 
plerocercoid 30 mm. long found in 
the perch and many other fishes; 
adult worm in man, also in the cat 
and dog, and oom- 
moa in certain locali- 
ties, especially where 
flsh is much eaten; 
in this country rare. 

Scolex usually with a single terminal sucker; outer 
segmentation indistinct or wantii^; genital pores either 
ventral or dorsal or both : 1 genus. 

CTATHOOiPKALtm Kessler. With tbe characters of 
the subfomily: 1 species. 
Fis-sis 0. tmncatiu (Pallas) (Fig. 316). Length up to 20 

cspAalM mm.; with about 6 segments: in the pyloric coeca of the 

(zil^ofcke). whiteflsh. 

Scolex without hooks, with 2 snckers more or less developed, each 
of which may be converted into a pocket by the partial fusion of its 


.S — DIptigllobothHum latum 
). A, anterior end. sbowlnc 
B, iiistuT« aesmeiit. 1. jolk 

. Wrth pore: 3, otenu; 4, 

. eicretor* ranal; 6, Derre; 
8, tbkId*! Dore i 8, male geol- 
drrni) ; 10, uterine poie. 

CE8T0DES 195 

walls, or may be subdivided into 2 portionsi of which the hinder may have 
the appearance of a separate sucker; a pseudoecolez may also take the 
place of the scolez; uterus usually an extensive sac, which may occupy 
the greater i>art of the segment with a ventral opening; pore for cirrus 
and vagina either marginal or dorsal: 7 genera; in fishes. 

1. ABOTHmnrK van Beneden. Suckers shallow; a cylindrical pseudo- 
scolex may be present in place of the scolez, the hinder margin of 
which is prolonged backwards so as to project over the strobila; seg- 
mentation of hinder part indistinct; cirrus and vaginal pores marginal, 
that of uterus medium: 3 species. 

A. rugosnm (Batsch). Length 25 cm. or more; breadth 4.7 mm.: 
in the intestine of the cod; often common. 

2. BoTHBiooEPEALini Budolphi (Dibothrium Diesing). Scolez elon- 
gate with rather weak suckers; no accessory suckers; segmentation 
often indistinct; neck not present; uterine opening midventral; common 
genital pore for cirrus and vagina middorsal: about 4 species. 

B. lacinatns (Linton). Body 15 cm. long, 4 mm. broad in the 
middle, tapering towards hinder end ; segmentation distinct, the posterior 
margins of the proglottids projecting backwards, making the margin of 
the strobila serrate : in Tarpon atlanticus. 



Scolez with 4 bothria, which vary much in form, being either stalked 
or not and with or without hooks and accessory suckers; a pseudoscolez 
may replace the scolez; segmentation distinct; cirrus and vagina open on 
the margin; no uterine pore; yolk glands paired: 4 families and about 
30 genera; in selachians, and also in other fish, amphibians, and reptiles. 

Key to the families of Tetraphyllidea here described: 

Oi Hooks present at the forward end of each bothrium. . . .1. Oitchobothriidab 
Oa No spch books 2. Phyllobothbiidak 


Hooks of various shape present in the anterior rim of the bothriA; 
bothria either sessile or with short stalks; accessory suckers usually 
present; the segments usually detach themselves before sezual maturity: 
in spiral valve of selachians; 9 genera. 

1. CAixzoBOTHBimc Van Beneden. Bothria elongate, each being 
divided by 2 transverse septa into 3 divisions of unequal size and with 
either 1 or 3 small accessory suckers and 2 or 4 simple hooks: several 

0. Tfurticillatiim (Rudolphi). Length up to 15 cm.; length of ter- 
minal, segment about 3.5 nun,, width 1.7 mm.; a 3-lobed accessory sucker 
and 4 hooks in front of each bothrium; body very slender, resembling 



a white hair; seolez the size of a small pinhead: often common in spiral 
valve of the smooth dogfish. 

2. PEOBXXOBOTHBniic linton. Bothria rectangular and elongate, 
without subdivisions; an accessory sucker and 2 three-pronged hooks 

at the forward end of each bothrium; neck long, with 
minute spines: 1 species. 

P. lasium Linton (Fig. 317). Length 4 em.; terminal 
segment about 2.2 mm. long and .84 mm. Wide: in spiral 
valve of the dusky shark. 


Fig. 817 

Seolez of Scolez without hooks; bothria usually stalked and with 

Phoreiohoth' . . 

Hum latium . or without septa subdividing them, and with or without a 

myzorhynchus, which is !a central, stalked sucker rising 

from midst of the bothria, and other accessory suckers: about 12 genera. 

Key to the genera of Phyllohothriidae here described : 

Ox Bothria without tranflyerse septa and myzorbyncfaua. 

&^ Bothria without accessory suckers 1. AwTHOB o r ma P M 

&a Bothria with accessory suckers. 

Oi Each bothrium with 2 suckers 2. Obtomatobothbium 

0| Each bothrium with 1 sucker. 

di Edges of bothria not or but little convoluted 8. CBOSSOBOTHanric 

4i Edges of bothria very mnch convoluted 4. Phtixobothsiuic 

a, Bothria with 2 septa and with a myiorhynchus 5. EoHExnoBOTHBiuiff 

1. AvTHOBOTHBruK Van Beneden. Bothria very contractile, oval 
in shape, stalked, their edges not or but little folded; without accessoiy 
suckers; body elongate: several species. 

A. ladniatnm Linton. Length up to 21 mm.; length of terminal 
segment about 1.8 mm., width 1 mm. : in spiral valve of 
sand shark and other sharks; often numerous. 

2. Ohtoxatobothbittx Diesing. Bothria . stalked, 
with a larger accessoiy sucker in the middle and a 
smaller one at the forwatd end of each, which may be crowoio^ium 
confluent; neck long: several species. '(cSr8ls)T* 

0. paulI}^L Linton. Length 9 mm. ; breadth of ter- 
minal segment about .28 mm., length 1.03 mm.: in spiral valve of the 
tiger shark; often very numerous. 

3. CaossoBOTEBiTTX Linton. Bothria stalked, each with an aceefr> 
sory sucker at the forward end, and with its rim more or less convo- 
luted; body elongate: 1 species. ^ 

0. ladniatnm Linton (Fig. 318). Length up to 25 cm.; segmenta- 
tion occurs at certain times in both directions, making the middle segments 
the youngest : in the spiral valve of the sand shark ; common. 


4. PKTLLOBOTHBZinc Van Beneden. Bothria sessile or nearly so, 
irith very convoluted edges and with an anterior accessory sucker; neck 
very long: several species. 

P. f oUatnm Linton. Length up to 18 cm. ; length of 
terminal segment about 1.4 mm., width .9 mm.: often 
numerous in spiral valve of the sting ray. 

6. BoHSVBZBOTHBnjic van Beneden. Bothria stalked, 
elongate or oval, imd very contractile, the face of each 

Ftff 310 

being subdivided by 1 or 2 longitudinal and several trans- scoiew of 

; , , , . Boheneiltothriitm 

verse septa; myzorhynchus present but may be wantmg m rariauie 

, (Braun). 

old worms: several species. 

E. variabile v. Ben. (Fig. 319). Length about 10 cm.; neck long: 

in the spiral valve of the common skate; often common. 


Body usually elongate; scolez with 4 simple cup-shaped suckers, 
between which a protrusile rostellum with hooks is usually present; 
segmentation distinct; no uterine pore; common genital pore usually 
marginal; yolk gland unpaired and usually behind the paired ovary: 10 
families and about 50 genera which live principally in the higher verte- 
brates; larva a eysticercus or cysticercoid, so far as known. 

Key to the families of Cyclophyllidea here described: 

Oi Uterus transyerae in position and either tubular, sac-like, or reticulate. 

hi Scolez without hooks 1. Anoflogephaudab 

5, Scolez with hooks. 

Ci No hooks in the suckers 2. DiPTLiDnDAB 

Ca Suckers armed with hooks 3. DAVAiNEmAX 

Oa Uterus consists of a median stem and side branches 4. TiENUDAB 


Scolez more or less spherical, without hooks but with large suckers; 
segments short and wide; uterjis transverse in position and tubular, sac- 
like, or reticular: in mammals; 8 genera. 

Key to the genera of Anoplocephalidae here described : 

IK Genital pore on but one side of the segment. 

hi Genital pores on the same side of all the segments 1. Anoflocephala 

(, Genital pores regularly or irregularly alternate 2. Bebtia 

Of Genital pores on both sides of the segment 

hi Uterus reticulate and double 4. Moniezia 

&a Uterus tubular. 

Ci Uterus a thick tube, single or double : in rodents. 3. CrrroT^NiA 

Ct Uterus undulate : in sheep 5. Thysanosoma 

* See "A BeTislon of the Adult TapewormB of Hares and Babbits," by G. W. 
StUes, Proc U. S. Nat. Mus.,. VoL 10, p. 145. 1806. 



Fig. 320 — Ante- 
rior end of Anoplo- 
cephaia perfoliata 

1. AvoPLOOEPHALA Blanchatd. Segments much broader than long; 
genital pores all on the same side of the segments and never oji^both 
sides: about 16 species; in horses and rodents. 

A. perfoUata (Goeze) (Fig. 320). Length up to 8 
cm.; scolex large, square, with 4 projections extending 
backwards, 2 being dorsal and 2 ventral: in the ileum, 
caecum, and colon of the horse, often in large numbers. 
2. Behtia BlaHchard. Segments broader than 
long; genital pores regularly or irregularly alternate, 
but never on both sides of a segment: in apes, mon- 
keys, and rodents; about 6 species. 

B. americana (Stiles). Length 33 mm.; width 6 mm.; with about 
90 segments; no calcareous concretions: in porcupines; often common. 

3. CiTTOTiEinA* Riehm. Segments 
broader than long with genital pores on 
both sides ; 2 sets of genital organs and 1 or 
in some cases 2 simple, transverse, tubular 
uteri in each segment; vagina always ven- 
tral to the cirrus: in rodents; 7 species. 

C. variabilis (Stiles) (Fig. 321). 
Length up to 18 cm.; breadth 10 mm.; 
cirrus pouch tubular, of equal diameter 
throughout; testes form a band in the 
median area between the ovaries: in the 
cotton-tail rabbit and the marsh hare. 

4. MoNlEZlAf Blanchard. Segments broader than long with genital 
pores on both sides; 2 sets of genital organs and 2 complex reticulate 
uteri in each segment; vagina ventral on right side and dorsal on left 
side to cirrus; interproglottidal glands along hinder 
margin of the segment: 6 species; in ruminants. 


Fig. 821 — CittotiJBnia variabilU 
(Stiles). A, head; B, a seg- 
meat. 1, excretory canals; 2, 
o?ary ; 3, testes. 

Fig. 322 — Moniezia planisaima (Stiles). A, a segment: B, head. 1, genital pore; 

2, ovary ; 3, yolk gland ; 4, Interproglottidal gland. 

M. planisaima Stiles and Hassall (Fig. 322). Body very broad and 
flat and up to 2 m. long, and 26 mm. broad; interproglottidal glands 

•See "Studies on the Genus Cittotsnia,*' by R. A. Lyman, Stnd. from Zoot 
Lab., Univ. of Neb., No. 48, 1902. 

t See "A Bevlsion of the Adult Cestodes of Cattle, Sheep," etc., by C. W. Stiles 
and A. Hassall, BuU. No. 4, Bur. Animal Ind., 1893. 



Fig. 323 — Moniezia expanaa (Stiles). A, two segments; 
B, end view of head; g., interproglottldal glands. 


'f « V • ■• • ' 

'I 1 

elongate and not in groups: in small intestine of sheep and cattle; often 

M. expansa (Rudolphi) (Fig. 323). Body up to 4 m. long and 26 
mm. wide, and often 
quite thick; interpro- 
glottldal glands a 
straight row of round 
sacs : in sheep, cattle, 
deer, and goats; com- 


Diesing. Segments broader than long with genital pores on both sides or 
only on one side, and either 2 or 1 set of genital organs; a single uterus 

in each segment con- 
sisting of an undulat- 
ing, transverse tube 
with side pockets: 2 
species, in sheep. 
A ^ T. actinoides Dies. 

^*- ^^Thytanosoma actinoides (Stiles). A, bead, xj^ frinired tapeworm 
side view and ventral view ; B, segments. A*x«g«« i^^,^yw^aux 

(Fig. 324). Length 
up to 30 cm.; width 8 mm.; head prominent; neck very flat and broad; 
hinder margin of each segment fringed: common in the west. 


Scolex usually with hooks on a rostellum; uterus made 
up of a large number of egg sacs, or it may be absent, in 
which case the eggs are distributed throughout the par- 
enchyma; larva a cysticercoid : in birds, mammals, and 
reptiles; 10 genera. 

1. DlTTLinimc Leuckart. Rostellum retractile and 
with hooks; genital pores and organs double in each s^- 
ment; uterus reticular: 1 species. 

D. caninum (L.) {D, cucumerinum Rudolphi) (Fig. 
325). Length up to 25 cm.; breadth 3 mm.; ripe segments 
about 7 mm. long and 3 mm. wide and often reddish in 
color : in cats and dogs, and occasionally in young children ; 
cysticercoid in the • dog's flea ; common. 

2. Htxeholepzs* Weinland. Small filiform worms with broad seg- 
ments with the genital pores all on the left and never on both sides; 

* See "An Account of the Tapeworms of tbe Genus Hymenolepis Parasitic In 
Man," hj B. H. Ransom, Bull. No. 18, Hyg. Lab., 1904. 

Figr. 325 

(from Ward). 


rofitellum retractile and with or without hooks; 3 testes in each seg- 
ment; with a sac-like uterus filling the ripe segment: ibont 30 species; in 
mammals and birds. 

H. nana (von Siebold). The dwarf tapeworm (Fig. 326). Length 
15 mm. or more; breadth .7 mm.; scolez with a single row of about 28 

hooks: in the small intestine of man and the rat and 
mouse; the cysticercoid lives in the intestinal villi of the 
same host; the parasite often causes diariiiea and nervous 

H. carioca (Magalhss). Length up to 8 cm.; width 
.7 mm.; rostellum without hooks; edge of strobila serrate: 
in chickens; common. 

H. dimnuta (Rudolphi). Length up to 6 cm.; width 
4 mm.; rostellum rudimentary^ without hooks: in cats and 

Fajcily 3. BAVAINEIDAE. 

Scolez with hooks on a retractile rostellum and 
HvmvnoSpu numerous small hooks in the suckers; genital pore usually 
(Leuckart) ^° ^^^^ ^^® ^^® ^^ * segment: 3 genera; in mammals and 

Dataivea Blanchard and Bailliet. Small worms; eggs in capsules 
in the middle area of the ripe segment: about 15 species. 

D. sahnoni Stiles. Length 88 mm.; breadth 3 mm.; number of seg- 
ments about 450 ; genital pores generally alternate : in Lepus sylvaticua and 
L, melanotis. 

Family 4. T-ffilNIIDAE. 

Scolez usually with a rostellum with hooks; uterus^ in the ripe seg- 
ment, composed of a median tube and lateral branches; usually long 
worms with segments longer than wide; genital pores alternating irregu- 
larly and never on both sides of a segment : several genera. 

1. T^SHIA L. With the characters of the family : numerous species, 
which are usually found in predacious mammals and man, the cysticer- 
cus being found in ruminants and other plant feeders. 

T. saginata Goeze. The beef tapeworm (Fig. 327). Length 10 m. 
or more, with over a thousand segments, usual length 4 to 8 m.; ter- 
minal segments about 20 mm. long and 7 mm. broad, containing a uterus 
which has from 20 to 30 branches on each side; scolez 2 mm. thick, 
without rostellum or hooks: in the human intestine; the cysticercus 
{C, hovis) is about 9 mm. long and 5 mm. thick and lives in the muscles of 
cattle, and a person may infect himself with the worm by eating rare 
beef; the commonest human tapeworm in this country. 

T. xdiiun L. Tbe pork tspeworm (Fig. 328). Length about 3 m^ 
with abont 900 B^ments; terminal a^ment about 12 mm. long and 

KBmeni: nuoni & cuira oi coe aiBisiiire back irom the bead ; C, terminal Begmeiii ; 
D, ■ piece of beet coutalulDg time cjitleoid ; P, commoD Keoltal pore. Otber refer- 
eucea aa In Fig. aio. 

6 mm. wide, containing a uterus which baa from 7 to 10 branches on 
eaeh side; scolex about 1 mm. thick with a rostellum bearing a double 
row of about 28 hooks: in the human intestine; the cysti- 
cercus (C cellvlo»ae) is from 6 to 20 mm. long and about 
half as wide and thick and lives normally in the mnscles of 
the pig, but also lives readily in man, being found in the 
^e, brain, heart, and other organs and causing often in- 
sanity or death; rare in this country. 

T. marglnatli Batsch, The large dog tapeworm. 
Length up to 3 m.; terminal s^ments 10 mm. long and 
5 mm. wide, containing a nterus with from 4 to 8 branches 
on each side; rostellum with 2 rows of about 38 hooks: in 
the dog; cystieercus {C, tenuicollw) in the viscera of piga 
and ruminants; not common in this country. 

T. snrata Qoeze. The serrate dog tapeworm. Length 
up to 1 m. ; terminal segments 10 mm. long and 5 mm. wide, 
eontaining a uterus with S to 12 branches on each side; edge 
of strohila serrated; rostellam with 2 rows of about 40 
books: in the dog; cysticercua (C. pisifoTmis) about the 
size of a small pea, in the peritoneum of rabbits and hares; 

T. craalc(dlis Rudolphi. The cat tapeworm. Length 
np to 60 cm. ; terminal segments 10 mm. long and 6 mm. wide, containing 
a uteruB with abont 10 branches on each side; rostellum with 2 rows of 


about 50 hooks: in the cat; cyBticercuB (C. faaciolaria) in the liver of the 

mouse and rat, where it forms a coDBpicuous tumor, and is peculiar in that 

it consists of a scolez and a number of segments, the 

latter, however, degenerating on arriving in the cat's 

intestine and the scolex developing a new strobila; very 

ripe aesDieDt, 

2. 1IUI.II0SP8 Qoeze. Like Ttmia but with a large 
cysticercus from the inner wall of which many scolices 
project into the interior: abont 6 species. 

H. mnlticeps (Leske) {Ttenia ceenunu von Sie- 
bold). The gid tapeworm* (Fig. 329). Length ap to 
60 cm. ; terminal segments 5 mm, long and 2 mm. broad, 
contaioing a uterus with about 22 branches on each side; 
roetellum with 2 rows of about 30 hooks: in the dog; 
(^sticercus (Csnurus cerebTalis), which is 25 mm. in 
diameter or larger and spherical and 
contains hundreds of scolices, lives in 
the brain or spinal cord of sheep and 
occasionally cattle, causing gid or stag- 
gers; northwestern states; Europe; often killing great 
number of sheep. 

S. EOHZNOOOOODB Rudolphi. Like Ttsnta, but with 
a large cysticercus from the inner wall of which capsules 
of scolices project into the interior: several species. 

E. grannlOBOS (Batsch) {Txnia echinococcus von 
Siebold). The echinococcus tapeworm (Fig. 330). 
Length up to 5 mm., with but 3 or 4 segments; rostellum 
prominent, with 2 rows of about 40 hooks: in the dog; 
cysticercus (EchinococcuB polt/morphui) lives in the 
liver or other oi^ns of sheep, pigs, cattle, or other 
animals, and also in man, when it is called a hydatid 
cyst, and as it may grow to be half a foot in diameter 
and to weigh several pounds and contains thousands of 
scolices, it may cause death; often common in Europe 
but Apparently rare in this country; infection obtained directly from the 
hair or tongue of dogs. 


Scolex very long, composed of 2 portions, a head which has 2 or 4 
botbria and 4 retractile and spinose proboscides, and a long head stalk; 

aegmeat&tioa distinct; genital pores marginal) genital organs vith the 
same arningement as in the TetraphylUdea: in the intestine of selaehians; 
larvae encysted in teleosts; 2 families. 

With the characters of the orders: nnmerons genera, 
concerning the value and position of man; of which much 
nncertaint; prevails. 

1. Ekthohobothuitb Rudolphi. Two bothria, one 
dorsal and one ventral, which tend to convei^ at their 
forward ends: many species. 

B. hulhifer Linton (Fig. 331). Bothria oval; neck 
long and slender; length of body up to 40 mm., with 12 or 
less segments: in spiral valve of Muatetua cants; cysts in 
mackerel, blueflsh, and other teleosts; common. 

2. TzTBAXHnroROBOTKBnni Diesing. Four bothria 
present; head stalk cylindrical; many species. 

T. robnsttim (Linton). Bothria elongate; length of 
body 24 mm.; eegmente usually broader than long: in Rhynchoboth- 
stomach and intestine of skate; common. (LIdIod). 

Class 4. NEHEKTZA.* 

Nemerteans. Soft, vety contractile, and often brightly colored flat- 
worms, most of which are non-parasitic 
and live in the sea. The body b usually 
elongate and more or less tape-like or fili- 
form, varying in length from 5 mm. to 
30 m. m the different species; it is unseg- 
mented, but often has an annulated ap- 
pearance due to the regularly repeat«d 
subdivisioDS of certain of the internal 
organs. The mouth is in the veutrat sur- 
face near the front end and the anus is at 
the hinder end of the body. Dorsal to the mouth (Fig. 332) is an opening 
into a very deep tubalar pocket, extending far back into the bod;, a portion 

* See "Uarlne Nrmcrteani of New Bagland and Adjicent Waterg," bj A. B. 
VeiTlll, Tnua. Codd. Acad., Vol. 8, p. 382, 1S92. "Die NemertlDen," PiaDa a. Flora 
d. Oolfei V. Neapel, b; O. BQrger, 1896. "NemertlDl," Kl. n. OrdD., Vol. 4, Sapp., 
1S6T. "On tbe Connective TlsBuea and Body CaTtUea at tbe Nemerteins, wltb Notes 
on Clasalflcatioii," by T. H. Montsomer;, Jr., Zool. Jabrb. Anat, TaL 10, p. 1. "Notea 
of the Tlmea of Breeding of Some Common New England Nemertfane," by W. R. Coe. 
Sdeoce N. 8., Vol. 9, p. lOT, 1899. "Nemertlol." by O. BUrger, Das Tlerrelcb, 1904. 
"ajno[Kla of tbe Nemerteana, Part I," by W. R. Coe, Am. Nat., Vol. 39, p. 42S. 
"Nemerteana of tbe West and Nortbweat Coaat of Nortb America," by W. R. Cos, 
BoU. Hm. Comp. ZooL, ToL 47, ISOB. 



of which can be everted and thrust forward in the form of & probosek 
(Fig. 333) : in most hoplonemerteans this opening coincides with the 
mouth. The proboscis is often nearly as long as the body itself and can 
be thrust out far in advance. It is primarily a tactile organ and in the 
hoplonemerteans is armed with calcareous stylets of characteristic form, 
indicating that it has also an offensive function. Dorsal to the proboscis 
in most species are the openings of the so-called cephalic glands. In 
Malacobdella a large sucker is present at the hinder end, and Nectonemertea 
possesses a pair of lateral swimming 
organs. Many heteronemerteans have 
a caudal cirrus at the posterior end. 
The outer surface of the body is a 
glandular, ciliated epithelium and is 
often brightly colored. 

No body cavity is present, the 
spaces between the organs being filled 
with a gelatinous parenchyma. The 
proboscis, however, is surrounded by a 
muscular sheath containing a corpuscu- 
lated fluid (Fig. 333,4). The digestive 
canal extends the whole length of the 
body, and is usually differentiated into 
oesophagus, stomach, intestine, and rec- 
tum. The intestine is often provided 
with regularly recurring paired diver- 
ticula and in the hoplonemerteans has 
a long intestinal csBcum, extending for- 
ward to near the front end of the body. 
Two or three longitudinal blood vessels 
with connecting branches and contain- 
ing a corpusculated fluid differing 
somewhat from that in the proboscis 
sheath extend the length of the body and are connected with large blood 
spaces. A pair of profusely branched longitudinal excretory canals lie 
alongside the lateral blood vessels in the anterior portion of the animal, 
which usually open to the outside through one or more pores on each side 
of the body. Minute branches of these canals extend into the parenchyma 
and end in flame cells. The central nervous system consists of a four- 
lobed brain and a pair of large lateral nerves (Fig. 332) extending to 
the hinder end of the body, where they join; a dorsal median nerve is 
also usually present and in some species a ventral median one as well. 
A pair of lateral ciliated canals called the cerebral organs because they 

Fig. 833 — ^Diagram of nemertean 
worm— ^lorsal aspect. A, with pro- 
boscis retracted ; B, with proboscis 
extended (altered from Boas). 1, 
stylet; 2, proboscis; 3, poison 
gland ; 4. proboscis sheath ; 6, in- 
testine; o, gonads. 


lie in dose relation to the dorsal cerebral lobes occur in most nemer- 
teans: these are represented by a i>air of lateral sensory grooves in 
many paleonemerteans. In the hoplonemerteans and some heteronemer- 
teans also occur one to three supraoral or frontal organs, which are 
sensitive protuberances capable of being retracted so as to form a pit. 
Simple ocelli, each with lens and nerve, occur in most nemerteans. 
The number of such ocelli, which in a few forms are scattered along the 
sides of the body, may exceed 200. A few species have auditory sacs. 
The muscular system is well developed, consisting of two or three layers 
of circular and longitudinal muscles which bear an intimate relation to 
the main nerves. 

Most nemerteans are unisexual, but a few are hermaphroditic. The 
gonads are paired, spherical organs, which usually lie between the intes- 
tinal diverticula (Fig. 333) and discharge their products directly through 
the body wall to the outside, no permanent genital ducts being present. 
A few are viviparous. Development is direct in many forms, while in 
others the young animal leaves the egg as a free-swimming larva 
(pilidium or Desor's larva) and passes through a complicated metamor- 
phosis before acquiring the form of the parent. 

History.— The Nemertea have only quite recently been given an inde- 
pendent systematic position, having been formally grouped with the 
Turbellaria. The name orig^ated with Cuvier, who in 1815 gave the ge- 
neric name Nemertea to Lineus longiseimtM, Johnston (1846) first employed 
the name for the entire group. At the present time it is a matter of dis- 
pute whether the Nemertea should be grouped with the Plathelminthes or 
be given an independent position. The modem classification is due princi- 
pally to Hubrecht and Bui^er. The class contains over 400 species 
grouped in 4 orders, 87 species having been found on our Pacific and 62 
species on our Atlantic coast 

Key to the orders of Nemertea: 

Oi No sncking disc present; intestine not convoluted. 
hx ProboflciB without stylets ; mouth behind brain ; intestinal cecum absent 
Cx Muscular walk of body usually in 2 layers; eyes usually absent 

1. Palbonemebtea 
<% Muscular walls of body in S main layers ; eyes usually present. 

2. Hjsteuun emsbtea 
ht Stylets usually present ; mouth in front of brain ; intestinal csBCum 

usually present 3. Hoflonemebtea 

Of Sucking disc present ; intestine convoluted 4. Bdellonemebtba 

Obdeb 1. PAZ20NEHEBTEA. (Protonekertiki; MESONEMEnmn.) 

Body long and slender, often filiform; mouth usually far back, being 
always behind the brain; proboscis without stylets; cerebral organ and 
eyes usually absent; body wall contains two muscle layers, an outer 


circular, an inner longitudinal, to which a third, an inner circular, is 

sometimes added; lateral nerves either external to the muscles or 

imbedded in the longitudinal layer; cutis absent: 4 families, all marine. 

Key to the families of Pdleonemertea here described: 

Oi Paired intestinal diyerticula absent 1. GABnnELLiDAS 

a. Paired intestinal diverticula present 2. CEPHALOTBiCHmAS 


Cerebral organs represented by a pair of lateral epithelial depres- 
sions; brain and lateral nerves lie in the outer epithelium or just 
beneath it ; mid-dorsal blood vessel usually absent ; inner circular muscles 
encircling the proboscis sheath and intestine very thick: 5 genera and 
about 27 species. 

Cabhtella Johnston. Body cylindrical and filiform, with the head 
end large and distinctly set off; intestinal diverticula absent; lateral 
sense organs usually present near the paired excretory pores, consisting 
each of a round ciliated depression : 16 species, principally on the Pacific 

C. pellncida* Coe. Body very small, whitish in color, up to 25 mm. 
long and .5 mm. thick: not uncommon among annelid tubes at low water 
and below in Long Island and Vineyard Sounds; California. 


Body long and very slender, usually filiform; cerebral organ and 
eyes usually absent; mouth behind the brain; body wall contains two 
muscle layers, an outer circular and an inner longitudinal, with the brain 

and longitudinal nerves lying in the latter layer: 2 
genera and about 12 species. 

1. CxFHALOTHSix Oersted. Body filiform, taper- 
ing at the forward end, which is pointed; no excre- 
tory canals; inner circular muscles absent; the worm 
coils the body in a spiral: about 7 species. 

C. linearis (Rathke) (Fig. 334). Body whitish, 
Oeo&MMm yellowish, or flesh color, up to 16 cm. long and 1 mm. 
linearis (VotIU). thick; mouth very far back; proboscis very long and 

slender: Long Island Sound to Nova Scotia; Pacific 
coast; Europe; often common between tide lines, under stones and in 
the sand; breeds in August at Woods Hole. 

2. Oabivoma Oudemans. Body rather thick, cylindrical in front, 
flattened behind: 4 species. 

* See "Descriptions of Three New Species of New England Paleonemerteans,** 
by W. B. Coe, Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. 8, p. 916, 1886. 


0. tr«maplLoro6 C. B. Thompson. Body 12 cm. long, 3 mm. thick, 
buff in color; head white, flattened, rounded in front: Woods Hole. 

Obdeb 2. HETEBONEMEETEA. (Schizokemebtea.) 

Body often very long; mouth behind brain; proboscis without 
stylets; cerebral organ present; a caudal cirrus sometimes present; body 
wall contains three muscle layers of which the outer is longitudinal and 
between which and the circular muscles are the lateral nerves ; cutis well 
developed : 2 families and over 170 species. 


Body usually very long, but in some species relatively short and 
thick; a pair of conspicuous lateral sensory grooves usually on the head; 
3 muscle layers in proboscis; the outer one being longitudinal; cephalic 
gland small and slender: 10 genera and about 150 species. 

Key to the genera of Lineidae here described: 

Oi Caudal cirrus not present. 

5x Lateral sensory grooves wanting 1. Pabapoxja 

h^ Lateral sensory grooves present 2. LlllEUs 

o. Caudal cirrus present 

hi Lateral sensory grooves wanting 8. Zygeufoiia 

h^ Lateral sensory grooves present. 

Ci Lateral body edges not thin ; animals cannot swim 4. Miobura 

c^ Lateral body edges very thin ; animals swim 5. C bbebba txtlub 

1. Paxapolxa Coe. Body cylindrical anteriorly, flattened poste- 
riorly; head not set off from body; without sensory grooves on the head; 
eyes not present; cerebral organs a pair of fiat 

elevations: 1 species. Bj y| 

P. anrantiaca Coe. Color orange; length 25 
cm.; width 10 mm.; thickness 4 mm.: Vineyard 
Sound, at low-water mark. iLjy J ^ 

2. LzvsvB Sowerby. Body extremely long and 
filiform or tape-like and very contractile; head 
somewhat wider and tapering to a point; usually 
with eyes: about 50 species; cosmopolitan; animals 
cannot swim, and usually twist themselves into an 
irr^ular mass. 

L. ruber (0. F. Miiller) (L. gesserensia 0. F. ^^"^ pj ggg 
Miil.; L. viridia Johnston) (Fig. 335). Body ^'^T^Kih.omTB 
^lindrical; color very variable, being green, brown, CTj^Je'***^"^*** lateral 
or reddish ; a single row of 4 to 8 eyes on each side 
of head ; 20 cm. or more ; width 6 mm. : common under stones in shallow 
water from Long Island to Greenland; Alaska; Europe; breeds in June 
it Woods Hole. 



L. Bocialls (Leidy). Body ver; slender and flattened, 25 cm. loi^ 
and 5 mm. wide, green or brown in color; ventral side lighter than dor- 
sal ; a single row of 4 to 6 very small ejes on each side of the bead and a 
single pair of larger eyes some distance in front of the others: common 
from New Jersey to Bay of Fondy, living gregariously under stones, 
between tide lines; breeds in mid-winter in Long Island Sound. 

L. bicolor Yerrill. Body small, 45 nun. long, 1.5 mm. wide, cylin- 
drieal but somewhat flattened, dark green with a mid-doraal yellowish 
stripe ; with a single row of 8 to 14 eyes on each side : among algae and 
bydroide in shallow water in Vineyard and Long Island Sounds; very 
common in certain localities. 

3. ZTaBUFOUA C. B. Thompson. Body cylindrical anteriorly and 
flattened posteriorly; head very long and pointed and without lateral 
senaory grooves; caudal cirrua 
present: 1 species. 

Z. rnbens (Coe) {Z. Utoralit 
C. B. Thorn.*). Body slender 
and 8 cm. long; bead pure white; 
body whitish : coast of New Eng- 
land; southern California; on 
sand flats between tide lines. 

4. HiOBimA Ebrenbei^. 
Small, flat, and Soft nemerteans 
with a caudal cirrus, which can- 
not swim ; with 3 frontal organs ; 
Fig. S3T often with many eyes : about 17 


H. cnca Verrill. Body dark 
brown or yellow; 10 cm. long and 2 mm. wide; no eyes: Long Island and 
Vineyard Sonnds, at low- water mark; sexually mature in July and 
August at Woods Hole. 

H. leidTi (Yerr.) (Fig. 336). Body thick anteriorly; flattened pos- 
teriorly; IS om. long and 4.5 nun. wide; red or purple dorsally, usually 
with a lighter median line and lighter ventrally; proboscis flesb color: 
common ^m New Jersey to Cape Ann in the sand near low-water mark; 
breeds in mid-summer. 

G. OESEBBAirni.iTB Renier. Body long, flat, and broad, with a small 
pointed head and thin edges well adapted for swimming; eyes usually 
absent; mouth a long slit; with 3 frontal organs; proboscis very long; 
a caudal cirrus at hinder end: over 60 species; in all seas. 

tc., bj C B. Tbompion, Prctc. Acad. Mat ScL, PhOM^ 


0. lacteiu* (Leidy) (Fig. 337). Body 2 m. or less long and 26 mm. 
wide; extreme length up to 6.5 m.; flesh color; proboscis white: veiy 
common in the sand near low-water mark from Florida to Maine; breeds 
from March to May in Long Island Sound and in Jnly in Casco Bay. 

Obdeb 3. HOPLONEMEETEA. (Metansmebtinl) 

Body often very long and slender, bnt in many forms short and 
thick; month in front of the brain, osnally coinciding with the opening 
of the proboscis; intestinal osBcnm present; proboscis provided with 
stylets (Fig. 333) ; lateral nerve cords internal to the muscle layers of 
the body wall; frontal sense organ present: 9 families and more than 
200 species, which live in the sea, in fresh water, and on land; a few 
species parasitic; development usually direct. 

Key to the families of Hoplonemertea here described: 

<H Proboscis does not reach the hinder third of the body.l. BiiPLBOTOineicATiDAS 
0, Proboscis reaches almost to the hinder end of body. 
hi Four eyes asnally present, forming a quadrangle. 
Ci Mostly hermaphroditic; long, thin worms, some terrestrial. 

2. Pbosobhoohmidab 

c. Unisexual worms, short and thick 4. Pbostomatidas 

&9 ESyes numerous 8. Amphipobidas 


Body very long and thin; proboscis short 
and thick and with a single main stylet of 
variable form; usually with very small eyes: 5 
genera and about 25 species. 

1. ExPLEOTONXMA Stimpson. Mouth and 
proboscis openings coincide; usually with many 
eyes, never only four; accessory stylets pres- 
ent: 16 species. 

£. gradle (Johnston) (Fig. 338). Head 
end wider than body and with 20 to 30 eyes on 
each side; length about 20 cul; breadth 1.5 
mm.: color green; stylets slender and curved 
at the end : very common on Pacific coast north w netM ffradle (Coe). 
of San Francisco, in shallow water; Europe. 

2. OABOmonsMEBTXSf Coe. Body long and slender, cylindrical, 
usually not coiled; mouth and proboscis coincide, the latter being 

* See "On the Anatomy of a Species of Nemertean (Cerebratnlus lacteus Ver- 
riU)/* by W. R. Coe, Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. 9, p. 470, 1S95. '*The Habits and 
Early Development of Cerebratnlus lacteus," by C. B. Wilson, Qnart Jour. Micros. 
ScL, VoL 43, 1900. 

t See "Nemertean Paraoites of Crabs/' by W, lU Coe, Am. Nat, VoL 86, p. 481, 


rudimentaiy and without accessory stylets; 2 minute eyes: 2 species; 
parasitic on crabs. 

0. cardnophila (Kolliker). Body 15 nun. long when immature^ and 
40 mm. long when mature; color red: on Portumanus (Platyomchus) 
ocellatus of the New England coast and on Carcinus mmnas and other 
crabs of the European coast, being on the gills when immature and on 
the ^ggs when mature. 


Body long and thin, but rather broad; 4 eyes usually present, form- 
ing a transverse quadrangle: 3 genera and 15 species; marine or 

Geovemebtsb Semper. Body slender and long, but of small size; 
proboscis as long as the body with a central and 2 or 4 accessory stylets; 
hermaphroditic or unisexual, viviparous or oviparous: terrestrial, occur- 
ring in subtropical islands, or imported into greenhouses; usually under 
stones or in rotting wood; about 8 species. 

G. agricola (WillemcBS-Suhm). Body 35 mm. long and 2 nmi. wide, 
very variable in color, usually milk white, brownish, or greenish; 
hermaphroditic and viviparous: common near and in mangrove swamps 
in Bermuda. 


Body usually relatively short and thick; intestinal diverticula 
branched and usually not alternating regularly with the gonads; pro- 
boscis with a single central stylet with a conical base and several acces- 
sory stylets; cerebral organs large; usually numerous eyes: 3 genera 
and over 70 species; in all seas. 

Key to the genexu of Amphiporidae : 

Oi Proboscis sheath without divertictila. 

hi Eyes extending posteriorly only to brain region 1. Amphipobus 

b. Eyes extending posteriorly behind brain region 2. Zyoonemebtes 

Oa Proboscis sheath with a small number of ventral diverticula. .8. Pboneubotes 

1. AxFHiFOBire Ehrenberg. Usually short and thick and very con- 
tractile worms which cannot swim or roll up spirally; with numerous 
eyes: over 70 species, including almost a third of all American 

Key to the species of Amphiporidae here described: 

Oi Body yellow A. ochbaceus 

Os Body white A. impabispinosus 

01 Bod^ red ,.,,,.,., ^ ,.,.,.,,., p .,.,,. .4. a^oui^tus 



Fig, 339 — Amphipo- 

rua oohraceut 


A. ochracens Yerrill (Fig. 339). Body somewhat flattened, with a 
somewhat hroader head; yellowish in color; 7 em. long and 3 mm. wide; 
eyes converging backwards: common between tide lines and beyond, 
under stones, etc., in Long Island and Vineyard 
Sounds; breeds in May and June. 

A. impaiispinosiis Griffin. Body small, 25 to 50 
mm. long; slender, slightly flattened posteriorly; 
white in color, sometimes with a reddish or yellowish 
tinge; ocelli in two groups on each side, converging 
anteriorly, less than forty in number: very common 
between tide lines, among algae, etc., on entire 
Paeiflc coast. 

A. angnlatna (O. F. Miiller). Body stout with 
convex back; reddish or brownish in color; 15 cm. 
long and 8 mm. wide; head wider and set off from 
body, white in front with white spot on each side 
and an H-shaped figure in the middle; eyes nu- 
merous: common under stones between tide lines 
and beyond, from Cape Cod to Greenland; Puget Sound and north- 

2. Ztgovexebteb Montgomery. Body long and slender; head 

broader than neck, with two pairs of lateral oblique 
furrows; ocelli very numerous, extending back along 
the sides of the body : 3 species. 

Z. virescens (Yerrill) (Fig. 340). Body slender 
and rather flat, usually light green in color, up to 4 
cm. long and 1.5 mm. wide; eyes numerous, in two or 
three parallel lateral rows along the side of the body : 
common between tide lines and beyond in Long Island 
and Vineyard Sounds; California. 

3. PBOKEiTEOTEa Montgomery. like Atnphiporus, 
but with 5 midventral diverticula in the proboscis 
sheath: 1 species. 

asyffonemerte9 P« mnltiocnlatus Mont. Body yellowish-brown in 

(VerriU). color with numerous eyes in two groups; 20 mm. long 

B*, forward endl &Q<1 3 mm. wide : New Jersey coast ; between tide lines. 


Body flat and slender or short and stout; 4 eyes usually present; 
intestinal diverticula and gonads alternate regularly; cerebral organs in 
front of the brain: 3 genera and about 75 species; in all seas, also in 
fresh water. 



Key to the geneiia of Tetrastemmidae: 

Oi Marine animals. 

hi Body rather flat, soft in api>earance 1. Tbtbastbxica 

bs Body cylindrical, rigid in appearance 3. Oebstedia 

a, Freah-water animals 2. Stighobtemma 

1. Tetbastexka Ehrenberg. Body smally with the 4 eyes forming 
a rectangle; occasionally each eye is double or represented by a groap; 
cephalic gland large; mostly unisexual, occasionally hermaphroditic: over 
60 species. 

Key to the species of Teirastemmidae here described: 

Oi Body slender, 
bi Body widest at forward end, tapering to hinder end. 

Ci Body whitish T. CAJ!n)WUU 

Oa Body more or less spotted T. VEBiacuLUic 

bs Body widest in the middle and tapering both ways T. elbqanb 

0* Body rather stout with dorsal stripes T. viTTATnic 

T. candidnm (0. F. Miiller) (Fig. 341). Body very contractile and 
slender, white, light green, or yellowish in color, 2 cm. long and .5 mm. 

wide; head wide; hinder end tapering: common between 
tide lines and beyond, among algae, from Long Island 
Sound to Bay of Fundy; Europe. 

T. elegans (Girard). Body slender, tapering from the 
middle both ways; back with a median yellow and 2 lat- 
eral brown stripes, 2 em. long, 1 mm. wide: among eel 
grass and on stones in Long Island and Vineyard Sounds. 
T. vermiculum (Quatrefages). Body slender, pale yel- 
low or reddish in color and more or less spotted; forward 
end broader than the hinder, 2 cm. long, 1 mm. wide: 
common on muddy bottoms between tide lines in Long 
Fig. 341 Island and Vineyard Sounds; Europe. 

^^iSSldJm* T. vlttatnm (Verrill). Body rather stout, green or 

(VerriU). yellowish in color, sometimes with 1 or 2 dorsal stripes, 
5 cm. long, 4 mm. wide: common on muddy bottoms at low-water mark 
and beyond in Long Island and Vineyard Sounds. 

2. Stiohostxmxa* Montgomery. Similar to Tetraatemma but with 
3 pairs of eyes; excretory organs extending the length of the body: 7 
species, in fresh water. 

S. mbrum (Leidy) {S. asensoriatum Mont). Body slender, 18 mm. 
long, yellow or reddish in color and very transparent, with 6, rarely 4 or 
8, eyes; preoral sense pit wanting; cephalic gland weak; hemaphroditie : 
Pennsylvania and Connecticut; eastern United States. 

• "The Habits and Natural History of Btlcbostenmia;' by C. M. ChUd, Am. Nat, 
Vol. 85, 1901. 



S. OsamtDU Qnatrefages. Bod; cylindrical, of aimilar form at 
both ends, and rigid; 4 eyes fonnii^ a quadrangle; not over 15 "im 
long: 4 species; marine. 

0. donalis (AbUdgaard) (Fig. 342). Body 10 mm. 
long and very slender; color variable, mottled with green, 
red, or brown : in shallow water on both the east and west 
eoaat of North America and in Europe, very common on 
piles luid stones. 


Body short, flat, thick, and broad, with a lai^ sticker 
at the hinder end; intestine without diverticula and cod- 
Toluted; proboscis without stylets, its opening coinciding 
with the month and almost as loi^ as the body; no eyes 
or cerebral organ: 1 genus 
and 3 species, living commensally in the 
branchial chamber of marine and fresh- 
water mollusks; cosmopolitan. 

Ualaoobdblla Blainville. With the 
characters of the family: 3 species. 

H. grossa (O. F. Miiller) (Fig. 343). 

Hinder end of body broader than forward 

end; male 3 cm. long and 8 mm. broad, 

A B g^"? i° color; female 26 mm. long and 13 

FIk. S43 — MalaeohdeJla groaia. mm. broad, yellowish Or brownish in color: 

A, enUre worm (VerrilO. 1. . ' ' 

BrobcttclB; 2. moutb ; 3. iDtes- ui Mva arenarta, Venus, and other De- 
ne ; 4, sgcker. B,aec:tloD 

tbroogh tbe tamri end (Bdr- lecypods, on both sides of the north 

Ker). 1, montS; 2, probMdR : . , . 

3, proboadi iheath. Atlantic 


Ronndworms. Unsegmented, round worms, usually so elongated 
and sleuder that they are called thread or hair worms, which are ento- 
parasites in animals or plants or lead a free life in the water or in moist 
earth. The body is not ciliated and ia without paired appendages and 
nsoaily without external bristles, hairs, or suckers. With a very few 
exceptions all are unisexual 

The subphylnm contains 3 classes. 

■ See "Tbe Determination ot Generic Trpes end t. 
and Tbelr Orlslnal and Type Spedea," b; C. W. 8tll«i 
of An. Ind., Dept. of Ac, ISOB. 



Key to the classes of Nematheltninthes : 

Oi No spiny proboscis at forward end ; intestine present 
5i Mouth and intestine not degenerate in adult; lateral lines present 

1. Nematoda 
bi Mouth and intestine degenerate ; lateral lines absent 2. Gobdiagka 

Oa Spiny proboscis present ; no intestine 3. Acaivthoobphala 

Class 1. NEMATODA.* 

Threadworms (Fig. 344). Round, slender worms, nsuldly white 
or flesh eolor in appearance, which vary from microscopic size to a 

meter in lengfth. The integnment consists of a cuticnla 
which is usually smooth on the outer surface and a soft 
subcuticular no hypodermis is present, but the subcuticula 
is supposed to represent it. There is a voluminous body 
cavity into which the subcuticula projects along the 
median dorsal and ventral and the two lateral lines, 
forming thus 4 prominent longitudinal ridges. In the 
lateral ridges run the paired excretory canals, which open 
to the outside by a pore just behind the mouth, and the 
lateral nerve cords; and in the dorsal and ventral ridges 
are also nerve cords. Lying next the subcuticula is a 
single layer of characteristic, longitudinal muscle fibers, 
no circular fibers being present. The nervous system con- 
sists of a nerve ring containing ganglion cells which sur- 
rounds the oesophagus and a number of longitudinal nerves 
extending both forwards and backwards, those going hack- 
wards heing joined by transverse commissures. The only 
special sense organs are simple eyes, which some nema- 
todes possess, and also sensory papillae. 

The body cavity is without mesenteries, transverse 
septa, or peritoneal lining and contains blood. Lying in 
it are the alimentary canal and the reproductive organs. 
The mouth is at the forward end of the body and may be 
surrounded by sensory lips or papillae, and armed with 
chitinous teeth. The (esophagus is a muscular sucking- 
organ into which a pair of long glands may open; its 
hinder end may be constricted, causing the formation of one or two 
swollen divisions, called cBSophageal bulbs. The intestine is a straight 
tube which passes to the anus near the hinder end of the body. The 

* See "Monographie der Nematoden," by A. Schneider, 1866. "Die Sflsswasser- 
fauna DeutBchlands/* by U A. JftgerskiOId and O. von Llnstow, Heft 15, 1909. "The 
Nematodes Parasitic in the AllmcDtary Tract of Cattio, Sheep,** etc., by B. H. Ran- 
som, Bull. 127, Bur. An. Ind., 1911. 

Diagram of 



(SOssw. F. 


1, mouth 

2, nerve ring 

8. craopbagus 

4, excretory 


5, intestine 
6, ovary 

7, genital pore 
8, anuB. 


animals are, with a few exceptions, nnisezual, the females being larger 
than the males, with a genital pore near the middle or towards the for- 
ward end of the body. The genital organs are simply formed tubular 
structures. In the male the testis is usually a single tube which 
communicates with the rectum. Anal papillae are often present; long 
spicules alsp_jiaiially^ project from the anus of the male by means of 
which it a ttach^ its elf to t he female; in the StrongilUdae and other 
families an expansion o f the h inde r end called the bursa also serves the 
same p urpose. The spermatozoa are short and tailless. In the female 
two genital tubes are present which meet near the external opening. The 
distal ends of these are ovaries and produce the eggs while the proximal 
ends act as uteri. The eggs of the various species have a characteristic 
appearance by means of which the animals may be identified (Fig. 345). 
Many nematodes a re viviparous, the 
yo ung animals developing in the uterus. 
Habits and Diatrtbution.—^ ematodes 
are mostly active animals which move by 
a peculiar whipping motion of the body. 
With the exception of certain minute 
forms which lead a free life in fresh * J*«f?>^—%fif«Pf^*?<>H* *>«?»- 

todes (from Ward). A, Ancylos- 

and salt water and in decaying oi^nie J®™* duodenal© ; b, Necator amer- 
matter, they are internal parasites of SsfkCSCrS^^ 
animals and plants, being among the 

commonest parasites of man and the domestic animals. Like most para- 
sites, many pass through a metam or ph o sis in their youth. and may live 
i n two differe nt hosts. 

History.Some of the commonest nematodes which are the eause of 
disease in man and his domestic animals have been known for a very long 
time and were much studied by the early zoologists. In 1808 Rudolphi 
created the orders Nematoda and Acanthocephala, and in 1851 Yogt 
formed a class of these two orders and the Gordiacea, which he called the 
Nematelmia. The most active investigators of nematodes at the present 
time in this countiy are the United States Department of Agriculture and 
the Marine Hospital Service. 

The class contains about 15 families and several thousand species. 

Key to the families of Nematoda here described: 

«! Mostly non-parasitic nematodes. 

hx Marine and free-swimming nematodes 1. Ei^oixmAE 

&k In fresh water or in the ground ; a few parasitic in animals and plants. 

2. Anguillulidab 
Os Parasitic nematodes. 

"bx Parasitic in invertebrates ; month with 6 papillae 3. Mebmiudae 

&B Parasitic in vertebrates. 


e^ Moath not nirronnded by 3 promftieiit lips. 
di Body very long and filiform ; 4 pairs of papillae aroond the anus of 

male 4. Filabodak 

(^ Anterior part of body with a very long and characteristic row of cells. 


d^ Male with a large bell-Bhaped bursa 6. Stbdnqilidas 

€t Month surrounded by 3 prominent lips 7. Asoartdae 

Faiolt 1. ENOPLIDAE. 

Minute, free-living worms, found principally in the sea, but also in 
fresh water or in the earth; mouth often surrounded by hairs and 
bristles; ossophagus without bulb; eyes often present; male with spicules: 
numerous species. 

1. EvoPLVB Dujardin. Body elongate, tapering behind; euticula 
smooth; mouth with 6 papillae, behind which is a circlet of 10 to 12 
bristles: numerous species in both salt and fresh water. 

B. brevia Bastian. Lives among algae and hydroids in shallow 
water; often greenish in color; length 5 mm. 

2. DoBYLAzmrs Dujardin. Large worms; euticula smooth, not 
ringed; extreme front end set off by a constriction; mouth with papillae 
and a large bristle: numerous species, which live at the roots of plants 
in moist earth and water. 

D. mazimiis Biitsehli. Length 7 mm.: in garden earth. 


Minute worms which lead a free life in water or earth or decaying 
snbstances, or are parasitic in plants or (rarely) in animals; month with- 
out papillae; oesophagus with 2 bulbs; male with 2 spicules and some- 
times with a bursa: numerous genera and species. 

Key to the genera of Anguillulidae here described: 

Oi Free-living worms, in soil or decaying substances. 

\ Month with 2 or 8 teeth 2. Diflogasteb 

&a Month without teeth. 

Ox In vinegar or paste 1. Anouuxula 

Ct In the earth or decaying substances 3. Rhabdhis 

Qg Parasitic worms. 

hi Parasitic in plants ; a spine in the mouth. 

Cx In the roots of vegetables 4. Hetebodeba. 

c. In wheat U. Ttubnchus 

5b Parasitic in animals. 

0| In the bumble bee 5. SPHiEBULABiA 

Of In man 7. Stbongtloidbs 

* See "Helmintbologlcal Contribotions," No. 2, by J. Leidy, Free Acad. Nat. 8ci., 
Pbila., Vol. 5, p. 224. "Monograph of the AngnilluUdae/' by H. C. Bastian, Transact. 
Linn. Soc, London, ToL 25, 1866. *'0n the Family AngnlUulldae/* etc., by J. Leidy, 
Proc A. N. 8.. Ptalla., VoL 22, p. 68, 1870. 



Fig. 346 

Diplogaaiar rivalia 

(SllBsw. F. Deut.). 

A, whole worm 

B, head. 

1. AvGnxxVLA Ehrenberg. Cutieula smooth and ringed; body elon- 
gate, tapering behind; vulva behind the middle; spicnles long; no 
bursa: several species. 

A. ac0ti (O. F. Miiller). Vinegar eel. Length 2 
mm.: in vinegar, living on the fungus forming the 
<< mother," also in stale paste; has also been found in 
the human bladder. 

2. DzPLOOABTSB M. Schultze. Body elongate; 
enticula ringed and often ridged; body tapering be- 
hind ; mouth with 2 or 3 teeth and often with papillae 
around it; male with or without bursa: numerous 
species; in fresh water, earth, and decaying sub- 

D. rivalifl Leydig (Fig. 346). Length 2 mm.; 
hind end tapering to a long, fine point; mouth sur- 
rounded by a membrane around which are 6 short bristles: viviparous; 
common in ponds and streams. 

3. Bhabditzb Dujardin. Minute worms living in decaying sub- 
stances or the ground; head end often constricted: 
mouth triangular, usually with 3 to 6 lips; body 
slender, ending with a point; male with 2 short 
spicules: many species. 

B. terxicola Duj. Body without distinct rings, 1.4 
mm. long; mouth cavity long, with 2 ring-shaped thick- 
enings at its base: common. 

4. HxTEBODE&A Schmidt. Minute worms infecting 
the roots of various plants, with a spine in the mouth 
for piercing plant tissues: 1 species. 

H. schachU* Schmidt {H. radicola 0. F. Miiller) 
(Fig. 347). Male 1.5 mm. long, .045 mm. thick; female 
1 mm. long and viviparous, being .5 mm. thick when 
full of young: in the roots of various vegetables and 
other cultivated plants, causing swellings. 

5. BvRMRTTLAEiA Dufour. Minute worms, free- 
living and parasitic; male with a bursa; mouth with a 
tooth: 1 species. 

8. bombi Duf. The young animals, about 1 mm. 
long, live in the earth; after pairing, the fertilized 
females migrate into the body of a hibernating queen bumblebee; here 
the uterus, filled with growing larvae, evaginates out of the vulva and 

FIff. 347 
(Stooe and 
1, pharynx ; 2, 
Intestloe; H, ex- 
cretory pore; 4, 
genital pore and 
anus; o, testes. 

* See "Nematode Worms in the Greenhouse," by G. E. Stone and R. B. Smith, 
Dull. No. 55, Hatch Bzp. Sta. of Biass., Ag. Col., 1898. 



grows nntil it is many times the siee of the rest of the worm, reaching 
a length of 15 nmu; the young larvae are bom in the bee. 

6. Tylkhosvb Bastian. Cuticola ringed; body tapering to a point 
behind; mouth with a spine for piercing plant tissues; vulva much back 
of the middle: numerous species, which are parasitic in plants. 

T. tritici Bast. Male 2 mm., female 4.5 mm. long and spirally 
rolled together; color yellowish: in wheat, in a grain of which several 
larvae may live; when the wheat is sown the larvae migrate into the 

young plants and finally become mature in the buds; 
the eggs are laid here and the young larvae migrate 
into the ripening grain and remain there; they can lie 
in dried wheat for years without dying. 

7. Stbohotloxdeb Orassi. Minute worms with 
heterogony, a non-parasitic, unisexual generation alter- 
nating with an hermaphroditic parasitic generation, the 
former having a very long cylindrical oesophagus, the 
latter with a short oesophagus with a bulb; no teeth 
and 2 spicules present: 1 species. 

8. stercoraUs* (Bavay) (Fig. 348). Hermaphro- 
ditic form {S. intestinalis Bavay) 2.2 mm. long and 
.034 mm. wide, with an oesophagus a quarter as long as 
the body; vulva in the hinder part of the body: it lives 
in the human intestine and causes Cochin China diar- 
rhoea, having been first observed in that country; a few large eggs are 
produced, from which hatch rhabditiform larvae, which are about .3 mm. 
long; they pass out with the feces and develop into the unisexual form, of 
which the male is .7 mm. and the female is about 1 mm. long, and which 
lead a free life; from their eggs the parasitic generation develops; in 
this country and Europe only the parasitic generation is known. 

Biff. 848 



A, nermaphro- 

ditlc form 

B, lanra. 

Family 3. MEBMITIDAE. 

Hairworms. Body long and filiform; mouth with 6 papillae; adults 
without anus; hinder part of the intestine solid; male with 2 spicules 
and 3 rows of papillae: the young animals live in the body cavity of 
insects, especially caterpillars, grasshoppers, and beetles, and occasion- 
ally spiders and snails or crayfish, from which they migrate into the ground 
or the water; here they become mature and lay their eggs; 1 genus. 

MsKKiBt Dujardin. With the characters of the family: several 

* See "Occurrence of Strongyloides Intestinalis in the United States," by M. Lb 
Price, The Joor. of the Am. Med. Assc, Vol. 41, 1903. 

t See "ObservatioDs/* etc., by J. Leldy, Proc. A. N. S., Phila., Vol. 5, p. 202, 
"A Synopsis of Bntoioa,*' etc., by same. Ibid., VoL 8, 1856, p. 42. 



H. nigreaoeiiB Duj. (Fig. 349). Body 12 cm. long, .5 mm. thick, 
attenuated aateriorly and blunt behind; color white, with the black 
ovary showing through; the young worma migrate on warm 
summer days from the body of their hosts, often in large 
numbers, into the moist earth, causing a belief that they 
have rained down. 

Family 4. FTTiARIIDAE.* 

Fig. 849 

Body very long and filiform ; mouth often surrounded o^mw. f. 
by papillae or by 2 lips; no cssophageal bulb; male with 1 ^ 

spicule or with 2 of unequal size and with a spiral twist 
of the hinder end; usually viviparous: several genera. 
Ttlabia 0. F. Miiller, Vulva towards the forward 
end; male with 2 spicules, and much smaller than the 
female: numerous species, which live in man and other 
vertebifttes as final hosts, and probably in insects or crusta- 
ceans as intermediate hosts; Leidy mentions over 30 species 
in this country. 

F. immitisf Leidy (Fig. 350). Length of male 18 cm.; 

thickness .9 mm., with a corkscrew hinder end; length of 

111 female 30 cm. ; thickness 1.3 mm. : in the heart and veins of 

f VJ ^^ ^^^' ^^ '^ '^^^™' ^^^^ larvae appearing in the blood, 

especially in the nig^t time ; the larvae are transferred from 
one dog to another by mosquitoes; very common in China 
and Japan, and occurring in America and Europe ; it some- 
times infects man. 
P. bancrofti Cobbold (Fig. 351). Male 
4 cm. long, .1 mm. thick and colorless; 
female 8 cm. long, .28 mm. thick and 
brownish in color: in the heart and lymph 
vessels of man in the tropi<», also in the 
southern United States, the .3 mm. long 
larvae appearing in the blood, but in the 
surface circulation only at night ; the larvae 
are transferred from one person to an- 
other by mosquitoes; one of the causes of 

F. loa (Cob.). Male 30 mm. long, .4 mm. thick, with 8 large cir- 
cumanal papillae; female 41 mm. long and .5 mm. thick; body with 

* Gee "The Zoological Characters of the Roundworm Genus Fllarla/' etc., bj 
C. W. Stiles* Bull. 84, Hygienic Lab., etc., 1907. 

t See "Notices of Nematoid Worms/' by J. Leidy, Proc. A. N. 8., Phila., 1886» 
p. 308. 

Ffg. 350 



(from Braon). 

A, male 

B, female. 

Fig. 351 — FHaria hanorofii 

(from Braun), showing 

several worms among 

blood corpuscles. 


numerous small protuberances^ irregularly distributed: beneath the con- 
junctiva of the eye, in the eyelid, or in the subcutaneous tissue of other 
parts of the body in man; on the west coast of Africa and occasionally 
in America and Europe. 

r. medinenBifl (L.). Medina or Guinea worm. Length of female 
2 m. or less; thickness 1.7 mm.; color white or yellowish; intestine 
atrophied; male not known: in the subcutaneous tissue of man, espe- 
cially in the legs, also in domestic animals, producing a sore which 
breaks to the outside, freeing the embryos; the young are found in 
Cyclops and are probably conveyed with drinking water into the human 
body; in Africa and other tropical countries, and supposed to be the 
'fuming fiezy serpents'' which troubled the children of Israel in the 



Elongated worms with the forward portion attoiuated, often ex- 
tremely so; mouth without papillae or teeth; cssophagns slender, without 
bulb, and very long, in some cases being half as long as the body, and 
situated beneath a very characteristic row of conspicuously large cells; 
male with 1 spicule or none; female with but 1 ovazy: 3 genera and 
numerous species, all internal parasites. 

Key to the genera of Trkhinellidae : 

<H Forward portion very slender ; whip worms 1. Tbichuris 

o. Forward portion not whip-like. 

6i Male without spicule 2. Tbichinella 

6, Male with spicule '. 8. Tbichosoma 

1. Tbiohitrzb Roederer (Trichocephaltia Gk>eze). 

A \ CT ^ 9 Body made up of 2 portions, a very slender forward 

^ portion, containing the oBSophagus, and a thick hinder 

portion, containing the reproductive organs; hinder 

" end of male rolled up and with spicule; vulva at the 

^"^ forward end of the thick portion: in the lai^ intes- 

tine, especially the ccecum, of mammals; developmmt 
direct, infection resulting from swallowing the eggs; 

Fig. 852 ^ 

Tfiohuris tricUwra 1 species. 

A, female ;'^''inaie, T. tricfainra* (L.) {TfichocephdiMS dispar Bu- 

%nd Imbedded in dolphi) (Fig. 352). Whip worm. Male 45 mm. long; 

macousmem- female 50 mm. long; eggs (Fig. 345, E) ellipsoid, .05 

mm. long and .023 mm. thick : in man, cosmopolitan ; 

perhaps the commonest intestinal parasite in man and often the indirect 

cause of appendicitis and typhoid fever. 

• See *'A Statistical Study of tbe Prevalence of Intestinal Worms in Man,** by 
C. W. Stiles and P. B. Garrison, Bull. No. 28 of Hygienic Lab., 1906. 


2. Tkiohivxixa Railliet (Trichina Owen). Minute wonns, with the 
forward portion not much slenderer than the hinder; male without spio- 
ole bnt with 2 conical projections at binder end; viviparona; anas 
terminal: 1 species. 

T. spinUa* (Owen) (Fig. 353). Uale 1.6 mm. long; female 3.6 mm. 
long; young bom alive: in the small intestine of man, the pig, rat, and 
other animals. The young worms, which are ahout J. mm. long, are the 
eanse of trichinosis. They bore their way 
through the intestinal wall of the host and 
migrate in the blood and lymph to the muscles, 
where they encyst themselves and frequently 
BO lame the muscles of the jaws, neck, and 
thorax that their functioning is interfered with 
and death may ensue. If meat containing the 
cysts be eaten by another animal or a person 
the worm is released and passing into the in- 
testine quickly becomes mature. Man gets the 
infection by eating insufQciently cooked pork 
containing the cysts; the pig gets it by eating 
offal or rats. The rat is supposed to be the 
original host of the worm. 

3. Tbiohoboka Bndolphi Body hair-like, 
the forward portion not much slenderer than 
the hinder; usually a single spicule present: 
in birds and mammals; numerous species. 

T. **""'«^'n"W Diesing. Male 10 ] 
long; female 17 nun. long: in duodenum of 
the pigeons. 

T. craadcaodion Bellii^bam. Female 17 nun. long; forward end 
Tonnded and with small protuberances back as far as the vulva; male 
2.5 mm. long, without spicule, and lies often in the female vnlva: in the 
liver and other organs of the rat. 

Fig, ma—TrleMntitta tp*- 
M» (from RatiBOm). A, 
male ; B, mBle : C, a piece 
' pork coDtBlalne cyiU ; 
_ , sn eDl£.raed ejA, 1, fe- 
male genital pore ; 2. em- 


Mouth surrounded by several papillae; no ceeophageal bulb; hinder 
end of male expanded to form a broad borsa (Fig. 355, B), also with 
1 or 2 spicules: nnmerous genera and species which live in the intestine, 
Imiga and other organs of vertebrates, especially mammals. 

■ hj C. W. Stll«a, Boll. No. 

>, Bnreta of An, 


Key to the genera of Strongylidae here described : 

Oi Bona well developed. 

ht Bursa without ribs ; 1 spicule 1. Dioctophymb 

h^ Bursa with ribs; 2 spicules. 
Oi Mouth small, without teeth. 

di Male and female not permanently attached 2. Dicttooaui.U8 

da Male and female permanently joined together 3. Stuqamub 

Ca Mouth large, with teeth. 
di Without oral glands. 

ei Without ventral teeth but with cutting plates 4. Nbcatob 

ei With ventral teeth 5. Anchti/>btoma 

d. Two long oral glands 6. Stbongylus 

Oi Bursa small ; in fishes 7. GucuLLAiruB 

L DxoOTOPKTliE Collet {Euatrongulus Diesing). Large worms with 
6 prominent oral papillae; bursa without ribs; 1 spicule present; vulva 
near forward end: 1 species. 

D. renale (Goeze) {D. gigas Rudolphi) (Fig. 364). Body generally 
blood red; male 40 cm. long or less and 6 mm. thick; female 1 m. long or 

less, and 12 mm. thick; egg (Fig. 345, A) ovoid, brown, 
and about .068 mm. by .04 mm. : in the kidney of the dog 
and other domestic animab as well as rarely in man. 

2. DzOTTOOATrLTre Railliet and Henry. Mouth with 6 
small papillae, bursa large with ribs and two spicules; 
female genital pore behind the middle: many species. 

D. filaria (Rudolphi). Body white and thread-like, 
from 3 to 10 cm. in length; egg about .12 mm. by .06 mm.: 
* in the bronchi of sheep and goats, causing often a dan- 
gerous bronchitis. 
Fie 354 ^* ^^^^'^^ (Leuckart). Body brown and thread- 

Diootophime ^^^9 from 18 to 35 mm. long; egg about J. mm. by .06 
{trom^wlrd), nim.: in the bronchi and lungs of sheep and goats, causing 

often pneumonia. 
S. STVOAmrs von Siebold. Male permanently attached by the 
bursa to the vulva of the much larger female, which is forward of the 
middle, forming together a Y-shaped object; bursa ribbed: 1 species. 

8. txachealis v. Sieb. Body red; male 6 mm. long; female 20 mm. 
long: in the trachea of fowls, causing gapes. 

4. NXOATOB Stiles. Head end narrower than body and curved 
dorsally; mouth large, opening obliquely into a chitinons buccal capsule, 
the dorsal portion of which is shorter than the ventral; buccal cavity 
has ventrally a pair of prominent semilunar catting plates or lips and 
dorsally a pair of smaller lips and a conical tooth projecting into it; a 
large bursa with 2 long, barbed spicules : 2 species, in man and anthropoid 


N. unaricaniu* (Stiles). American hookworm (Fig. 365). Male 9 
mm. long; female 11 mm. long; Tolva in forward half of body; e^is 
(Fig. 345, B) about .07 mm. long by .038 mm. broad: in the small intea- 
tioe of man and the gorilla, where it moves abont sucking blood, i 

Tlf. 360 — Neeator amerioaniu. A, dorul Tiew of bead, sbowlng; 
(LiOou) ; B, hinder end Ol male, abowtng bnna I 
1, ventral cnttiiis lips. 

often a severe Knemia; very common in the South among the poorer 
classes; the eggs pass out with the feces, the young norms living in the 
moist earth; infection may be got by drinking infected water, by eating 
infected substances, and even as the result of the migration of the young 
worms through the skin of feet or bands. 

6. Ahohtlobioica Dubini. Similar to Neca^ 
tor but with head end not narrower than body I 

and with 2 pairs of large ventral-curved teeth 
and a pair of dorsal teeth in place of the cutting 
plates, directed forwards; vulva in hinder half of 
body: 5 species. 

A. dnodenale Dub. (Figs 345, A, and 356). 
Old World hookworm. Length of male 9 mm.; ^^^ ^^ 

of female 12 mm.: in man, in £nrope and Asia, Anohviottoma duodma^ 

' ^ ' — dorsal view or beaa» 

occasionally in America. "'"ra'Saf^tiu^^'**' 

A. cutitmu (Ercolani). Similar to the above 
but somewhat lai^er ; common in d(^ and cats and often fatal to young 

6. SrsOKaTLVa 0. F. Miiller. Similar to Anchylogtoma but with 
two long ^ande opening into the mouth, around which are small flat 
qmies: numerons species. 

■ See "Report npoD tbe Prevalence and GaoSTaphlc DUtrlbntloa of tbe Hook- 
worm tn«eue In tbe tJnltea Btates," b; C. W. Stiles, Ball. No. 10, Hrftenlc Lab., 
Treas. Dept., IMS. "tlndnarUals In tbe BoDtb," b; C. A. Smltb, Tbe JODt. of tbs 
Am. Hed. Ano., Vol. 41, p. 709, 1903. "Tbe Anatomy aod lAtt BlRtory," etc., t>; A. 
Loom, Becords ot Sebool ol Uti., Cairo, 1911. 


S. equlniiB Miill. The armed palisade worm. Male 20 to 30 mm. 
long; female 23 to 55 mm. long, 2 mm. thick; body red or brown, strai^t 
and rigid; mouth with small teeth; egg .09 by .05 nmi. : common in the 
cecum or colon of the horse, causing colic; the young worms live in 
water and moist earth and pass directly in drinking water into the 
horse; they are also found in the abdominal arteries where they cause 

7. OxromxAHxre 0. F. Miiller. Small worms with 2 lateral chitinous 
plates on the head and with rudimentary bursa; mouth ridged longi- 
tudinally; male with a spicule; vulva in the middle of the body: several 

0. elegans Zeder. Male 8 mm* long; female 13 mm. long; body 
yellowish or reddish; mouth with 6 papillae: in the intestine of the 
perch and other fish. 

Family 7. ASGABIDAE. 

Body often rather stout and large; mouth surrounded by 3 promi- 
nent lips, 1 dorsal and 2 ventral; oesophagus with 1 or 2 bulbs; hinder 
end of male spirally curved and usually 1 or 2 spicules project from the 
anus: several hundred species, almost all intestinal parasites in 

Key to the genera of Ascaridae here described : 

Ox Large nematodes with promhient lips 1. Ascabis 

a. Small nematodes with usually small lips. 

\ Male with a sucker before the anus 3. Heterakib 

&a No sucker present 2. Oxyubis 

1. Aboabib L. Large worms in which the 3 lips are set off by a 
constriction, forming a distinct knob at the front end of the body; 

oesophagus without distinct bulb; male with 2 

I (f^ ^31^ equal spicules and numerous ventral caudal papil- 
r\\ \ I lao '- several hundred species, which live in the 

II 1 1 , , I intestines of birds and mammals. 
^ ^ A. Inmbricoides L. Eel worm (Fig. 357). Male 

^^SS/e^TFiirBSiSiT 15 to 25 cm. long, 3 mm. thick; female 20 to 40 
b; di?Sff ^et^of froSi «^- 1^"?^ 5 mm. thick; f^^ (Fig. 345, C) brown, 
^ii end?°^^ ^*®^ ^' ^^*^ roughened surface, about .06 mm. by .05 

mm.; body with the appearance of an earth 
worm: in the small intestine of man and domestic animals, sometimes in 
considerable numbers, especially in children, when they are dangerous 
parasites; occasionally found in the liver, trachea, and other organs; 
development direct, the eggs pass out with the feces, and the young 
larvae develop in water or moist earth ; infection is got in drinking water 
or from the ground or from the skin of raw fruits. 



Fiff. 858 
Aacaria oania. 
Cross section 
showing fins 
(from Sraun). 

A. oqnomm Goeze {A. megdlocephala Cloquet). Maw worm. Length 
15 to 37 em. ; thickness 8 to 12 mm. -, eggs spherical, .1 mm. in diameter : 
in the small intestine of the horse, often in large num- 
bers, when it is a dangerous parasite. 

A. cauls (Werner) (A. mystax Zeder) {Fig, 358). 
Male 6 cm. long, 1 mm. thick; female 18 cm. long; a 
pair of fin-like projections on the sides of the head; 
eggs (Fig. 345, D) almost spherical, about .07 mm. in 
diameter: in the intestine of cats and dogs, usually 
common, occasionally in man; development direct. 

2. OxTinus Rudolphi. Small worms in which the 3 lips are more 
or less indistinct; cesophagus long, with set bulb followed by a dilated 

portion ; hinder end of male very short with but 1 spic- 
ule; vulva in forward half; hinder end of female taper- 
ing to ft sharp point: about 15 species; in the large 
intestine of vertebrates, also in certain insects. 

O. yermicnlaris (L.). Pin worm (Fig. 359). Female 
10 mm. long; .6 mm. thick; male 4 mm. long; a dorsal 
and a ventral cuticular projection on the head; egg 
(Fig. 345, F) .05 mm. by .02 nmL: in the large intes- 
tine, abo occasionally in other parts of the digestive 
tract of man, especially of children; often the indirect 
cause of appendicitis; development direct, the eggs of 
the females being taken in with drinking water or 
directly from the hands. 

3. Hetzbakzs Dujardin. Lips as in Aacaria; male 
with a large sucker surrounded by 4 papillae before 
the anus and 2 lateral thickenings; oral papillae small: 
numerous species. 

H. vescnlaris Froehlich. Length 7 to 15 mm.; tail 
of male with 5 preanal and 7 postanal papillae ; no teeth 
in mouth : in the large intestine of chickens and ducks. 
H. brevicavda (Zeder). Length 5 mm.; mouth surrounded by 10 
papillae: in the intestine of frogs and toads. 




A. female 

B, male. 

1, oHoptaaffas 

2,Tnlya; 3, anna. 

Class 2. OORDIACEA.* 

Hair worms. Long and very slender worms of the same diameter 
throughout and never sharply pointed behind, which are sometimes found 

• See "The Oordiacea of Certain American Collections/' by T. H. Montgomery, 
BnlL Mas. Comp. Zool., Harvard, Vol. 82, 1898. Ibid., by the same, Pt. 2, Proc. 
CaL Acad. C. ScL, 8rd Ser., Vol. 1, 1898. "Synopsis ot the Gordlacea," by the same^ 
Am. Nat., Vol. 88, p. 647, 1899. 


wriggling actively in fresh-water ponds and ditches, and look mneh like 
thick horsehairs. Sometimes a number are found in a tangled mass, a 
feature which suggested the name of the typical genus. As larvae the 
worms live in the body cavity of insects, whence they migrate into the 
water, their sudden appearance often giving rise to the common belief 
that they are metamorphosed horsehairs. 

The int^ument consists of a thick cuticula and a hypodermis, the 
latter being a single-layered epithelium and very different from the sub- 
cuticula of nematodes. Beneath the integument is a muscle layer consist- 
ing of a single layer of longitudinal muscle cells. The body cavity is 
lined with a peritoneum and traversed by dorsoventral mesenteries and 
is nearly filled with a mass of connective tissue cells forming a sort of 
parenchyma. The mouth and oesophagus in adults )are closed and the 
intestine is a straight tube proceeding to the anus at the hinder end of 
the body. Special respiratory, circulatory, and ezcretoiy organs are 

The nervous system consists of a nerve ring round the CMophagus 
with two dorsal swellings and a median ventral cord. The sense organs 

are a pair of eyes and numerous tactile bristles. The 
sexes are separate; two testes and two ovaries are 
present and in both sexes the reproductive organs open 
to the outside through the anus. 

The eggs are laid in long strings in the water, the 
OoSSi^UirrB. l^i^gth of one observed by Leidy being 91 inches, and 
^i^t).^' containing 6 million eggs. The young larvae (Fig. 
360), after hatching, seeks some aquatic insect larva 
into which it bores its way by means, of bristles on the head. It remains 
here in the muscles or fat body until the insect is eaten by some ottier 
water insect or fish or has completed its larval life and left the water as 
an adult If in the latter case the host is eaten by a predaceous beetle 
the larval worm may pass into its second larval stage in its body cavity, 
or in ft grasshopper or other insect if the first host dies and the young 
larva falls upon the ground. In its second host the worm grows rapidly 
and assumes the long hair-like form of the adult, and finally breaks its 
way through the body wall of its host and falls into the water or is swept 
there by the rain, where it becomes mature. 

The class contains 2 families and about 15 American species. The 
second of these families is very different from the first and its relationfibips 
are rather obscure. 

Key to the families of GorcUacea: 

Oi Fresh-water and terrestrial worms ^ .^. . • . * 1. GoBDnoiAX 

Hi Marine worms 2. NBOTONSMAxnuji 


Pajclt 1. OOBDIIDAE. 

Tnth Qw characters of the order : 4 genera. 
Key to the genera of Gordiidae here described : 
a. Hinder end bilobed or trllobed. 
6i Hioder end bilobed and rolled spirttll;. 

<\ Head end not obliqnel; tmucated 1. GOBotUS (male) 

o. Head end obliquely truncated 2. Pabaoobihiib (male) 

Bi Hinder end trilobed 2. Pabaoobdids (female) 

Of Hinder end not forked. 

t. Binder end rolled aplrall; 3. CHOBomu (male) 

tf Hinder end not rolled spirally. 

Ot Hinder end not iwoUen 1. GoncrcB (female) 

e. Hinder end nfollen and kuob-Ilke 3. Ghobdodes (female) 

1. GoBOnrB L. Hair worms with a forked and spirallj rolled tail 
and often a V-shaped ridge behind tiie anus in the male, and a straight, 
nnf orited tail in the female : about 10 species. 

a. aiiiiaticnB L. (G. rohwtw Leidy) (Fig. 361). Length 28 to 89 
cm.; thickness .5 to 1 mm.; color white or brown; ends blont; T-sbaped 
postanal ridge in male: cosmopolitan. 

nc sai ng. sea fu- 363 

PIC. Sei — OordliM ogKotlew,- hinder end at male (Hontcom«r7). Fig. 802 — 
OoriimM Uneattu; hinder end of male {Montsomerr). Fig. 3SS— Paro^ordliM varim*; 
loader end of temale (A) Bod male (B) (Uouttomer;). 

O. Unsatna I^eidj (Fig. 3(J2). No distinct V-shaped ridge behind 
the anus, on each aide of which in the male is a longitadinal line of 
hairs; color yellowish-white; female with longitudinal rows of entienlar 
areoles: eastern states. 

2. Pasaoobdiub' Camerano. Hair worms with a forked and spirallj 
rolled tail in the male, and a trilobed tail in the female: 1 species. 

P. ntiVB (liOidy) (Fig. 363V Lei^h 10 to 30 cm.; head of male 
obliquely truncated; the commonest gordian: occaBionally occuis in 
boman digestive tract; North America. 

3. Ohoxsosks Uobius. Hair worms with the hinder end spirally 
rolled and not forked in the male, but not rolled and with a knob-like 
posterior swelling in the female: 5 species. 

•taa "ObMrraUona on the Natural Hlatory ot tbt Oordlacea," br J. liMj. 
ftoe. A. K. 0., Pblla., ToL B. p. 362. "The Adult OrganlaaOeii of Vait§ordlM tmillM 
LeUr," by T. H. HoDtgomnr, ZoaL Jabrb., ToL 18, p. 887, 1008. 


0. morgani Montgomerjr (Fig. 364). Length 6 to 22 em.; color 
brown; head white: eastern states. 


Marine worms with body faintly ringed eztemaUy 
and with 2 rows of fine bristles on eaeh side; anus absent; 

tail of male carved ventrally and ends with 
a conical projection: 1 genus and species, 
which is found swimming at the surface of 
the sea. 

Neotohexa Verrill. With the char- 
ngr364 acters of the family. 

^fUS^Xif N. agile* Verr. (Fig. 365). Length of 

^'"^flmSfe** ""^ male 5 to 20 cm.; of female 3 to 6 cm.; j^rSfinSa 
(Montgomery), thickness .3 to 1 mm.; color grayish-white: -iKto (Ward). 

marine, and pelagic at Newport, R. I., and Woods Hole; Naples; the 
larval form parasitic in small crustaceans {PaUemonetes), 


Elongated, parasitic worms which live as adults in the intestine of 
vertebrates, to the walls of which they attach themselves by means of a 
retractile proboscis armed with hook-like spines, and as larvae in the 
bodies of small invertebi|ites, especially crustaceans. 

The body of the adult may be divided into three regions, the proboscis, 
the neck, and the trunk. The proboscis is a more or less cylindrical struc- 
ture at the front end of the body provided with several rows of recurved 
spines. The neck is a continuation of the proboscis, but is without spines 
and is sharply set off from the trunk. The trunk forms the principal 
part of the body and is usually smooth, but may be annulated or spinose. 
The integument consists of a cuticula and a subcuticula; in the latter is a 
network of fibers and also large spaces of lacunae, and beneath it are 
circular and longitudinal muscle fibers. A large body cavity is present. 
Extending backwards from the base of the proboscis in most forms is the 
proboscis sheath, a muscular sac into which the proboscis can be invagi- 
nated and thus retracted. In certain forms, however, the sheath is inserted 
near the middle or forward end of the proboscis, in which case it can be 
only partially retracted or not at all. Extending backwards from the base 

* See "On Nectonema agile VerrlU/' by H. B. Ward, Bull. Mos. Gomp. ZooL, VoL 
23, p. 135, 1892. 

t See "Geschlchte and BrgebnlBse der EcblnorhynsGben Forscbang," etc, by If. 
Lflbe, Zool. Annalen, Vol. 1, p. 189. "Acantbocepbalen," by M. Lfibe, SflaawMier 
faiina Deutscblanda, Heft 16, 1911^ 



of the neek is a pair of long projections of the snheuticula called the 
lemnisei, the function of which is not known. The excretory system con- 
sists of a pair of nephridia ^ich unite and open into the reproductive 
duct. The nervous system consists of a central gangUon in the proboscis 
sheath and two main nerves which run backwards; no special sense organs 
are present. No digestive tract is present. 

The Acanihocephala are unisexual. Extending back from the probos- 
cis sheath is a prominent band-like structure called the ligament which ends 
in the hinder part of the body cavity. In the male two ovoid testes are 
connected with the ligament, the vasa deferentia, with which several glands 
are joined, passing back to the complex genital opening at the hinder end 
of the body. In the female the ovary is also in the ligament; the ova 
escape into the body cavity whence they pass through an oviduct of com- 
plicated structure to the external opening at the hinder end of the body. 
Fertilization takes place in the body cavity and the embryonic development 
takes place there. The eggs then pass out and in order to develop farther 
must be swallowed by a crustacean or insect. The larval worm then bores 
through the intestinal wall of this intermediate host and encapsules itself 
in the body cavity, where it remains until the intermediate host is swal- 
lowed, probably usually in drinking water, by the final host, to the intes- 
tinal wall of which it fastens itself. The class contains 4 families, 12 
genera, and over 100 species. 


With the characters of the 
order: several genera. 

1. EoHnroBHTiroHTre O. F. 
Muller. Body smooth, although 
often wrinkled after death: nu- 
merous species. 

E. angniUae Miill. (Fig. 
366). Body orange-colored, 6 to 
29 mm. long; proboscis with 8 or 
10 rows of hooks; neck long: in 
numerous fresh- water fish; com- 
mon; Europe; larva probably in 
Crommarfis and small fishes. 

E. raaae Sehrank. Body 5 
to 60 mm. long; proboscis with 12 
to 20 rows of hooks: in frogs, toads, and salamanders; common; Europe; 
larva in Asellua, 

FifT. 866 — BchAnorhynohus anguiUae 
(S(1b8W. F. Deut.). A, entire worm: 1. 
proboscis; 2, lemniscl; 3, proboscis 
sheath : 4, llffament ; 5, testis ; 6, genital 
pore ; B, proboscis. 

' i 



Body laTge, and annulated; lemnisci long and twisted: 1 genus. 
GzoAVTOBarvoHirs Hamann. With the characters of the family: 
1 species. 

G. himdinacens (Pallas) (6f. gigaa Block) (Fig. 

367). Body white, tapering posteriorly, proboscis almost 

spherical and with 6 rows of 8 hooks each; male 6 to 9 

cm. long and 4 mm. thick ; female up to 50 cm. long and 

Fie. 367 4 to 9 mm. thick: in the intestine of pigs and often a 

oioan (Ward). common and dangerous parasite; the intermediate host a 

A, male. beetle grub, which pigs often eat. 


Minute, aquatic animals which in structure bear a close relation to 
the trochophore larva of the annelid worms and moUusks. The body is 
unsegmented and often externally annulated or ringed and is never com- 
pletely ciliated, although in most of them groups of cilia occur in certain 
regions. A spacious body cavity is present, which is not however limited 
by a. peritoneum. The Rotifera, by far the largest of the three classes, are 
characterized by the ciliated disc-like front end of the body and usually 
also the forked organ of attachment at the hinder end. The other two 
classes comprise a few species of peculiar microscopic worms which tLte 
often included among the Rotifera, but which lack the anterior disc and 
differ from them also in other important respects^ The subphylum con- 
tains 3 classes. 

Key to the classes of Trochelminthes : 

Oi External cilia present. 

hi Anterior ciliated disc present 1. Rotifeba 

bt Ventral surface only ciliated 2. Gastbotbicha 

o. External cilia absent 3. Kinobhtncha 

Glass 1. ROTIFERA * 

Rotifers or wheel animalcules (Fig. 379). Microscopic, aquatic ani- 
mals, the body of which is composed of three divisions, the head, the trunk, 
and the foot. The head bears the corona^ which is a ciliated disc forming 

* See "The Rotifera or Wheel Animalcules/' by C. T. Hudson and P. H. Gosae. 
1889. **Tbe Rotifera of Sandusky Bay/' by D. S. Kellicott, Proc. Am. Mic. Soc., Vol. 
18, p. 155, 1896. "The Rotifera of Sandnsky Bay/' by same. Ibid., Vol. 19, p. 43, 
1897. "Rotatoria of the United States," by H. S. Jennings, Bull. U. S. Fish. Com. 
for 1899, p. 67, 1900. "Synopsis of the Rotatoria," by same. Am. Nat, Vol. 35, p. 
726. "Die Sttsswasaerfauna Deutschlands," Heft 14, 1912. "Index of the Beta- 
torla," by H. K. Harring, BulL 81, U. S. Nat Mns., 1913. 


the front end of the body and in the middle of which is tne mouth, and 
the special sense organs. The cilia are evenly distributed over the corona 
in the most primitive rotifers; in others the corona is variously lobed and 
the cilia are in groups and usually confined to the margin and the area 
just within the margin. These marginal cilia in numerous common rotifers 
whirl in opposite directions on the two sides of the corona and resemble 
revolving v^eels, giving the group its name. The special sense organs, 
when present, consist of one to three eyes and one to four tentacles. The 
trunk is in many rotifers encased in a shell called the lorica which is the 
thickened cuticula; it is often provided with spines and other projections. 
The foot forms the hinder portion of the body : it is usually retractile and 
in most rotifers ends with one, two, or several toes. Qlands are present 
in it which secrete an adhesive substance by means of which the animal 
can attach itself temporarily. 

The mouth opens into a large muscular pharynx called the mastax 
in which are paired jaws or trophi, the working of which is a noticeable 
feature in rotifers. In some rotifers (Stephanopa) the pharynx is thrust 
out of the mouth and used as a proboscis to take in food. A narrow 
oesophagus joins the phar3mx with the large stomach, which hfts a pair of 
large gastric glands and is joined with the dorsal anus by the short intes- 
tine. In some forms the intestine ends blindly, there being no anus. The 
nervous system consists of a brain dorsal to the pharynx and nerves ex- 
tending from it; a suboBsophageal ganglion is present in some forms. A 
pair of kidney tubules which contain flame cells open into a contractile 
bladder, the vacuole, which communicates with the hinder end of the intes- 
tine. The sexes are distinct The males are small and without digestive 
origans and usually much less numerous than the females ; in many species 
they have not been found at all. The female has usually a single small 
ovary and a large yolk gland whidi are joined with the cloaca by an ovi- 
dnet, the lower end of which acts as a uterus and retains the young, in a 
large number of species, during development, so that they are bom alive. 
The females reproduce parthenogenetically : at certain times, however, 
males are bom and the fertilized eggs then produced are called 'Snnter'' 
or resting eggs and can resist cold and drought. Budding and fission do 
not occur. 

Habits and D%9tr%bution.—Th» majority of rotifers are solitary, free- 
living animals, although a few species are sessile, living in tubes com- 
posed of their own secretions or of foreign matters, and a few are colonial. 
They are typically fresh-water animals and are everywhere abundant, but 
a few species are marine. They are also usually rather rigidly confined 
to certain environments, some living among plants and some being pelagic. 
Most of the common species are cosmopolitan in their distribution. Some 


rotifers and their eggs can withstand desiccation many years when taken 
from the water and are often blown great distances by the wind or carried 
on the feet of birds. The food of most forms consists of minute plants 
and animals, but a few species are parasitic. 

History.— Rotifers have been known since the time of Leeuwenhoek, 
who discovered them in 1703. * 0. F. Miiller in 1786 gave those known at 
his time binominal names, classifying them with the Infusoria. Ehrai- 
berg, in his epoch-making work on Infusoria published in 1838, described 
great numbers of rotifers and laid the foundation of the present classifi- 
cation. Wiegmann in 1832 had, however, already removed them from the 
Infusoria and placed them among the worms. The monograph of Hudson 
and Gosse contains the modem classification of the group. 

About 850 species of Botifera are known, of which about 250 ooenr 
in this country. They are grouped in 3 orders. 

Key to the orders of Botifera: 

Ox Sessile or colonial and usually tubicolous (except Troohosphwra) , 

1. RmzoTA 

Oi Free-swimming; not tubicolous and non-colonial rotifers. 

hx Rotifers which creep like a leech, but can also swim 2. Bdklloida 

(i Rotifers which do not creep but swim 8. PiiOiMA 


Order 1. BHIZOTA. 

Usually sessile rotifers living in tubes composed of a transparent 
secretion or of fecal or other substances; some forms are colonial and a 
few are free-swimming: 3 families. 

Key to the families of Bhizota here described: 

Hi Corona with prominent non-vibratile cilia usually on lobes ; vibratile cilia 

very small 1. Floscitlariidab 

o. Corona without non-vibratile cilia ; colonial or not 2. Melicebtioab 


Solitary, sessile, or free-swimming rotifers living in a transparent 
tube; corona lobed in most cases and bearing groups of long, often non- 
^dbratile cilia; vibratile cilia few, about the mouth: 3 genera. 

Key to the genera of Flosculariidae here described: 

Oi Lobes of corona knobbed or blunt, or absent 1. Flosoulabia ' 

Of Lobes long and pointed 2. Stephanocbbos 

1. FLOSOXTLARZAf Okeu. Body in a transparent tube; corona with 
3 to 5 lobes, or not lobed, and bearing long non-vibratile cilia; the young 
of all and the adults of certain species free-swimming: about 30 species. 

* See "On the Morpboloflry of the Rotatorian Family Flosculariidae," by T. H. 
Montgomery, Jr., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phlla., 1903, p. 363. 

t See "On Floscolarla Conklini Nov. Spec., with a Key for the IdentiflcatioB of 
the Known Species of the Genns," by T. H. Montgomery, Jr., Biol. Ball., VoL 6, 
p. 233, 1903. 


F. onuta Ehrenbei^. Lobea 5, each with a round Icnob which bears 
tlw (nlia; foot about twice as long as the body; no eyes; length ^ 
mm.; common and seaBile; among water plants, 
I F. cunpunlita Dobie (Fig. 368). 

Lobes 5, distinct and not knobbed; cilia 
Bon-vibratile on entire margin of the 
bell-shaped corona ; sessile ; length .6 
mm.: often common. 

F. ptlaficB Rousselet. Corona cir- 
cular, but aligbtly lobed with short, 
non-vibratile cilia; free-swimming. 

8, SXEiKAXooxaoB Ehrenberg. 
Lobes 6, very long, slender, and point- 
Tic B68 ^^i ^" <^c c° them being non-vibra- ^g se6 
cSSSSSa tile and In rows or whorls; tube trans- ^'&^^ 
(Montr.m«,». p,„„t. fj^t ^g^ ,^,„g. 1 gpg^i^ (»foDtp.mer,). 

S. fimblUtaa (Ooldfuss) {S. eiehhormi Ehr.) (Fig. 369). Let^h 
1.5 mm.: on aqnatie plants; not common. 

Colonial or sot; osnally tublcoloue; corona 2 or 4-Iobed with a 
eontinuooa row of large marginal cilia; 1 to 3 antennae, 1 dorsal and 2 
ventral: 10 genera. 

Key to the genera of MeJicertidae hero described: 
«, NoD-coIonlal ratifera. 
b, CoroDB disdnctlr 2 or 4-Iobed. 

V, Corona 4-tobed. 1. Meucebta 

c. Corona 2-lobed. 2. I.iicnias 

b. Corona oval or nearlj drcnUr and iodiatinctly 2-lob«d. 
* ColcUl rodfer* =■ <^™'" 

b, Coloniea aemile, tnblcoloos or not. 

e. Not tubimlouH 4. MBOu/»rlioCBA 

e, AnimiilK in trBiiBp&reiit tubes S. Lacikulabia 

b^ Colonies free-swimmias, aninala tabico)ous.6. C0NoCHii.trs 

t. Kkuozbta Scbrank. Corona large, with 4 lai^e 
lobes; 3 antennae, 1 minute doraal and 2 larger ventral ^f.^^g 
fines: 4 species. (tr^^ruU. 

H. ringflU Schrank (Fig. 370). Tube formed of «•■ J^nt-)- 
spberieal pellets; length .8 mm.: common on water plants. 

H. mftllcarto (Ehrenberg). Tube gelatinous; length 1mm.; ventral 
Antennae very long: on water plants. 

S. "LnaOAM Schrank. Corona broad, with 2 lobes; tube membra- 
nous, often rou^ened by dirt and sometimes annulated; antennae as in 
MeUcerta: 3 species. 


L. oaifttopliTlll Sohrank (Fig. 371). Tube not atmnlatod; length 
mm .; ventral antennae short: on water plants; abundant. 

lb annnlatni Bailey. Tnbe annulated; body with 6 
horn-like dorsal proceHses ; length 1 mm. 

3. CEoiBTXB Ehrenberg. Corona a wide oval; lobes 
indistinct; tnbe irregalar or absent; doraal antenna minute 
or absent: 10 species. 

0. dTBtalllniu Ebr. Tnbe variable, transparent, often 
covered with dirt; ventral antennae small, wide apart; 
length .5 mm. 

0. uelicerta (Khr.), Two long dorsal projections just 
below the corona, sometimes antler-like; tube formed of 
pelletsand very short, or wanting: common. 
1. UxaAuiTxoaxA Ehrenberg. Colonial and sessile, 
eaeh colony appearing to the eye as a grayish boll; not 
tubicoloua; corona broad, reniiorm; antennae inconspica- 
Dus: 2 species. 

H. alboflavicans* Ebr. (Fig. 372). Four opaqne warts 
in a row just beneath the corona; length 2 mm., of colony 
5 mm. , 

6. IiAOunrLABiA Schweigger. Colonial and similar to *^toSowI? 
llegalaUoeha bnt each individual is in a transparent tnbe: ^^'oeatT'' 
1 species. 

L. sodalli (Pallas). Length 2 mm., of colony 3 
mm.: on water plants; less common than above. 

6. CoMOOHatri Ehrenbei^. Free-swimming palagie 
colonies, each individual in a transparent tube: 3 

0. volvox Ebr. Colony spherical, consisting of 10 
Pig. ars ^° 40' individuals arranged radially; ventral oDtenoae 

'uHiflWRii' separate except at base; length .6 mm., of colony 1 

('""oSOmw. F. mmi, . common. 

0. nslcomifl Rousselet (Fig. 373). Colony irrq^ 
nlar, containing few individuals; a single large ventral antenna situated 
on the corona: common. 

Obdeb 2. BDELLOIDA. 

Non-tabicolons rotifers (with a -few exceptions) which swim with 

the corona a6d creep like a leech by attaching alternately the front and 

hind ends of the body; body cylindrical, with a cuticula composed of 

rings which can be telescoped; foot usually ending with 3 toes and with 

Formed ol 


2 or 4 spurs a little way up; a dorsal proboscis behind the eorona; 
ovaries 2: 2 families. 


Corona composed of 2 circular and separated retractile lobes, making 
2 distinct wheels; proboscis and tentacle present: 4 genera. 
Key to the genera of Philodmidae here described : 

Ot Two eyes present. 

\ Eyes on the proboscis 1* RomrEB 

h^ E<ye8 on neck, directly over the brain and the jaws 2. Philodina 

a. Byes absent 3. Caludiiva 

1. BoTDPBB Schrank. Body long and slender and 
yery retractile: among plants and dirt: 9 si>ecies. »■ ^^s«^ i 

R. Tulgaris Schrank (Fig. 374). Body whitish and IH J=^^% 
opaque, gradually tapering to the foot, which makes 


up half the animal; spurs not twice as long as width of ^^ 
body; length .5 mm.: common; also in salt water. 

B. tardigraduB Ehrenberg. Body dark brown in 
color, long and slender; spurs 3 times as long as the Rotlf&'vuiparu 
width of body where attached; length .8 nmi.: common. ^A**tbe^iSmaL^' 

2. Philodzva Ehrenberg. Body rather thick, fusi- \ miboSSi' 

form; 2 red eyes behind the pro-. 3,ten^ie. 

boscis; often in infusions: 6 species. 

P. aculeata Ehr. Dorsal surface of body beset with 
|f§'| CCS strong spines ; length .5 nun. : common. 

P. roseola Ehr. (Fig. 375). Body rather slender 
and often rose-colored; foot not distinctly set off; 
length .5 mm.: common. 

S. OallXDZVA Ehrenberg. Body elongate, without 
eyes, the jaws often with fine transverse ridges : many 

Fig. 376 species. 

PhaodfM^Beoia, 0. elegans Ehr. Each jaw with 10 ridges, cuticula 

SOww. F. Dent), smooth; length .35 mm.: common in infusion. 

Order 3. PLOIMA. 

Non-tubicolous rotifers, which swim and do not creep like a leech, 

but may creep with the toes or may leap ; some are parasitic : 2 suborders. 

Key to the suborders of Ploima: 

Oi Without shell (lorica) 1. Illobioata 

a. With lorica \ : ^2. Louoata 

Sttborder 1. ILLORICATA. 

Ploimate rotifers with a fl6;sible cuticula and no shell (lorica) : 6 


Key to the families of Illoricata here described: 

Oi No foot present ; animals transparent, short and more or less sphericaL 
hi Animalw spherical with a ring of cilia near equator. . . .1. Tboohobfhjbbidab 
5a Body sac-shaped. 

Ot No long lateral appendages 2. AsPLAirCHinDAB 

Cb Long lateral appendages present with which the animal Jumps. 

8. Tbiabthbidab 
Oa Foot with 2 toes present. 

bt Corona with 3 to 7 large prominences with setae 4. HTDATmiDAB 

5a Corona without these ; body elongate, often with a pair of ciliated pro- 
jections (auricles) 5. NoTOiCMATlDAB 


Spherical rotifers without corona or foot and with an eneireling 
band of cilia near the equator or towards the forward pole; mouth 
ventral and anus at the hinder pole; the viscera are in the hinder hemi- 
sphere: 1 genus. 

Tbookobfkxba Semper. With the characters of the family: about 
3 species. 

T. solstitialis Thrope (Fig. 376). Band of cilia between equator 

and forward pole; diameter 2 mm. : in the Illinois River and at Put-in-Bay, 

Lake Erie; Asia. 


Large transparent sac-shaped rotifers, without anus and nsnally 
pelagic: 3 genera. 

1. AsPLAHOHHA Gosse. Foot absent; jaws large; animals vivipa- 


Fig. 376 

Fig. 377 

Fig. 378 

Fig. 376 — Trocho8ph<gra aoUtitialis (Delage et H6roaard). 1, brain; 2, mouth; 
3, kidney tubule; 4, anus; 5, intestine; 6, ovary; 7. dorsal nerve. Fig. 377 — 
Atplanchna herrioki (from Sassw. F. Deut). Fig. SIS— Poly arthra platyptera (from 
Sfissw. F. Dent.). 

rouSy the embryo being frequently seen in the mother; 1 or 3 eyes present; 
corona with two slight elevations: about 7 species. 

A. priodonta Gosse. Body without humps and barrel-shaped; eyes 
3; length .5 nmi.: often very common; pelagic. 

A. herricki* De Gueme (Fig. 377). Body amphora-shaped and 
without humps; eyes 3: pelagic. 

* Bee "Barly Development of Asplancbna berrickli," by H. S. Jennings, Bull. 
MVB. Comp. Zool., VoL 30, 1696. 

S. Abflavokvofits De Gueme. Foot present; anini&tB viviparons: 
2 BpecieB. 

A. amltlceps Schrank. Foot email; length 1 mm.: pelagic. 


Foot absent ; long paired appendages at the side by means of which 
the animal skipe or swims and which may give it the appearance of a 
cnutacean: several genera. 

FoLTAXTHXA Ehrenberg. Body rectangular with 12 long blade- 
shaped appendages with serrate edges arranged in 
4 groups : 1 species. 

P. platTPtem Ebr. (Fig. 378). One eye pres- 
ent ; length .15 mm. : very common both at surface 
and bottom. 


Body cylindrical or sac-shaped with a short 
foot which has 2 small toes ; corona with a namber 
of elevations bearing setae: 5 genera. 

1, Etsathia Ehrenbeig. With- 
out eyes, but with a tentacle: 8 

H. mtta* Ebr. (Fig. 379). 
Body large, .5 mm. long, trans- 
parent: often common. 

2. KoTOPB Hndson. Sii^le eye 
present; corona large with a ring 
of eilia and bearing aeTeral laige 
prominenees crowned with setae: 
several species. 

K. brachlonuB (Ehrenberg) 
(Fig. 380). Body lai^e, qnadran- 
gnlor and transparent; foot half as long as body and little retractile; 
lei^th .5 mm. : often common. 


Body soft and elongate; corona obliqne in position, without lobes, 
and covered with eilia and often with a pair of lateral ciliated projec- 
tions ealled anrieles : 15 genera. 

• See "StDdlu Id the lite Cj«l« of H^dktltia scDta." br A. F. Sbull, Jam. Bx. 
BmL, Toll. 8, 10, ud 12, 1910-1912. "Tbe iDiliieDce ot Food In ControUlns^ei In 
Hjdatlna ecnta," b; D. D. Wbltnejr, ume, ToL IT, 1914. 


(trora aOuw. 
P. Dent). 


Hjidaana tenia 

(SOun. F.Dent). 

1. corona: 2. montb: 

8. miBtu ; 4, gaitrlc 

gland ; G, stomacb : 6. 

orary ; T. jotti gland ; 

»', iDteatlue; 10, kid' 
□ej tubule : 11, vacD- 
ole: 12, anas; 1& 
adbealou glandi; 14, 


Key to the genera of NotommatidM here described : 
Oi A-uricles present 
b. Body not coiupicuoiial]' annnlated. 

Oi Very Urge rotUen with 3 or &-lobed brain X. GoFnrs 

o. Not large and brain not lobed 2. Notouuata 

b. Bod; coDHpicnonBl; aanulated 3. Taphbocahpa 

a, Anrtclea abwDL 

b, Toea minnte 4. PBOAUES 

hg loet conapicnona Et. Wvkculaxia 

1. OoPSUB Gosee, Large rotifera, slow-moving, asnaUy enlarged 
behind the middle; brain 3-Iobed; body projects backward from the foot, 
forming a tail; anricles present: 7 species; vegetable feeders. 

0. pachjniniB Ooese (Fig. 381). Tail ronnded and thick; aorioles 
large; brain 3-lobed; foot 2-jointed; length J3 mm. 

ng. 3S1 Fig. SSa Tig. SS3 

Big. S81 — Oopmu paehininu {from SOmw. P. Deut.). Pig. 883 — yotontmala trip** 

(SlUnr. F. Dent). Tig. 383— TapVocMipa imHKlofa (Sflelw. F. Deut). 

8. NoTomuiA Ehrenberg. Small rotifers with an eloi^ate body 
and aorieles; tail nsoally present; foot and toes nenally small: man; 
gpeeies; among water plants. 

H. tilpnfl Ehr. (Fig. 382). Tail aa long as the tMs, the animal 
appearing to end behind in 3 toes; length .1 mm. 

K. tmncata Jennings. Body red in color, long and tmncate at each 
end ; cilia ext«nding on to ventral surface ; foot vei; smalL 

3. TAPRaooAKPA Qosse. Body email and with numerone perma- 

»neiit annnlations; small tail juet above the foot: 4 epecies. 
T. uumlow Qosse (Fig. 383) . Minnte rotifer with a eyl- 
indrical body and with a pair of small auricles ; lei^th .1 mm. 
4. Fboalbb Oosse. No anricles or tail present; toes 
inconRpienons ; body small and cylindrical: 8 species. 
F. lordida Gosse. Body thick; head broad, with an eya; 
^ ^^ foot very broad ; toes conical ; length 22 mm. 
'iCSjjJ* 5, FintOULUtU Ehrenbei^. Auricles absent; body eyl- 

(^^W;B'> indrical or bn^ing In the middle; toes conspicuous; eye red 
at apex of head: 12 species. 
F. foiflcnU Ehr. (Jig. 384). Body cgrllndxical, With strai^t sidea 
•nid .35 mm. long: abondant. 


Sttbobdeb 2. LOBICATA. 

Lorica present, osaally much flattened: 12 families. 

Key to the families of Loricata here described : 

Ox Foot absent 1. Anursidab 

€h Foot present. 
bt Foot transyeraely wrinkled or ringed (not jointed). 

Oi Foot ending in a ciliated cup, without toes 2. PTEBODnnDAB 

Oa Foot ending in 2 toes 3. Bbachioiodab 

%B Foot not wrinkled or ringed, often jointed, with 1 or 2 toes. 
C| Toes not long and spine-like. 

di Foot jointed ; lorica without dorsal spines 3. Bbachionidas 

d. Head with a chitinous covering like the visor of a cap ; foot and toes 

often very long ; 1 eye 4. Dinoohabtdaw 

c^ Foot usually very short and ending in 1 or 2 slender and usually long 
toes ; lorica usually flattened and ovate. 
di No arched shield over head. 

ei Toes very slender and bristle-like, often very long 5. Rattulidax 

Ct Toes 1 or 2 in number, slender and rod-shaped 6. Oathtfnidab 

eg Toes 2 in number, long and diverging 7. Etjohlanidax 

dg An arched shield over head 8. CJolubidax 

Family 1. ANXTB^IDAB. 

Foot absent; lorica nsnally with 6 long spine-like projections at its 
anterior margin and 1 or 2 at its posterior : 3 genera. 

Amvbjul Ehrenberg. Lorica thick walled and opaque, 
marked with polygonal areas on its dorsal surface; empty 
lorieas frequently found: 7 species. 

A. cochlearis Gosse. Lorica prolonged posteriorly into 
a long spine, which, however, may be wanting; length 
•16 mm. 

A. acoleata Ehr. (Fig. 385). Lorica quadrangular ^J^ 
with a spine at each of the postero-lateral angles; .15 mm. (80ssw.^F. 
long. ^"*-^- 


Foot cylindrical and transversely wrinkled or annulated; body very 
retractile: 2 genera. «• 

PtsbOdzva Ehrenberg. Lorica flattened; a pair bf lateral semi- 
elreles of cilia on the corona; 2 eyes; foot ending in a ciliated cup: 3 

P. iMttina Ehr. (Fig. 386). Lorica very transparent, flat and cir- 
cular and J.7 mm. long, without teeth : common among algae. 


Foot long, cylindrical, and usually not jointed, but annulated or 
wrinkled, with 2 toes; lorica squarish and flattened and usually with 
q>ine-like projections from its anterior margin: 3 genera. 


1. BaAcmOKiTfl Pallos. Lorica arehed doraally, flattened ventrally; 
I red eye: numerous species, some marine. 

B. rnbeiu Ebrenberg {Fig. 387). Six straight spines on anterior 
margin; no posterior spines; color pinkiah: often common. 

B. bikeri 0. F. Miiller. Six spines on anterior margin, the 2 
middle ones curving outward; 2 lateral spines on posterior margin may 
be long, short, or absent; length 25 mm.: often very c< 

Fig, 38S — Pleradtna patina (SHaaw. T. Deat.) 
T. DeuL). Fig. 3S8 — Soteut quo 

B. militaria Ehr. Foot jointed; lorica with 10 anterior and 4 pos- 
terior spines, its surface facetted and covered with raised points; 
length .25 mm. 

2. KoiSVB Ehrenberg. Foot jointed; lorica oval and with 2 ante- 
rior and 2 posterior spines ; no eye : 1 species. 

H. aaadriconia Ehr. (Fig. 388). Dorsal surface facetted, whole 
surface roughened; length .35 mm. 


Lorica more or less cylindrical and usually with an 
anterior dorsal projection over the head; foot very loi^ 
with 2 long toes: 4 genera. 

1. SoABiDivx Ehrenberg. Lorica vase-shaped, smooth, 
and transparent, without the dorsal projection; 1 eye; 
foot and toes very long: several species. 

S. longicandnm {0. F. Uiiller) (Fig. 380). Body 

cylindrical; toes and foot longer than the rest of the 

body; .4 mm. long. 

si^id^um 2. Stepbanopi Ehrenberg. Head covered with a large 

lonptcauHum ... • 

(SUbiw f. semicircular shield; foot and toes not usually long; 1 to 3 

long movable spines project from the back : several speoies. 

8. longisplnatna Tatem. One long spine from the middle of back; 

length 15 mm. 


Family 5. BATTULIDAE.* 

The veiy short foot ends in one or more slender, often very long, 
bristle-like toes; lorica more or less cylindrical; 1 eye: 2 genera and 
35 species. 

1. Rattvlvb Lamarck. One long toe, often as long as 
the rest of the body; a short toe also usually present which 
is not a third the length of the long toe: 20 species. 

B. longiaeta (Schrank) (B. bicomis Ehrenberg) (Fig. 
390). Two spines of unequal length at the anterior margin 
of the lorica; toe two-thirds the length of the body; length 
•5 mm. : common. -_ ^^^ 

w«**«v«. Fig. 390 

E. maco8ii8 Stokes. Lorica with 2 parallel ridges close umgisHa 
together for half its length; body ovoid: length 2 mm. : often ^U'T) ^' 

2. DnrRSXXA Bory de St. Vincent. Two toes present of equal 
length or one more than a third the length of the other: 
14 species. 

D. tigris (O. F. Miiller) (Fig. 391). Toes equal and 
long; body cylindrical, .2 mm. long with a tooth on 
anterior margin of the lorica: very common in aquatic 
vegetation in quiet water. 

D. porcellns (Oosse). Toes slightly unequal, folded 
Flff.391 under the body, which is short, curved, and .15 mm. loner ; 

(Jenningg). lonca With 2 marginal teeth: very common. 


Body broad; dorsal plate convex, ventral plate flat, the 2 plates sep- 
arated by a deep groove on each side; foot very short with 1 or 2 rod- 
shaped toes; 1 eye: 3 genera. 

1. Oatkyfva Gosse. Lorica oval or nearly 
eircular; 2 toes: 3 species. 

0. imgnlata Gosse. Body large, being .3 mm. 
long, including toes; dorsal plate projecting over the ^ g^2 

foot; toes half as long as lorica: often very common. (sa^^^^^^^x 

0. luna (0. F. Miiller) (Fig. 392). Toes two- 
fifths as long as lorica; each with a distinct shoulder at side near the 
tip; length 2 mm.: often common. 

2. MovoBTTLA Ehrenberg. Body oval or nearly circular, with 1 
rod-like toe: 10 species. 

• See "Tbe Rotatoria of the United States, II ; a Monograph of the R^ittiilidae," 
bj H. 8^ J'lgnnln^ Bqll. U, 8, Fish, Com., Vol. 22, p. 273, 19Q3, 


M. bulla Goeae (Fig. 393). Dorsal piste very high; ventral ptate 
somewhat eoBvex; anterior mai^n with a notch; .25 nun. long: veiy 
eonunon among aqnatic plants. 


iMcge transparent rotifers with a convex dorsal and 
a flat OF slightly convex ventral plate; foot jointed, with 
2 large, diverging, blade-shaped toes: 2 genera. 

EuoxLum Ebrenberg. Lorica oval and flat; eye 
present: 7 species. 

E. dllateta Ehr. (Fig. 394). Lorica with a pair 
of lateral flanges projecting from its ventral plate; 
anterior dorsal margin with a broad gap having a 
straight bottom; length .3 mm.: often very common in 
aquatic vegetation. 


Head annnonnted by an arched shield, appearing in a side view like 
a hook: 5 genera, 

1. MxTOriDiA Ebrenberg. Lorica flattened, usually turtle-like in 
appearance; usually 2 eyes: 11 species. 

K lepadella Ehr. (Fig. 396). Lorica oval, without teeth or spinea 

Hndaon bdiI Gone). 

or prominent angles; 2 eyes; ventral plate indented behind; length .08 
mm. : often abundant among aquatic plants. 

It acuminata Ehr. Lorica oval, ending behind in a sharp point; 
length .08 nun,: often common among aquatic plants. 

2. Hovmu Ebrenberg. Lorica arched, more or less compressed lat- 
erally, often open mid-ventrally. 

H. colunu Ehr. (Fig. 396). Lei^th J. mm-: often common among 
algae in the sea. 



Minute worms less than .5 mm. long with an elongated body, nsnally 
forked behind, with a eiliated ventral surface and a dorsal surface either 
bare or covered with bristles or scales arranged in longitudinal rows; 
head end contains the mouth and usually bears a pair of eyes and 
paired sensory bristles ; digestive tract a straight tube with a long mus- 
cular oesophagus, extending to the anus, which is in the dorsal surface at 
the hinder end of the body; a pair of long kidney tubules opens into the 
intestine; a veiy large brain is present, dorsal to the oesophagus, from 
which nerves radiate; animals hermaphroditic, paired ovaries and testes 
being present in the hinder part of the body cavity; no genital ducts are 
present and it is not known how the veiy large eggs reach the outside; 
development direct: fresh-water animals found among infusorians and 
rotifers; about 32 species, of which 12 have been found in this oountiy. 

With the characters given above: seveiial genera. 
Key to the genera of Chaetonotidae here described: 

Ci Posterior end forked. 
hi Back covered with spines or scales. 

Oi Gandal forks short 1. Cbjetonotus 

e, Gandal forks very long and segmented 2. Lefidodebha 

ht Back not covered with spines or scales 3. Ichthydium 

o. Posterior end not forked. 4. Dastdttks 

1. OHJBTOVOTini Ehrenberg.f Gastrotricka with a short, unsegmented 
forked tail and with dorsal spines or scales; ^^ 

head formed qf 3 lobes, usually with 2 pairs 'PCSSSI ^finf 

of tufts of sensory bristles and in some species ^ 

with a pair of eyes; ventral side larut (Stokes), a, dorsal 

xi A. nn aspect ; B, head, 

flat: 23 species. 

t9| 0. lams (0. F. Mtiller) (Pig. 397). Back covered with 

short conical spines, the posterior ones being usually the 

larger; length .12 mm.: common. 

0. longispinosus Stokes (Fig. 398). Back with 2 

Pig. 898 transverse rows of long spines: often common. 

UmQi9pino8U9 2. IiEFiDODEBXA Zeller. Back covered with scales: 

(Stokes). X .1 J. f 1 , , 

tail forks long and segmented: several species. 

L. rhomboides (Stokes) (Fig. 399). Forks of tail one-fourth the 

length of the body and composed of 20 segments; a deep, transverse 

depression back of the mouth ; length .3 mm. 

• See "BeitrSge snr Systematic der GastrotHcben/' by T. Grttnspan, ZooL Jabrb. 
Syst, Vol. 20, 1908. *a)le StlBSwasserfanna Deutscblands/' Heft 14, 1912. 
t See "A4|natic Microscopy," etc., by A. C. Stokes, p. 185, 1890, 




3. loHTHTBnm Ehr<enbeTg. Like Chtetonotut except tb&fc the back 
is bare; several species. 

L podnra (0, F. Hailer) (Fig. 400). A pair of vertieal spines oa 
the neck, and another pair near the hinder end ; length Jil mm. : oommon. 

Fig. 399 Fl«. 400 Fig. 401 

Vlg. 399 — Ltptdadenna rfumbofilM (BIlMnf. F. Deat,). A. be&d; B. tall; C. dorsal 

Bcalea. Fig. 100 — lohtkgdimm podnra (Bduw. F. DeDt). 

fig. iOl—DMydgttt taltUoHt (Btokea). 

4. Oasxotteb Ooese. Body wide, with a distinct neck and head and 
DO forked tail: several epeciea. 

D. saltltaiu Stokes (Fig. 401). Head with long eilia on hoth sides; 
neck very flexible; 2 sets of long bristles cross each other on the back; 
length .08 mm.: not common. 


Minute marine worms less than .5 mm. in length; 
body arched dorsally and concave ventrally, and composed 
of a series of rings; body cavity not s^mented; outer sur- 
face not ciliated but provided with spines and bristles; head 
and neck retractile, with a ring of hooks around the 
month and a number of long looomotory spines; hinder 
end usually forked; paired genital pores and paired 
excretory pores near hinder end; sexes separate: abont 30 
SoiiSioderf FauilT ECHINODBBIDAE. 

Flff. 40S 



(trom Clam), 

With the characters given above: 2 genera. 

EoHnroDBBBg Dujardin. Eyes present: several species in the 
Afediterranean and Atlantic. 

E. dnjardinl Clapar^de (Fig. 402). Body composed of 13 rings; 2 
red eyes; color reddish: in mud and on algae. 



Sotphylum 4. BBYOZOA.* (Polyzoa.) 

Mintite and mostly colonial animals which are attached to rooks, 
plants, and other objects in the sea or fresh water. The colony is usu- 
ally made up of hundreds or thousands of individuals which have arisen 
from one another by a process of budding, and is often mosslike in 
appearance, whence the name of the group. The Loxoaomidae are the only 
nm-eolonial family. The individual members of a colony are called the 
xooids : they are more or less cylindrical in form and are af ten polymorphic 
in structure. The outer wall of the zooid is in most cases a thick cuticula 
secreted by a hypodermal cell layer: it is often hardened by the presence 
of calcium carbonate and forms a rigid case within which lie the soft parts 
of the animal. This case, which is called the ectocyst or zooBcium (Fig. 
406, 8), will often remain long after the death of the animal and the dis- 
appearance of the soft part In Pectinatella and some other forms the 
body wall is fleshy or jelly-like. 

The soft partA of a zooid consist of the viscera and the tentacle- 
sheath with the tentacles which constitute the anterior end of the body. 
The tentacles are hollow and ciliated and are borne upon a prominent oval 
or horseshoe-shaped ridge called the lophophore (Fig. 406,1). 

The body wall below the tentacles is highly flexible and in the 
Eetoprocta these can be completely retracted within the zocBcium. In the 
center of the lophophore is the mouth and in the Entoprocta the anus 
also: in the Eetoprocta the anus is situated just outside of it. The ten- 
tacles are the only portion of the external surface of the Bryozoa that 
18 ciliated. 

The internal organs differ very much in the two great groups of the 
Bryozoa and will be described when these are presented. 

Distribution and lfa&ifa.~The majority of Bryozoa are marine, being 
found from tide water to very great depths. Between tide lines and in 
shallow water incrusting and creeping colonies which are attached to rocks, 
shells, or seaweed are common, while in deeper water erect and branching 
colonies are the more abundant. No Bryozoa are parasitic, although many 
species live commensally with other animals or with plants. The group is a 
very ancient one, occurring in the Cambrian and all subsequent formations. 

* See "Beport upon tbe Inyertebrate Animals of Vineyard Sound," etc., by A. B. 
Yerrtll, Rep. U. 8. Com. Plsb., 1871-72, p. 292. "Britisb Marine Polyzoa," by 
Thomas Hincks, London, 1880. "Synopsis of North American Invertebrates, I. 
Freshwater Bryosoa," by C. B. Davenport, Am. Nat, Vol. 33, p. 693, 1899. "Sponges 
and Bryosoa of Sandusky Bay," by F. A. Landacre, The Ohio Naturalist, Vol. 1, p. 
9e, 1901. VThe Bryozoa. Papers from the Uarriman Alaska Expedition,*' by Alice 
Robertson, Proc. Wash. Acad., Vol. 2, p. 316, 1900. "The Freshwater Bryozoa of 
tbe United States," by C. B. Davenport, Proc. U. 8. Nat Mas., VoL 27, p. 211, 1904. 
**The Bryosoa of the Woods Hole Region," by R. C. Osbum, Bull. Bur. Fish., Vol. 30, 
1912. "The Bryosoa of Tortugas," by same. Pub. No. 182, Carn. Inst, Wash., 1914. 


Histofy.—The Bryozoa were thought to be seaweeds by the earlier 
naturalists. LinnaBus grouped them with the corals and hydroids. Here 
they remained until 1830, when J. V. Thompson separated them from the 
polyps because they possess a digestive tube and called them Polysoa, by 
which name they are still known by English and many American zoolo- 
gists. In 1831 E2hrenberg performed the same service and called the new 
group BryoBoa, which is the name in use among continental and many 
American zoologists. In 1841 Milne-Edwards created the phylum MoUu»» 
coidea to include the Bryozoa and Tunicata, in which the first named group 
will still be found in many textbooks. The terms Ectoprocta and Ento^ 
procta were introduced by H. Nitzsche in 1870. 

About 1,700 species of marine and 35 species of fresh-water Bryozoa 
are known, which are grouped in 2 classes. 

Key to the classes of Bryozoa: 

Oi Tentacles not retractile into the sooecium 1. Entofbocta 

a. Tentacles retractile 2. Eotopboota 

Class 1. ENTOPBOOTA.* 

Minute, primitive Bryozoa, in which the anus is within the circle of the 
lophophore. The body consists of a calyx or head and a contractile 
stalk, the former containing the viscera. The lophophore is circular 
and supports a single row of tentacles. The depression within the 
lophophore, which is called the vestibule, contains the mouth and the 
anus (Fig. 405) ; projecting over the former is a lip called the epistome. 
The lophophore cannot be retracted into the zocecium, but the tentacles 
can be rolled into the vestibule and partly covered by an integumental 
fold which arises at their base. 

The viscera fill almost the entire space within the body. What 
space is left and the entire inner portion of the stem are occupied by a 
gelatinous parenchyma, so that a definite body cavity is wanting. The 
digestive tube is U-shaped, an oesophagus, stomach, and intestine being 
distinguishable. The genital organs consist of a pair of gonads which 
open into the vestibule. The animals are either unisexual or hermaphro- 
ditic : in Loxozoma davenporti the gonads function as ovaries first and as 
testes later. A pair of kidney tubules with flame cells open either into 
the vestibule or the rectum. The nervous system consists of a central 
ganglion situated between the mouth and the anus and radiating nerves. 

The Entoprocta are found in both salt femd fresh water. They are a 
small group comprising about 20 species, which are grouped in 3 families. 

* See "Studies In Padflc Coast Entoprocta," by A. Robertson, Proc. CaL Acad. 
Sd., Vol. 2, p. 320, 1900. 



K^ to the families of Ewtoprocta: 

Oi Solitary Bniofiroeta 1. Lozosoiodab 

o. Colonial Entoprocta. 

ftt Fresh-water Entoprocta 2. Ubnatellzdab 

h^ Marine Entoprocta 3. Pedioelunuus 

Fig. 408 

Lo90»oma davenporti 


1, lophophore; 2, rectum; 

3, bud. 


Solitary Entoprocta, which, however, often 
bear young buds, with 10 to 26 tentacles, with 
a contractile stalk at the base of which is a 
foot gland which is of use in attaching the 
aninuil and may be wanting in the adult 
animal, and with an obliquely placed lopho- 
phore: 3 genera. 

LozoBOXA Keferstein. With the char- 
acters of the family: 15 species, which are 
usually associated with marine annelids. 

L. davenporti* Nickerson ( Fig. 403 ) . Length 
up to 2.4 nmi.; small foot gland present; tenta- 
cles numbering from 22 to 26 ; from 
2 to 12 buds usuaUy present; anus 
elevated on a cone; mammary 
organ present in the floor of the 

vestibule to which developing embryos attach themselves to 

get nourishment: abundant in Vineyard Sound. 
L. minuta Osbum. Body oval, .3 mm. 

long: on Phaacolosotna and PhascoKon on 

New England coast. 


Colonial, fresh-water Entoprocta, each 
colony consisting of a few zooids, which 
rise from a common disc; stalks long and 
jointed and branching: 1 genus. 

UxvATEUJL Leidy. With the char- 
a4!ter8 of the family: 1 species. 

U. gradlisf Leidy (Fig. 404). Stalk up to 4 mm. long; calyx about 
a tenth as long and bell-shaped; usually 2 zooids in a colony: on the 
under side of stones in running water, in the eastern and central states. 

* See "Loxoeonia davenportiy" by W. S. Nickerson, Jour. Morph., VoL 17, 
p. 851, 1901. 

t See "On Umatella gracilis,'* by C. B. Davenport, BnlL Mns. Comp. ZooL, VoL 

Flff. 404 
Umatella graoWa : 
three Individuals 


Colonial marine Entoprocta in wbich the zooids rise from a creeping, 
branching stolon; the stalk is long and separated from 
the calyx by a diaphragm: 2 genera. 

PlDlOSLUMA Sars. With the characters of the fam- 
ily: 6 species, 3 in Long Island Sound. 

P. cenina (Pallas) (P. nutans Dalyell; P. americama 

' Leidy) (Fig. 405). Calyx cup-sbaped with 12 to 24 

Pet&eiuna tentacles; stalk yellowish-red in color, with or witbont 
tfliiered from Spines On Stalk and calyx and tapering towards the top: 
i.iDontb' on afaellB and algae in shallow water; Atlantic coast, from 

3, ■ Labrador to Florida; Europe; often common. 


Bryogoa living in large oolonies, in which the anus is oatside Uie 
lophopbore and this stmctnre with the tentacles can be retracted into 
the zocecium (Fig. 406). The body cav- 
ity is an exteuaive space which is lined 
throughout by a peritoneum consisting 
either of a single layer of cells or thin 
layers of an irregular cellular parenchy- 
ma. In certain species the body cavities 
of the zooids communicate with one an- 
other. The digestive tract is a wide 
ciliated U-shaped tube, the aboral por- 
tion of which is the sac-shaped stomach. 
Joining the aboral end of the latter or- 
gan with the base of the body cavity is 
a mesenterial strand called the funiculus. 
The animals are hermaphroditic, the 
gonads developing in the peritoneum, the 
testes usually on the funiculus and the 
ovaries on the lateral walls. The ova and 


___.'nded BnlniBl (Delate et H«- 
sperm, except in the fresh-water species, rooard). l, lopboptiore ; 2, month ; 
'^ ' 3, anus ; 4. opermiDin ' D, retrac- 

fall into the body cavity, where fertili- ttie muMie: 6, faDlcDia*: 7, di- 

geBtiTe tract ; 8, »oi»clnai. 

zation takes place. The eggs develop 

in the body cavity up to the larval stage in certain species, when 
the young animals reach the outside either through a birth tqwning 
or as the result of the disint^ration of the parent. In other forms the 
fertilized eggs pass into special outgrowths of the body wall called Otscia 
or ovicells (Fig. 414,1) and develop there. In the Phi/lactolamata the 


embryo develops in the ovary, receiving nutriment directly from th(» 
body cavity. 

All ectoprocts develop also asezually by budding, and thus produce 
the branching and incrusting colonies which characterize the group. In 
many species polymorphic zooids appear which differ much from the 
others in structure and perform certain specialized functions. These are 
the ooBcia, which are brood chambers, above mentioned, the avicularia 
(Fig. 411, A), birdhead-like structures which seize small animals in 
their jaws, and are probably defensive in function but also function in 
keeping the su)rface of the colony clean, and the vibracula (Fig. 411, B), 
whip-like appendages which wave about in the water and are also defen- 
sive. In the fresh-water PhylactoUsmata disc-like buds called statoblasts, 
which have a hard chitinous shell, develop on the funiculus and either 
f oat or drop to the bottom on the death of the animal in the fall of the 
year or in periods of drought. In the spring or on the return of the wet 
season each statoblast gives rise to a young colony. 

The Ectoproda have great powers of regeneration. Periodically in 
the marine species the soft parts of the animal, with the exception of the 
body wall, break down and form a single round mass called the brown 
body. Later new organs develop, the brown body apparently being 
expelled from the body as waste matter. 

Kidneys have not been certainly demonstrated in Ectoproda, No 
blood vessels are present, but a blood fluid fills the body cavity. The 
nervous system consists of a ganglion between the mouth and anus and 
nerves radiating from it: in many species no nervous system has yet 
been seen. No special sense organs are found. The class contains 2 
orders and the great majority of all Bryozoa, 

Key to the orders of Ectoproda: 

mi Mostly marine Edoproda, with a circular lophophore 1. Gymnolsmata 

o. Fresh-water Edoprocta with a horseshoe-Bhaped or oval lophophore. 

2. Phyiactoubmata 


Lophophore circular; mouth can usually be closed by a flap called 
the operculum; vibracula, avicularia, and ooecia often present: marine 
Bryozoa (excepting the Palitdicellidae) including about 1,700 species, 
which are grouped in 3 suborders. 

Key to the suborders of Gymnolamata: 

Ox Opening of zooecium wide and circular and not capable of being closed 

by an operculum 1. Ctclostomata 

0, Opening of socBcium, when lophophore is retracted, more or less flattened 
and capable of being closed by an operculum. 

6^ Operculum a movable horn-like valve 2. Chilostomata 

kg Operculum composed of a fringe of setae 3. Ctenostoilata 




ZooBcia tubular, in most cases densely calcareous, with a wide ter- 
minal, circular opening, and without operculum, avicularia, or vibracula : 
4 families. 

Key to the families of Cyclostomata here described: 

Hi Colony distinctly jointed, and erect 1. Cbisizdax 

0, Colony not distinctly jointed, and either recumbent or erect. 

&i Colony usually branching and recumbent, or more or less erect (discoid 

in Diaaiopora) 2. Tubuupobidab 

hg Colony discoid 3. Lichenofobidax 

Faiolt 1. CBISnDAE. 

Colony erect and branching, calcareous and with horn-like joints so 
that it is more or less flexible, with jointed and often branching root 
fibers given off from the base or from the intemodes which serve to 

fasten it; zocBcia in 1 or 2 rows; ten- 
tacles 8 in number; large ooBcia pres- 
ent: 1 genus. 

Orzsza Lamouroux. With the 
characters of the family: about 35 

Colony white in color, forming bushy 
tufts from 8 to 25 mm. high; zocecia in 2 rows and alternate, slight^ 
curved out, almost entirely adnate: cosmopolitan; common from Long 
Island Sound to Arctic Ocean; California; 
Europe; from low-water mark to 80 fathoms. 


Colony entirely creeping and incrusted or 
more or less erect, either simple or branched and 
often radiating from a central point ; zooBcia in 
1 or several rows, adhering to one another lat- 
erally, with the upper end more or less free: 
about 5 genera. 

TvBULiFO&A Lamarck. Colony entirely re- 
cumbent or partially erect, forming a variously 
shaped expansion, either simple or branched; 
zooids tubular, arranged in divergent series: 
about 29 species. 

T. flabellaris (Fabricius) (Fig. 408). Colony 12 nmi. in diameter, of 
a pale purplish color, flabeUate when young, but more or less circular and 
lobed when old; zooBcia punctate, long, and slender, .15 nmi. in diame- 

Fig. 407 — Cri9ia ebumea (Osbnm). 

a ebumea (L.) (Fig. 407). 

riff. 408 

TutntUpora /labeRdrte 



ter, crowded together and radiating from the eenter to the edge, and 
with the outer ends erect: Long Island Sound to Greenland, on algae, 
etc., in shallow water; Europe. 

T. fimbria Lamarck. Colony 12 mm. in size; fan-shaped and lobed; 
zooBcia slender, not raised at the outer ends, and wrinkled transversely: 
in shallow and deep water; North Atlantic; Europe. 

T. liliacea (Pallas) (T. pruinosa Stimpson). Colony about 9 mm. 
high and white, or often purple and punctate; branches in same plane: 
Atlantic coast; Europe; on shells, hydroids, etc. 


Colony discoid, flat, or more or less raised, forming either a simple 
disc or several confluent ones; zooBcia partially erect, forming distinct 
rows which radiate from a large central free area and are not close 
together, the spaces between being porous : 2 genera. 

LiOEEHOPOiiA Defrance (Diacoporella Gray). Colony thin and lami- 
nate, sometimes composite: about 30 species. 

L. hispida Fleming. Single disc up to 6 mm. in diameter; each indi- 
vidual with 10 short tentacles: Notth Atlantic, on shells, algae, etc., from 
moderate to great depths; often common; Europe. 

L. yermcaria (Fabricius). Disc 3 mm. in diameter; zocecium with 
a rib: North Atlantic, south to Long Island Sound; common; Europe. 

Suborder 2. CHILOSTOMATA.* 

Colonies either erect or recumbent; zooids tubular, oval, or rectan- 
gular, and calcareous, horn-like, or membranous, the opening usually not 
terminal and usually closed by a movable operculum (Fig. 406) ; avicu- 
laria, vibracula, and ooecia usually present: about 36 families, all being 
marine, including the majority of Bryozoa. 

Key to the families of Cl^XoBtomata here described : 

Oi Colony not incrusting or foliaoeous but usually dendritic. 
hx Colony composed of a creeping base and erect shoots ; no avicolaria or 

Ox Zooids rising separately from the base 1. ^TEinAR 

c^ Erect shoots composed of many sooids each 2. Eucba.teu>as 

d. Colony dendritic, without a creeping base. 
Cx Avicalaria sessile and fixed. 
dx Colony slender. 

. e^ Branches flattened 3. Cellulabiidar 

e% Branches cylindrical y 5. Cellabiidae 

d; Colony foliaoeous 6. FLUSTBinAX 

o^ Avicularia pedunculate and jointed 4. BiOELLABnnAX 

^ See "Non-incmsting Chllostomatoiui Bryosoa of the West Coast," by Alice 
Robertson, Univ. of Cal. Pub., Vol. 2, p. 235, 1905. "The Incrasting," etc., by same, 
ditto. Vol. 4, p. 258, 1008. "The Chllostomatous Bryosoa/' by G. M. R. Levlnson, 1900. 


o» Colony incrosting or foliaceous and strongly calcified. 
&s Colony incrusting ; front wall more or less membranooB. 

Ci No ridgea on front wall 7. Membbanifobidae 

Ca Front wall with prominent transverse or radiating ridges. 


&a Front wall not membranous ; colony either incrusting or erect. 

Ci With a pore beneath the orifice 9. Micbofobellidae 

Ot With no such pore. 
di Zooecia not perpendicular to general plane of colony and usually 
ei Opening of zooecium with an indentation in lower lip. .10. Mtbiozoidab 

01 No such indentation 11. Bschabida* 

d, Zooecia vertical and heaped irregularly together 12. Cellbfobidae 

Familt 1. ^TEIDAE. 

Zocecia tubular and erect, rising separately from a ereeping stolonic 
stem with a terminal opening and a lateral membranous area at the 

upper end; operculum subterminal; no avieularia 
:^.ii,^**5' or vibracula: 1 genus. 

JEtba Lamourouz. With the characters of 
the family: 9 species. 

A. angoina (L.) (Fig. 409). Zooscia about 1 
mm. high, white and glossy, more or less bent, 
with a spatulate upper end and a ringed stalk; 
stolon with regularly occurring thickenings, each 
of which is part of a zocBcium: Long Island 
.:::^;;'vi7S. Sound northwards from shallow to deep water on 

hydroids and seaweed; often common; Pacific 
Fig. 409 "^ ,. ' 

^teaanguina iOaboTu), coast; cosmopolitan. 


Colony erect and branching; the zooecia narrowest at the base and 
expanding upwards, being linked together in a single row, or in double 
rows placed back to back; openings usually oblique; 
no avieularia, vibracula, or opercula: 5 genera. 

1. EircBATBA Lamourouz. Colony composed of a 
creeping stolon and erect branching shoots; zooecia in 
a single row placed end to end; opening large and oval; 
ooecia terminal ; tentacular sheath terminating above in p. .^^ 

a ring of setae: about 4 species. Suonuea oA«lato 

J* ^ (Osburn). 

L. chelata (L.) (Fig. 410). Colony often much 
branched, occasionally not erect; branches spring from just below the 
opening: Vineyard Sound northwards, on seaweed, stones, etc., in shal- 
low water and between tide lines; often common; Pacific coast; 



2. OsMBLLABiA Savigny. Colony erect, branching; zocBcia joined 
baek to back, the pain rising from the top of one another; apertnre 
large: several speeies. 

O. loricata (L.). Colony bashy, up to 20 cm. high, brown in color, 
eompoeed of long, straight branches; zocBcia narrowed below; aperture 
oval: in northern seas; Vineyard Sound northwards; Alaska; Europe. 


Colonies erect, dichotomously branched ; zocecia in 2 or more rows in 

the same plane; avicularia and vibracula (Fig. 411), or the former alone, 

almost alwa3rs present; opening not terminal, 

usually armed with spines and usually with 

an operculum: 8 genera. 

1. Mehzpea Lamourouz. Colony jointed, 

zocBcia oblong, widest above, attenuated down- 
ward, usually with sessile avicularia and 

ocBcia; no vibracula: about 20 species, 7 

American, mostly on the Pacific coast. 

M. temata (Ellis and Solander). Colony 

in small tufts, 25 mm. high; zooecia in 2 rows, 

alternate and arranged in groups of 3; long 

fibers extend from the zooBcia: circumpolar; 

Cape Cod northwards from shallow to deep water, on 
hydroids and shells; Europe; Pacific coast. 

2. Cabsbsa Lamourouz. Colony not jointed; 
zooBcia in 2 or more rows, quadrangular or ovate, with 
a very large opening; sessile avicularia and enormous 
vibracula as well as long, clasping fibers present : about 
15 species, 1 American. 
C. ellisi (Fleming) (Fig. 412). Colony with numerous branches, 25 

mm. high; zocBcia in 2 to 4 rows and quadrangular; vibracula very long 

and serrate: circumpolar; Vineyard Sound northwards, from shallow to 

deep water; often conmion; Europe; Alaska. 

Fig. 411 

A, an ayicalarlum 

B, a TlbraculQin 

(Delage et HCroaard). 

1, nerve ; 2, muscles. 

-^••^ 1. 

Fig. 412 

Caherea eiUH 



Colony erect and branching; zooecia obliquely placed in 2 or more 
rows and conical or rectangular; stalked avicularia usually present and 
no vibracula; ooeda at the upper end of the zooBcia: 16 goiera. 

1. BzcoaxAXXA Blainville. Zooecia cornucopia-shaped, loosely joined 
together and directed obliquely sideways : about 15 species. 

. I 


B. cOlAta (L.) (Fig. 413). Colony foiming featheiy tofts 12 nmi. 
high, white in color; zooBcium with 4 to 7 very long slender spines along 
its upper margin: Atlantic coast, on hydroids and algae; Europe. 

2. BvauLA Oken. Zooecia more or less quadrangular, 
arranged in 2 or more rows; opening large, not oblique; 
avieularia in form of a bird's head: about 35 species, 9 
on the Atlantic coast, 8 on the Pacific. 

Key to the species of Bugula here described: 

Ox ZooBcia in 2 rows B. TUioaTA 

mfii^rtA ^ ZooBda in 8 or more rows. 

o&iata ^ Avicalaria not at base of aperture B. ixabelulta. 

(Osbum). 5, Avieularia at base of aperture .B. icubbatana 

B. turrita (Desor). Colony up to 30 cm. or more in height, com- 
posed of flat branches gprowing in spirals, each branch with 2 rows of 
nxBcia, each zocBcium with a spine on the outer upper angle; color yellow: 
North Carolina to Casco Bay, very common in shallow water. 

B. flabellata (Thompson) (Fig. 414). Colony up to 25 
mm. high, composed of broad fiat branches, each with from •• 
3 to 7 rows of zooBcia, each upper angle with 2 spines; of 
an ashy color when dried, flesh color when alive : Vineyard 
Sound and northwards in shallow water; common; Pacifio ^' 
coast; cosmopolitan. 

B. mnrrayana (Johnston). Colony a bushy tuft up B«i4te 
to 50 mm. high and like the above, with 3 to 12 rows of /^bura? 
zocBcia; each upper angle with a stout erect spine and ^ ayT^urinm 
1 to 5 long slender spines on each lateral margin; long 

clasping fibers present; ooBcia with radiating striae; straw color when 
dry: circumpolar, south to Vineyard Sound in rather deep water; 
Europe; Pacific coast. 

Familt 5. CELLABUDAE. 

Colony erect, slender, cylindrical, calcareous, usually dichotomously 
branching and jointed ; zooeeia in 1 or more rows, loisenge-shaped or hex- 
agonal and arranged in series around a central axis, making the branch 
cylindrical: 8 genera. 

CxLULBiA Lamouroux. Colony jointed, the intemodes connected by 
flexible homy tubes; zooBcia surrounded by a raised border; avieularia 
of simple type, resembling the ordinary zooBcium; ooBcia concealed, the 
opening being just above the mouth : several species. 

C. fistulosa (L.) (Fig. 415). Shape of zococium variable; orifice 
arched above, slightly incurved below; area surrounding it minutely 
pitted; avicularium just above it and in the same line with the zocBcium; 

opening of (xeeinm Toand or ov&l: a northern Bpeoies; on rocks, shells, 
ete^ £rom shallow to deep water. 

Family 6. FLUSTBIDAE. 

Colony hom-Uke and flexible, erect, expanded, and foliaeeona, muall; 
consisting of broad branches attached by a narrow base; zooeoia contigi»- 
ons and maltiserial : 6 genera. 

n.mntA L. Colony frond-like; zooecia in 1 or 2 layers, more or leas 
qnadrangolsx in form, ronnded above, with a raised margin; avicolaria 

ris. 416 — riattn /otuetn 

HTeral ■ooldi. 

Fl«. 41S— (7«llarla ;l«(Hlo(a (Cambriaga NatDTBl BlwtoTj). Pi| 

(Cambridge Natural Hlitor;). A, eotlre colon;; B. 

Big. 417 — jrntbronfpora pltojd (OaDam 

resembling the zotecium and usually in line with them; ocBcia concealed: 
several species. 

F. follacaa (L.) (Fig. 416). Colony brownish is color, with a dis- 
tinct odor of violets when fresh, up to 15 cm. high; Eocecia in rows and 
in 2 layers with 2 spines on a side; ocscia very shallow, the opening 
forming an arch over the upper end of the zoceeium : a northern species 
occurring on stones, shells, etc., in shallow water, 


Colony calcareous or partly membranous and flattened, being in- 
emsted on stones, shells, or seaweed, occaraonally erect ; zooecia often more 
or less rectangular and with raised mai^ins: several genera, with 150 species. 

MzKBaaxiPOSA Blainville. Zocecia with raised margins and a 
depressed front wall which is wholly or partly membranoos, and placed 
beside one another horizontally, forming a more or less irregular crust: 12 
speeies near Woods Hole. 

H. pQosa (L.) (Fig. 417). Zocecia ovate, narrowed below, thickly 
punctured with minute oval porea and often with a silveiy sheen ; margin 
thickened, with 4 to 12 spines and just below it a corneous spine, some- 
times short and sometimes very long; no o«eci»: on stones, etc, from tide 


lines to deep water, from Long Island Sound to the Arctic Ocean; veiy 
common; cosmopolitan. 

M. monostachys Busk. Colony irregular, often radiate; zooBcia oval 
and elongate, with usually 6 to 10 pairs of marginal spines, of which the 
upper pair is directed upwards and the others bend inwards, often meet- 
ing in the middle; a single large basal spine is directed forwards and 
may be the only spine present; avicularia wanting; ocecia wanting: on 
stones, shells, seaweed, etc., from shallow to deep water; New Jersey to 
the Arctic Ocean ; cosmopolitan. 

M. craticula Alder. Zooecia small, in regular radiating linear rows, 
oval; margin with about 14 flattish spines, of which the upper 2 are 
erect; the others extend across the cell, meeting in the middle of it; an 
avicularium often at the margin of the cell: on shells, etc., the colony 
forming small flabellate or roundish patches with a spongy appearance; 
from shallow to deep water; Arctic Ocean to Long Island Sound. 


Colony incrusting or erect; zocBcia with the front wall more or less 
fissured or traversed by radiating furrows : 6 genera. 

CBXBBZLnrA Gray. Colony incrusting; zooecia contiguous; opening 
semicircular: about 20 species. 

C. punctata (Hassall). Zooecia oval, covered with small punctures, 
often arranged in rows; 4 or 5 marginal spines with usually an avicu- 
larium on each side of the orifice; ooecia rounded: Vineyard Sound and 
northwards; in shallow water; common on shells and pebbles; Europe. 

C. annulata (Fabricius) (Fig. 418). Zooecia ovate, convex, very 
distinct, with a median keel and about 6 transverse rows of punctured 
furrows; sometimes with 3 or 4 marginal spines; colony forming small 
reddish crusts: on stones and kelp, from shallow to deep water; often 
common north of Cape Cod; Europe. 


Colony either incrusting or erect and foliaceous or dendritic; orifice 
more or less circular and with a straight lower margin and a semilunate 
or circular median pore immediately below it : 3 genera. 

MzOBOPORELiA Hincks. Colony incrusting; orifice semicircular: 
several species. 

M. dliata (Pallas) (Fig. 419). Colony forming a delicate, irregular 
crust with a frosty sheen on seaweed, shells, etc.; zooecia obecurdy hex- 
agonal and punctate; orifice bearing 3 to 7 long spines, which may be 
wanting; median pore lunate; large avicularium on one side with (m locate 


mandible often prolonged into a long, slender spine ; ocDcia globose, above 
the zocBcium: cosmopolitan; from tide lines to 300 fathoms. 

Family 10. MYBIOZOIDAE. 

Colony incrusting or rising in a foliaceous or dendroid expansion; 
zocBeia calcareous without raised margins or membranous area; opening 
with an indentation in the lower lip : 5 genera. 

SoHizoPGBEiXA Hincks. Colony incrusting, sometimes several lay- 
ers thick, or occasionally forming foliaceous expansions; avicularia 
usually lateral: over 100 species. 

8. uaicomis (Johnston) (Fig. 420). Zooecia ovate or rectangular 
with a punctate surface, often silvery in appearance, an avicularium on 
one or both sides of the opening; orifice circular; ocBcia globose, with 

Fig. 418 Fig. 419 Fig. 420 

Fig. 41S--OribfiUtM annulaia (Osburn). Fig. 419 — Mioroporella oiUata (Osburn). 

fig. 420 — Sohizoparella unioami$ (Osburn). 

radiating grooves; colony forms a white or reddish spreading crust: South 
Carolina to Massachusetts Bay; from tide lines to deep water, on shells, 
stones, etc.; often very common; Europe. 

8. liyalina (L.). Zocecia elliptical, arranged irregularly in radiating 
rows; surface smooth and shiny, often glassy and transparent; opening 
terminal variable in shape, sometimes without the indentation; o<Bcia 
globose and punctate : Long Island Sound to the Arctic Ocean from tide 
lipes to deep water; on stones, etc., and often forming nodules on hydroids; 
cosmopolitan; California. 

Family 11. ESCHABIDAE. 


Colony calcareous and incrusting, or erect, being lamellate or den- 
dritic; zooBcia without raised margins or membranous area; sometimes 
with secondary opening, either elevated and enclosing an avicularium or 
not: numerous genera. 

1. Levralza Johnston. Zooecia usually ovate, with a more or less 
horseshoe-shaped orifice which is arched above and straight and often 
narrow below; colony incrusting or foliaceous, often radiating from a 
central point: about 70 species. 


L. paUiaiaiu (HoU) (Fig. 421). Zocbcib lai^ and coanel; pnne- 

tate; orifice large, contracted on each dde below the middle, often with 

an avioularium below the lower horder; peristome raised and prominent; 

no ocBcia; colonies forming Du^, reddish crusts: common; 

New Jersey to the Arctic Ocean, between tide lines and in 

shallow water. 

It. pertnsa (Esper). Zotecia large, swoUen,.panctate; 

orifice ronnd, contracted below by 2 lateral denticles, with 

osnally a tubercle below it; otecia globose: Gulf of St. 

Lawrence to Florida, on shells, etc., from shallow to deep 

water; colored patches radiatii^ from a common center; 


Vm^Sk ^' ^o*""^ Gray. Zoiecia ovate or elongate, with a 

P?f™*»^ semicircular orifice, above which is a secondary orifice, 

this being elongate or more or less triangular and enelos- 

ii^ an avicularium; colony incmsting or erect and foliaceous. 

P. concinna (Busk). ZocEcia granular, arranged in lines; orifice 
archedabove, with 2 spines, frequently with a raised margin; avicalarinm on 
lower lip; ooecia globose, prominent, often with a puncture 
in front: Cape Cod to Gulf of St. Lawrence, colony form- 
ing large circular reddish patches; Europe; California. 

3. SmmvA Norman. Zooscia more or less quad- 
rangular, with a small circular orifice which is surrounded 
' by an elevated ridge or peristome; primary orifice dentate, 
secondary orifice with a sinus in front; colony incrusting or 
erect and foliaceous: numerous species. Sni'tMM 

8. trlQiinosa (Johnston) (F^. 422). Zofflcia ovate, (!^^ 
very variable; orifice variable, usually round or pear- 
shaped, often being narrowed below, with 2 to 4 spines on young indi- 
viduals, frequently with a large avicularium at one side, occasionally 
with 1 or 2 small oval avicularia; ocecia lai^, globose, nsually with 
2 or 3 pnnctnres: Atlantic coast, colonies forming large 
yellow or whitish crusts; Europe; Pacific coast. 

4. UvOBOHXLU Hincks. Zotscia with a semieii^ 
cular or reniform opening, the margin being elevated in 
front and with a prominent tooth below; colony in- 
crusting; about 60 species. 

11 paachl (Johnston) (Fig. 423). Zoceeia ih«D- 
boidal; opening lai^, with 6 slender marginal qtines 
which may be wanting in old individuals; ocecia small: 
Long Island Sound to the Arctic Ocean, from tide lines to deep water, 
oolony forming a large whitish irr^ular patch of solid texture; Enr6pe. 


Faiolt 12. GELXiEPOBIDAE. 

ZooBcia calcareous, tabular, more or less erect, with a terminal open- 
ing, and irregularly heaped together; colony usually incrusting, often 
composed of many layers of cells ; sometimes erect : 2 genera. 

Obixsvoba Fabricius. With the characters of the family: numer- 
ous species. 

0. americana Osbum. Colony incrusting or rising in nodular 
branches a few millimeters high, growing on hydroid and bryozoan stems 
and algae; zooecia ovate, more or less erect, heaped upon one another and 
turned in various directions; orifice circular with a notch and a rostrum 
which overhangs it and an avicularium at its base: Long Island to Arctic 
Ocean; often common. 

0. pumicosa (L.). Colony massive, scabrous, composed of many lay- 
ers of pinkish color when fresh; zooBcia subcylindrical or ovate, smooth, 
erect, crowded; orifice round, with a thin, raised margin, immediately 
below which a tall rostrum bearing an avicularium is often present: 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts, covering stones and sheUs in shallow 
water; common. 


Opening terminal and closed by an operculum of setae set in a 
thin membrane; zooBcium never calcareous but fleshy or membranous; 
no avicularia, vibracula, or occcia: 11 families, 10 of which are marine. 

Key to the families of Ctenosiomata here described: 

«^ Animals marine. 
ht Colony fleshy, forming irregolar, incrusting or erect masses. 

Ci Opening of Bocecium not bilabiate 1. ALOTOinDnnAB 

Ob Opening with 2 distinct lips 2. FLUSTBELunAB 

h^ Colony branching, either recumbent or erect. 

c^ All tiie tentacles erect, forming a circle 3. VBSlcULAKnnAB 

Ca Tentacles not in a circle, 2 being turned back 4. VALKEBnuAB 

Of Animals in fresh water 5. PALuniCBLLiDAB 

Family 1. ALCYON IDllDAE. 

Colony fleshy or membranous, forming either an expanded and gelat- 
inous crust on seaweed or rocks, or being erect and cylindrical or com- 
pressed; zooBcia closely joined and developing by budding from one 
another and not from a stolon; opening closed by an invagination of the 
tentacular sheath: 1 genus. 

ALCTOVZDnni Lamourouz. With the characters of the family: 18 

A. mytili Dalyell. Colony an extensive gelatinous crust, cylindrical 
or somewhat flattened, and irregular in shape and reddish, gray, or yel- 


lowish in color; zooBcia hexagonal, closely packed together: from the Arctic 
Ocean south to Long Island Sound, on stones, piles, crabs, etc., from tide 
lines to deep water; Europe. 

A. hirsutun (Fleming) (Fig. 424). Colony incrusting or erect, com- 
pressed, expanded, and branched, yellowish-brown or reddish in color, 
the surface covered with conical papilla, between which are the orifices : 
Long Island Sound to Arctic Ocean in shallow water, incrusting the 
stems of fucus and other plants; common; Europe. 


Colony similar to the above^but the opening is bilabiate, with a 
movable lip which acts as an operculum; liErva (Cyphonotttea) with a 
bivalve shell: 1 g^nus. 

Flitstbella Gray. With the characters of the family : 3 species. 

F. hispida (Fabricius) (Fig. 425). Colony a thick, brown crust, 
roughened by numerous reddish spines; zocBcium ovate or hexagonal, with 



Fig. 424 Fig. 425 Fig. 426 

Fig. 424 — Alcyonidium hirautum (Osburn). Ftg. 425 — Flustrella hispida (Osbarn). 

Fig. 426 — Bowerhankia graoilia (Osburn). 

a raised opening around which are one or more tall, red spines, which may 
also be present along the margin of the cells : circumpolar, south to 
Long Island Sound and Alaska, incrusting the stems of fucus, etc; 
common; Europe. 


Colony horn-like or membranous, branching, and either erect or recum- 
bent, the zooBcia contracted below, budding off from a distinct stem: 
5 genera. ^ 

1. BowESBAVXiA Farre. Colony recumbent; zooecia cylindrical. In 
clusters often spirally arranged; 8 to 10 tentacles in a circle; gizzard 
present between stomach and oesophagus: 20 species. 

B. gracilis Leidy (Fig. 426). Colony creeping, the cylindrical zooids 
rising separately from the recumbent stem: coast of New England, on 
hydroids, seaweed, etc. 

2. AxATEiA Lamourouz. Colony erect; zooids in a double series: 
several species. 



A. dichotoma (Yenill) (Fig. 427). Colony 5 cm. or more high and 


white in color, repeatedly forking, a short, dark-brown se^ent being 
at the base of each fork; zooids crowded together spirally in groups of 
6 to 12 each: New Jersey northwards, on algae, rocks, etc., in shallow 
water; often common. 


Colony branching and erect or recunibent and creeping; tentacles 
8 in nomber, 2 of which are bent outwards towards the side and 6 are 
erect; zooBcia contracted below: 1 genus. 

Valkebza Fleming. With the characters of the family: 4 species. 

Flff.427 Fis. 428 Fig. 429 

Fig. 427 — Atnathia dichoioma (Osburn). Fif. 428 — Valkeria uva (Oflborn) 

( Fig. ^2»'-^aludicella ehrenhergi. 

V. nva (L.) (Fig. 428). Colony composed of delicate jointed tubes, 
which creep over seaweed, hydroids, or shells, or may stand erect to a 
height of 5 to 10 cm. giving off paired branches; zooids in thick clusters, 
which are principally at the base of the branches and on them: from 
New Jersey northwards, in shallow water; Europe. 


Colony with a horn-like or membranous cuticula and composed of 
delicate, jointed, branching, recumbent or partly erect tubes, which creep 
over stones and sticks in slow streams and fresh- water ponds: 2 genera. 

Key to the genera of Palttdieellidae : 


Ot Zooids recumbent, not rising from stolons 1. Paludicella 

a, Zooids erect, rising from stolons 2. Pottsieixa 

!• Pal172)zoslla Gervais. Colony consists of series of club-shaped 
zooids placed end to end and separated from one another by partitions ; 
opening lateral; branches usually paired; no statoblasts present but 
hibemacula or winter buds which persist when the rest of the colony 
has died: 1 species. 

P. ebrenbergi van Beneden (Fig. 429). Colony recumbent or partly 
erect; length of zooid 2 mm.; number of tentacles about 16: cosmopolitan. 

* See "Obseirations on Budding in Paludicella and Some Other Bryozoa/' by 
C. B. Davenport, Bull. Mns. Comp. ZooL, Vol. 22, 1890. 

262 BR70Z0A 

2. PoTTBiXLLA EIraepelin. Colony consists of stolons from which 
at intervals single erect, cylindrical zooids arise; opening terminal: 1 

P. electa* (Potts). Length of zooid 1.5 mm.; nnmber of tentacles 
about 20 : Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. 


Lophophore oval or horseshoe-shaped; epistome present, projecting 
over the mouth; statoblasts present, which usually have a broad mar- 
ginal band of air cells called the fioat which sustains them in the water: 
in fresh water; 3 families and about 30 species, 7 American. 

Key to the families of PhylactoUemata: 

Ox Colony branched, provided with an opaque chitinous or hyaline cuticula ; 
statoblasts without hooks. 
&i Lophophore nearly circular; statoblasts without float.. 1. Fbedebicellidab 
&a Lophophore horseshoe-shaped ; statoblasts with float. . . .2. Plumateixidab 

Oa Colony massive, secreting a gelatinous base; statoblasts with float and 




Colony tubular, branched in form of antlers; lophophore oval; 
cuticula opaque and brown, rarely gelatinous and hyaline; tentacles not 

over 24; statoblasts dark brown, elliptical, with- 
out float : 1 genus. 

1. Fbede&zcella Gervais. Colony dendritic 

and either recumbent or erect, attached either ' 

entirely or partially to the under surface of 

stones or sticks in ponds and streams, usually in 

dark places; lophophore oval, bearing usually 20 

FredericeilaauUana, to 22 tentacles: 1 American species. 

' ^^ B?8tat<S>^ut^ ' F. sultana (Blumenbach) (F. toalcotltt Hyatt ; 

(S««w. p. Dent). y p^icKerrima Hyatt; F. regina Leidy) (Pig. 

430). Form of colony differs in different localities, consisting of inter- 
twining branches which adhere to the substratum or form a dense clump: 


Colony consists either of cylindrical tubes which are either branched 
or form massive clumps or of hyaline, recumbent, lobed tubes, or of 
hyaline erect, slightly lobed sacs; tentacles 40 to 60 on a horseshoe-shaped 

* See "On Palndlcella erecta," by E. Potts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sd., 1884, p. 218. 
t See "Observations on Polysoa, Suborder Pbylactolemata,*' by A. Hyatt. Free. 
Bsiex Inst, Tola 4 and 5, 1866-1868. 



lophophoze; statoblasts elliptical, without marginal hooks but with a float: 
several genera. 

K^ to the genera of Plu^atelUdae here described : 

Ox Statoblasts oval ; sooids uniformly spaced 1. Plumatblla 

Oa Statoblasts lenticular ; sooids grouped at intervals 2. Lofhopub 

1. PLmcATELZJk Lamarck. Colony consists of cylindrical, more or 
less branched tubes, either recumbent or erect, which lie extended on 
the substratum or form a clump; 40 to 60 tentacles: about 20 species, 3 
American; in ponds and streams, usually not in the light; the commonest 
fresh- water biyozoans. 

P. princeps Kraepelin (P. diffusa Leidy) (Pig, 431). Colony creep- 
ing or erect, often much branched, the branches sometimes fused to- 


Fig. 482 

Flf. 431 — Pluw^atella princeps. A. a colony (Davenport) ; B, a floating statoblast ; 
C, a stationary statoblast (Stlssw. P. Deut.). Fig. 432 — Plumatella polymorpha, 
Al a colony (Davenport) ; B, a floating statoblast ; C, a stationary statoblast 
(BflBSW. F. Dent). 

gether; euticula brown, with a keel that broadens at the aperture; 
statoblast elongated: cosmopolitan. 

P. polymorpha Kraep. (P. nitida Leidy; P. arethusa Hyatt) (Fig. 
432). Colony creeping or erect, often richly branched; euticula usually 
transparent, rarely brown or keeled; statoblast nearly 
eiiealar, sometimes with angular margin: cosmopol- 

P. punctata Hancock (P. veskularta Leidy; P. 
vUrea Hyatt) (Fig. 433). Colony creeping, often 
thickly branched; euticula colorless, transparent, the 
elevated mouth cone bemg wrinkled and spotted with 
white; statoblast nearly circular: in America and 

2. LoFROFVl Dumortier. Colony thick, erect, 
and sometimes lobed; euticula gelatinous; about 60 tentacles; statoblast 
with acute ends; 1 American species. 

Ii. cristalUnns (Pallas) (Fig. 434). Colony up to 10 mm. long: in 
ponds and slowly-flowing streams, chiefly on water plants; rare; America 
and Europe. 

Fig. 433 Fig. 434 

Fig. 433 — Stato- 
blast of Plumatella 
punctata (Sflssw. F. 
Deut.). FlK. 434 — 
Statoblast of Lopho- 
PU8 oryatallinue 
(SUssw. F. Deut). 




Colonies forming compact hyaline groups which secrete a gelatinous 
base; aperture slightly elevated above the level of the group; statoblasta 
large^ about 1 mm. in diameter, provided with hooks : 2 genera. 

Key to the genera of CristatelUdae: 

o, Statoblast with a roif of marginal hooks; gelatinous base often very 

thick 1. Pbctinatella 

o, Statoblast with 2 rows of marginal hooks ; gelatinous base forms a thin 

sole 2. Cbistatella 

1. PsOTZVATELLA Leidy. Many associated colonies in rosette-shaped 

groups on a gelatinous base which may attain a 
thickness in the autumn of 40 cm.; the youthful 
colony is locomotory: 1 American species. 

P. magniflca Leidy (Fig. 435). Tentacles 60 to 
84 in number; statoblasts circular, black in color, 
with 10 to 22 marginal anchor-shaped hooks: often 
common on stones, sticks, etc., in ponds and streams; 
North America; introduced locally into Europe and 

2. Obistatslla Cuvier. Colony an elongate, 
gelatinous mass with a thin, flat sole on which it 
creeps; the zooids are located on the upper surface 
of the colony and may contract into a common cavity; 
statoblasts circular with 2 rows of marginal hooks: 1 
species. , 

' C. mncedo Cuv. (C. idae Leidy; C, ophidioidea Hyatt; 
C. litcustris Potts) (Fig. 436). Young colony circular, 
later elongate, attaining in the autumn a length of 28 
cm. ; usual length 3 to 5 cm. ; 80 to 90 tentacles ; statoblasts 
with 10 to 34 hooks in one row and 20 to 50 in the other: 
America and Europe, in ponds and sluggish streams on submerged sticks, 
pond lily leaves, etc.; not common. 

Fig. 435— Pccfifui- 
tella magnifca (Dav- 
enport). A, a thick 
gelatinous mass sar- 
rounding a stick on 
which are numerous 
colonies ; B, stato- 

Fig. 436 

Statoblast of 



(SUssw. F. 



Sessile, marine, mollusk-like animals in which the body is enclosed 
in a bivalve, dalcareous, or homy shell, one valve of which is dorsal and 
one valve ventral. The shells (Fig. 437) can be opened and closed by 
means of muscles, the hinge end being posterior and the opening anterior 

* See "Catalogue of the Recent Species of the Class Brachiopoda/' by W. H. Dall, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., 1873, p. 177. "A Monograph of Becent Bnchiopoda,** by 
T. Davidson, Trans. Lin. Soc, 2nd ser.. Vol. 4, 1886-1888. "BeTision of the Families 
of Loop-bearing Brachiopoda,** by C. B. Beecher. Trans. Conn. Acad... Vol. 9, 1893. 


in pootion. The Boinial is attached to some more or less fixed object b; 
means of the peduncle, a stout, mosealar stalk which is a prolongation of 
the hinder end of the body and passes eaihet between the valves of the 
shell or through a hole in the projecting ventral valve; in a few species 
{Crama) the whole ventral valve is attadied, no peduncle being present 
The soft parts of the body, which lie between the hinder and middle 
portions of these shells, are very short and broad, and from them two 
leaf-like folds called the dorsal and the ventral mantles estend forwards 
and cover the inner surface of the forward portion of the shells. Two 
additional projections of the anterior body wall also extend forwards and 
oecupy the space between the two mantles. These are the tentacular arms 
or lophophorcs, a pair of ridges or of b^it or eoiled arms ^ich in the 

He, 437 — Dlurmm at a bracblopod (DeUge et BtroDsrd). 1, pcdancle; 2, dorsal 

■bell; 3, stomcch; 4, Uver ducte; Q, moutb; 0. maofle: 1, gllU; 

8, lopbopbore; S, maacles; 10, iDtcatlne ; 11, ventral Bbell. 

TeaticardineB are supported by a calcareous skeleton proceeding from the 
dorsal valve of the shell. These arms are the largest and most conspicuous 
organs in the body and have given the group its name : they are respiratory 
and sensory in function, and are also of use in the ingestion of food. 
Both they and the mantles contain a cavity which is in direct communi- 
cation with the body cavity. Runnmg along the surface of each ridge or 
arm is a ciliated groove along one side of which is a row of ciliated ten- 
tacles. By the action of these cilia the minute oi^nisms which form the 
food of the animal are swept into the mouth. 

The mouth lies between the base of the arms and is without special 
jaws or lips; it opens into a digestive tube in which an oesophagus, stom- 
ach, and intestine may be distinguished. Sac-like digestive glands (livers) 
open into the stomach. The Testicardinea have no anus: in the Ecardines 


the anus is at the hinder end of the body between the edges of the shells. 
The nervous system consists of a pair of ganglia dorsal to the oBsophagos, 
a ventral pair, connecting commissures and radiating nerves. There are 
no special sense organs in the adult animal, although the larva may have 
eye spots and otocysts. The circulatory system consists of a heart, a large 
vein which enters it anteriorly, and arteries which proceed to the spaces 
of the body cavity. The excretory organs consist of a pair (two pairs in 
Bhynchonella) of nephridial tubes which open into the body cavity at one 
end and into the mantle cavity at the other. The sexes are as a rule sep- 
arate. The two pairs of genital glands lie near the intestine and discharge 
their products into the body cavity, whence they find their way to the 
outside through the nephridia. The larva is a trochophore, and is made 
up of three divisions, from the middle one of which the mantle folds 
develop : after a few hours of free life the larva attaches itself. 

Habits and Distribution.^— AW Brachiopoda are attached to rocks, or 
other similar objects, except the Lingulidae, which live in vertical burrows 
in the sand. Most of the species live in shallow water in the neighbor- 
hood of continents : a few, however, are found in the deep sea. They are 
not generally distributed over the world but are localized, as is the case 
with many ancient groups of animals, but are often found in large num- 
bers where they do occur. Brachiopods have flourished during all the 
geological ages from the Cambrian down to the present time, the genus 
Lingula, which is still plentiful in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, being 
the oldest known genus of animals. About 2,500 fossil species have been 
discovered, mostly in the Paleozoic rocks, only about 120 living species 
being known. 

£i9^ofi/.f— The conspicuous shells of the Brachiopoda attracted the 
attention of the older naturalists, by whom the animals were almost uni- 
versally regarded as mollusks. The name Brachiopoda was given them 
in 1807 by Dum6ril. In 1873 and 1874 Morse and Kowalevsky independ- 
ently demonstrated by a study of their embryology that the affinities of 
brachiopods were not with the Mollusca but rather with the AnneUda. 
Brooks held them to be Bryozoa, while Huxley and Claus placed them 
among the Molluscoidea, a subkingdom or phylum originally created by 
Milne-Edwards to contain the Bryozoa and Tunicata, Conklin and others 

^ See "Obtervmtlons on LlTlng Bracblopoda," by E. 8. Mone, Mem. Bo«t. Soe. 
Nat Hist., Vol. 6, 1902. 

t See "On tbe Embryology of Terebratullna/' by B. S. Morse, Mem. Boat. Soc 
Mat. Hist, Vol. 2, 1873. "On the Systematic Position of the Brachiopoda," by B. S. 
Morse. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. 16, 1873. "On the Development of the 
Brachiopoda," by A. Kowalevsky, Abst., by A. Agassis, Am. Jour. Set, 1874. "Tha 
Development of Ldngnla and the Systematic Position of the Brachiopoda/' by W. K. 
Brooks, Sd. Results of Sess. of 1878, Chesapeake Zool. Lab. "The Embryology of 
a Brachiopod," etc., by B. Q. ConkUn, Proc. Am. PhU. Soc, Vol. 41, 1902. 


qTiite recently have shown the relationship between the Brachiopoda and 
Phoroms* The aflftnities of the Brachiopoda are thus stOl obscure, but 
axe undoubtedly with the Bryozoa and Phoroms. 

The subphylum contains 2 orders. 

Key to the orders of Brachiopoda: 

Oi Shell without a hinsre joining the yalyes 1. Eoabdines 

Ob The yalves of the shell joined by a hinge 2. Tsshoabdines 

Qrdeb 1. EOABDINES. 

Shell horn-like or calcareous, the valves not being joined posteriorly by 
a hinge but only by muscles; mantles also not joined; no calcareous arms 
projecting from the dorsal valve to support the tentacular arms; anus 
present: 3 families with about 32 living and 400 fossil species, most of 
the latter being Paleozoic. 

Key to the families of Ecardines here described : 

Oi Peduncle present ; animal living in sand 1. Linoulidax 

Ob Peduncle not present; animal attached by ventral valve 2. Ga^NimAX 

Family 1. LINQULIDAE. 

Shell more or less rectangular in shape, horn-like in texture, with 
valves of equal size, truncated in front and pointed bdiind; peduncle con- 
tractile and usually long; tentacular arms spiral, with about 6 whorls; 
mantle veiy vascular, with long stiff setae on the edges: 16 species, in 
2 genera, of which Lingula is found in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and 
Glottidia on both shores of America; 100 fossil species. 

Olottzdza DalL Shell smooth and linguiform; 
dorsal valve with 2 internal, sharp, incurved laminae 
diverging from the beak and extending a third of the 
length of the shell; ventral valve, with a mesial septum 
extending forwards from the beak: about 4 species, on 
both Atlantic and Pacific coasts of America. 

G. albida (Hinds). Shell narrow, oval, tapering ^ 438 — 0/0*- 
at the beak, very slightly curved in front, smooth, and (t??2d)?*^" 

white; peduncle stout and short, 45 mm. long; sheU 30 
mm. long: Pacific coast from San Diego to Monterey, from low- water 
mark to 60 fathoms. 

O. audebarti* (Broderip) {Lingula pyramidata Stimpson) (Fig. 438). 
Shell narrow, tapering at the back, front margin nearly straight; color 
white, with transverse bands of green; peduncle very long and slender; 
animal hermaphroditic; length of shell 27 mm., breadth 10 nmi.; length 

* See "A study of the Strnctiire of Linpila (Glottidia) pyramidata Stimp./' by 
H. B. Beyer, Stud. BloL Lab., Johns Hopk., Vol. 3, 1886. 


of peduncle 16 em.: North Carolina to Florida; in vertical burrows in 
the sand between tide lines, the contractile peduncle extending straight 
down and the opening of the shell just reaching the water. 

Familt 2. GBANIIDAE. 

Shell more or less quadrate or circular in shape and without a 
peduncle, being attached by the ventral valve to a rock; dorsal valve 
limpet-like; tentacular arms free and spiral; mantle extending to the 
edges of the valve, its margin being plain : 1 genus. 

Obavia Retzius. Shell smooth or radiately striated: 4 species. 

C. anomala (0. F. Miiller). SheU brownish in color, 18 mm. long 
and 22 mm. broad: Florida Keys and the West Indies, in 100 fathoms. 


Shell calcareous, the 2 valves being joined by a hinge; mantles also 
fused behind; ventral valve larger than the dorsal and with a beak at 
.the hinder end through which the peduncle passes; tentacular arms 
supported by calcareous arms which proceed from the dorsal valve; anus 
wanting: 3 families and about 80 species; about 2,200 fossil species. 

Key to the families of Testicardines here described : 

Oi Shell with a sharp, hook-like beak 1. Rhyi?chonellidae 

Ot Beak not hook-like, but prominent 2. Tebebba.tulidab 


Shell more or less triangular with a sharp, hook-like beak; calcareous 
arms long and slender, curving towards each other; tentacular arms 
long and spiral: 2 genera and 8 species. 

Bhyvohovella Fischer. Shell with radiating ridges; dorsal valve 
very convex, ventral valve more flattened: 6 species. 

B. psittacea (Gmelin). Shell brown or black, 26 mm. long and not 
quite so wide: circumpolar, being found south to the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence and to the Aleutian Islands, in shallow water. 


Shell round or oval, the lower valve with a prominent perforated 
beak and 2 curved hinge teeth, dorsal valve with a hinge process and a 
slender calcareous loop: about 10 genera and 68 species. 

Key to the genera of Terebratulidae here described : 

Oi Calcareous loop short 1. Tebebratulina 

a. Calcareous loop long. 

&i Loop with its principal stem attached but once 2. Waldeheimia 

h. Principal stem attached twice 3. Tebebratella 

&, Reflected part of loop attached at the tip 4. Laqueub 



Fig. 439 — Tere- 
bratulina septen- 
trionalie (Tryon). 

A, dorsal aspect; 

B. Inner surface 
of dorsal shell, 
showing calcare- 
ous arms. 

1. TsHKBBATUUHA D'Orbigny. Shell punctate, with 5 radiating 
striations; calcareous loop short and forming either a perfect or a 
broken ring: 8 species; 22 fossil species. 

T. septentrionalis (Couthouy) (Fig. 439). Shell 
thin and semi-transparent, yellowish or whitish, broadly 
oval; beak projecting but little, truncated horizontally, 
with a large orifice; 13 mm. long and 8 mm. broad: 
coast of New England, in 20 fathoms off Cape Cod, at 
low- water line farther north; common. 

T. capnt-serpentis (L.). Shell oval, whitish or 
yellowish; 25 mm. long; 17 mm. wide: Europe; Florida 
and the West Indies (var. cailleti); Pacific coast from 
San Diego to Aleutian islands (var. unginculata) . 

2. Waldheixia King. Shell globose and smooth, 
calcareous loop composed of 2 slender branches which 
extend from the hinge almost to the front edge of the 

shelly then curve backwards to the center, where they join: 10 species; 

90 fossil species. 

W. floridana Pourtal^. Shell triangular, gray or 
brownish-white in color; length 22 mm.; width 25 mm.; 
depth 14 nmi. : Florida reefs and the West Indies, in 100 
to 200 fathoms; abundant. 

3. Tessbbatella D 'Orbigny. Shell ovoid or round ; 
loop long and like Waldheimia, but with its principal 
stem twice attached: 9 species. 

T. transversa (Sowerby) (Fig. 440). Shell variable 
in shape, usually wider than long; length 30 mm.; 
breadth 38 nmi.; depth 20 mm.; color from light yellow 
to dark purple: Monterey, California, northwards, in 15 
to 20 fathoms, the commonest brachiopod on the coast. 
T. spitibergensia Davidson. Shell whitish-yellow and longer than 
wide; valves equally convex, smooth, and strongly punctate; length 9 
nun.; breadth 7 mm.; depth 3.5 mm.: circumpolar; 
south to Gulf of St. Lawrence, in 40 to 400 f al^oms. 
4. LAavzini Dall. Shell broadly ovoid; loop 
long like Terehraiella, but with the reflected portion 
attached by a connecting branch on each aide to the 
principal stem: 3 species. 

L. californicTUi (Koch) (Fig. 441). SheU 6 cm. 
long, 5 em. broad, and 25 mm. deep; bright yellowish or reddish-brown 
in color : Santa Barbara County, California, and northwards, in 90 fathoms, 
being smaller towards the north. 

Fig. 440 — Tere- 
hratella trans' 
versa (Keep). 
A, natural posi- 
tion, with the 
dorsal sbell 
appermost ; B» 
doraal aspect 

rig. 441 

Laqueus oaUfomicus 





Sessile, marine worms living in chitinous tubes in shallow water, which 
have Ut the anterior end of the body a horseshoe-shaped tentacular crown 
or lophophore. The animals are gregareous, their tubes being often 
twisted together, but without, however, conmiunicating with one another. 
The tubes are also covered with sand, pieces of shell, etc., which give them 
a characteristic appearance. The lophophore consists of a double ridge, 
each part of which bears a single row of tentacles, its lateral extremities 
forming a spiral coil on each side. The mouth and the anus are near 

together in the middle of the lophophore, but are 
separated by a long projection of the body wall 
called the epistome. Near the anus are the paired 
orifices of the kidneys. The body cavity is large and 
is divided by a diaphragm into two parts, an upper 
or anterior, which is continuous with the cavities of 
the epistome and the tentacles, and a lower, which 
contains the viscera: the diaphragm is pierced by 
blood vessels and the CBSophagus. The digestive tract 
is U-shaped, consisting of the oesophagus, stomach, 
and intestine, and is supported by longitudinal mesen- 
teries. Two circulatory fluids are present, a colorless 
fluid in the body cavity and a red fluid in a system 
of closed vessels which lie along the two limbs of the 
digestive tube and are distributed to the tentacles 
epistome ; 2. lopno- *^^ ^^^^^ Organs. The kidneys are a pair of tubes 
Kct ' ^* *^«*^^« which communicate between the body cavity and the 

outside. The nervous system is subepithelial in posi- 
tion and consists of a nerve ring surrounding the mouth and nerves 
going from it to the tentacles. The animals are hermaphroditic, the 
gonads lying near the stomach and discharging their products into the 
ccelom, whence they find their way to the outside through the kidney 
pores. The development is a metamorphosis, the oharacteristie larva 
being known as the actinotrocha. 

The systematic position of the anin^als has long been a matter of 
dispute, but they are now usually placed near the Bryagoa and Braokio- 
poda. The subphylum contains a single genus and about a dozen species, 
of which two are American. 

Peobohis Wright. With the characters of the subphylum: 11 

♦ See "Phoronie arcbitecta," by R, P. Cowles, Mem. Nat Acad., Vol. 10. p. 76, 
1005. "On Pboronls paciflca sp. nov./' by H. a Torrey, Biol. BuU., Vol. 2, p. 283, 1901. 

Vig, 442 — Phoro- 
Mb arohiteota — 
young individual 
witb about 30 ten- 
tacles (Cowles). 1, 
epistome ; 2. lopho 


P. architocta Andrews (Fig. 442). Tabes straight and about 13 cm. 
long and 1 mm. wide; anterior portion of body flesh color, posterior 
portion reddish or yellowish; tentacles about 100 in number; lophophore 
not spirally coiled at the ends: North Carolina, in sand flats near the 
low-water mark, the tubes being isolated and covered with sand grains; 
often common. 

P. padfica Torrey. Length of tube 9 cm.; diameter 2 nmi.; each 
spiral of lophophore with V/z to 2 turns; tentacles 170 to 200 in number; 
tube straight, cylindrical, incrusted with sand: Puget Sound; Humboldt 
Bay, California; in sand and mud flats. 


Elongate, transparent worms of small size which live exclusively in 
the sea, preying on other small organisms. The body is long and slender 
and unciliated, and is provided with two or three pairs of horizontal fins. 
Surrounding the mouth at the front end of the body are long, paired, 
prehensile bristles or hooks and one or two rows of smaU teeth (Fig. 
443, B). A large body cavity is present, which is lined with a peritoneum 
and is divided by transverse septa into three compartments. The anus is 
at the hinder end of the body and between it and the mouth lies the 
straight digestive tract: longitudinal mesenteries join the intestine with 
the dorsal and ventral body walls. The nervous system is subepithelial; 
a laige cerebral ganglion forms the brain and is connected with a large 
ventral trunk ganglion in the middle of the body by commissures. The 
brain sends off nerves to the two eyes and the unpaired olfactory organ 
behind them. No special respiratory, excretory, or circulatory organs are 
present. The animals lare hermaphroditic, the sex cells arising from the 
peritoneum. The two ovaries are in the middle division of the body, the 
oviducts opening near them: the testes are in the hinder division of the 
body; the spermatozoa escape to the outside through a pair of prominent 
seminal vesicles just in front of the tail fins. In the development the 
mesoderm is formed by the growth of paired pouches from the archenteric 
walls,. the fused cavities of the pouches becoming the ooBlom, a process 
eharaeteristie of many annelids and also of the Chordata, 

The ChtBtognatha Bxe found in all seas, from the surface to the 
greatest depths, being often present in immense numbers. Six genera and 
about 30 species are known. 

* Bee "The Known Chetognatha of American Waters/' by F. S. Conant, Johns 
Hopk. UnlT. Clr., Vol. 15, p. 82, 1806. "Cb»tognaihi," by B. yon Rltter-Zabony, Das 
TIerrelcb, 1911. "ClaBsiflcation, etc., of tbe Cbstognatba,*' etc., by B. A. Michael, 
UniT. of Cal. Pnbn VoL 8, p. 21, 1911. 



Key to the American genera of Chcstognatha: 

Ot Two pairs of fins besides the caudal fin 1. SAOtTTA 

Ot One pair of fins besides the caudal fin. 

hi Fins near the middle ; body slender, with 1 row of teeth 2. Eukbohnia 

ht Fins near the tail ; body broad, with 2 rows of teeth 3. Ptebosaoitta 

1. Saoztta Quoy and Gaimard. Slender worms with 2 
pairs of lateral fins: about 25 species. 

8. elegans Verrill (Fig. 443). Length up to 3 mm.; 9 to 
12 oral hooks ; anterior teeth 4 to 8 ; posterior teeth 6 to 9 : 

North Atlantic. 

8. hezaptera D'Orbigny. Length 6 mm.; oral hooks 5 

to 10; anterior teeth 3 to 4; posterior 
teeth 3 to 5: Martha's Vineyard; cos- 

2. EtmoHHiA Ritter-Zahony. A 
single lateral fin on each side near mid- 
dle of body; body slender: 3 species. 

E. hamata (Mobius). Length 4 
mm.; oral hooks 8 
to 10; 15 to 28 
teeth in a single 
row ; ovary reddish : 
cosmopolitan; Mar- 
tha's Vineyard. 
S. Ptzbobaoztta Costa. Body broad; a single 
pair of lateral fins near the tail; an expansion of 
the integument extending along the side of the body 
in front of each lateral fin to the head: 1 species. 

P. draco (Erohn) (Fig. 444). Length 10 mm.; 
oral hooks 4 to 10; anterior t^eeth 6 to 9; posterior 
teeth 12 to 18; forward of the middle of the body ptero»agitta draco 
on each side is a bundle of long setae : cosmopolitan. Natural History). 

Fig. 443 — Sagitta eleoant (Zabony). 
A, entire SDlmal ; B, nead. 1, pre- 
hensile books ; 2, teeth ; 3, mouth ; 
4, ventral ganglion ; 6, female gen- 
ital organs ; 6, anus ; 7, female 
genital pore; 8» male genital pore. 


** Marine worms which, together with the Eehiurida, are often included 
in a class of the Annelida called the Gephyrea, This is a name given 
them by Quatrefages (1847) to signify the belief that they bridge the 
gnlf between the Annelida and the Echinodermata, the earlier zoologists 
having grouped them with the holothurians. The total lack of segmen- 
tation, however, at any period of the life of most of the Sipwncuhidea, 
ttnd the absence of metameric organs, have made it necessary to remove 
them from the Annelida, although the fact that they pass throu^ the 


trodioiAoie stage indieates a doee oonneotioii intii the immediate ancestors 
of that group. 

The Sipunculoidea are more or less elong&ted wormsy the hirgest of 
ivhieh are 20 em. or more in lengthy which live in the sand or mud, either 
free or in tuhes or snail shells. The body is cylindrical and very con« 
tractile, nns^mented and not ciliated, and without metameric ap- 
pendages, spines, or bristles; it is made up of two divisions, a usually 
slender anterior portion called the introvert, which can be invaginated, 
and the thicker hinder portion. The snbphylum contains two classes. 

Key to the classes of Sipunculoidea: 
Oi Body elongate; anus at base of introTert; tentacles usually present 


Ob Body robust ; anus at hinder end ; no tentacles 2. Pbiapulida 


Elongated worms with short, hollow tentacles at the forward end 
which are either distinct or more or less united and usually surround the 
mouth, and with the anus in the dorsal surface near the base of the intro- 
vert. The body wall consists of a cuticula, a single-layered hypodermis, 
and the muscles. The hypodermis gives rise to large glands which lie 
beneath it, in certain species enveloped in a gelatinous connective tissue 
called the cutis, and open through the cuticula to the outer surface. The 
muscles consist of an outer circular and an inner longitudinal layer and 
between them delicate oblique muscles, which, however, are not present in 
the introvert. The longitudinal muscles in certain species (Sipunculus) 
are split up into regularly recurring bundles, which produce a lattice-like 
effect (Fig. 446). The body cavity is voluminous and is bounded by a 
eiliated peritoneal lining; it contains a corpusculated blood fluid. Two or 
four retractor muscles extend back from the front end of the base of the 
Introvert, by means of which invagination is effected. The digestive system 
consists of a narrow tube of about the same diameter throu^out, which 
extends from the mouth at the front end to near the hinder end of the 
body, then turns on itself and extends forward to the anus. The two 
limbs of the intestine are usually twisted spirally together, in certain 
species around a single muscle strand called the spindle muscle. A blood 
vascular system is present in form of an. oesophageal ring canal, tentacular 
canals which extend from the ring canal into the tentacles, and one or two 
contractile caeca (hearts) which extend from the ring canal a short dis- 
tance along the cesophagus. These organs contain a fluid which serves to 
extend the tentacles, which are probably respiratory as well as sensory in 

* See "Die Stpuncpliden,** by B. Selenka, in Reisen im Arch. d. Phllipp, von C. 
Semper, 1883. "The SlpuncnlldB of the Bastem Coast of North America/' by J. H« 
Qerould, Proc. V% 8. Nat^ Mus., Vol. 44, p. 378. 1913^ 


function. A pair of nephridia, called the brown tubes, opens to the out- 
side near the anus. The nervous system consists of a cerebral ganglion 
on the dorsal side of the oesophagus, which is connected by a pair of 
commissures with an unsegmented ventral nerve; this nerve passes to the 
hinder end of the body, sending off numerous nerves which are not regu- 
larly paired. A pair of simple eyes, pigmented or not, lies within the 
brain. A ciliated canal extending from the surface to the brain and called 
the cerebral tube, the walls of which are pigmented in certain species, 
is present just back of the tentacles : tactile organs are also often present. 
The sexes are separate, but alike in appearance. A pair of gonads de- 
velops in the peritoneum upon the base of the retractor muscles which 
discharge their products into the body cavity, whence they make their way 
to the outside through the nephridia. The young animal passes through 
ftn active free-swimming stage. The metamorphosis is not accompanied 
by any well-marked evidences of metamerism, and the adult worm is still 
trochophore-like, indicating that the animals are very primitive forms 
near the base of the annelid stem. The animals live in the sand and mud, 
which they swallow in large quantities. They are found in almost all 
parts of the world, mostly in shallow water. The class contains about 11 
genera and over 100 species, 16 of which have been found on the east and 
4 on the west coast of this country. 

Key to the genera Sipunculida here described : 

Oi Longitudinal muscles divided into bandies (except Pha»colo»oma ffouldi). 
hi Tentacular fold instead of tentacles; no papillae on trunk. .1. Sipunculus 
ft] Isolated tentacles present 

C| Tentacles encircle the mouth 2. Siphonosoma 

c. Tentacles in a crescent dorsal to mouth 3. Phtscosoma 

o. Longitudinal muscles not split into bundles (with Pha$colosoma gouldi). 

&i Worms free-living with numerous tentacles 4. Phasoolosoma 

5, Worms inhabit tubes or shells 5. Phasoquon 

1. SiFinrouLUS L. Mouth surrounded by a fluted tentacular fold, 
without isolated tentacles, behind Vhich is the cerebral tube; no hooks on 
the introvert; longitudinal muscles in 17 to 41 distinct bundles, giving a 
lattice-like effect; 4 retractor muscles; rectum with 1 or more csBca; 2 
contractile hearts : 16 species, mostly of large size, in most seas. 

8. nndufl* L. (Fig. 445). Body up to 21 cm. long; the anterior 
sixth covered with papillae; 13 longitudinal muscles: Beaufort, North 
Carolina; Key West; Europe. 

2. SxPKOHOSOiCA SpengeL Similar to Sipunculua but with integu- 
mental blind sacs and a statocyst near the tentacles; cerebral tube a shallow 
pit: several species. 

* See "On Some Points on the Anatomy and Histology of Sipunculos nn^Ui L./' 
by H. B. Ward, Bui}. Mub. Comp. Zool., VoU 21, p. 143, 1891* 



eit«na«d CW«rd), 

(Keferatein). Longitudinal moseleB 21; body cavity 
divided by septa into regular subdivisions as in an annelid; oial tentacles 
present: North Carolina; Florida; Philippines. 

3. Pktboosoiu Selenka. Body covered with 
papillae; usually 4 retractor musclee; iotrovert 
with hooks arranged in rings; tentacles numer- 
OOB, not surrounding the mouth but lying above it, 
fonning a horseshoe; longitudinal muscles as in 
SipiMculus; eye spots present: about 27 speciee, 
mostly tropical. 

P. agUBisl Keferstein. Body op to 4 cm. 
long and 10 mm. thick; introvert as long aa 
body; about 20 tows of broad hooks just back 
of tentacles, of which there are 20; 25 longi- 
tudinal muscles: Pacido coast, Yancoaver to 

4. Phjucoloboiu F. S. Leuckart. Longitu- 

dinal mnseles nsoally not split np into bundles but 
forming a continnoos sheath; mouth surrounded by 
one or more concentric circles of finger-shaped ten- 
tacles; 2 or 4 retractor muscles in the introvert: 
over 25 species, cosmopolitan, some species living 
in the shells of snails. 

P. gonldi* (Pourtalls) (Fig. 446). Body with 
longitudinal muscles not forming a continuous sheath 
but split up into about 30 anastomosing bundles; 
length 18 cm., the anterior quarter of which is pro- 
boscis; skin smooth; tentacles very numerous, in sev- 
eral rows; a pair of pigmented ocular tubes open 
into the cerebral organ : Long Island Sound to Hasea- 
chusetts Bay. 

F. eremita (Sars). Body with transverse ridges, 
2 to 5 cm. long and 5 to 12 mm. thick; introvert 
nearly as long as body, withont hooks; 2 retractor 
muscles; no spindle muscle; 20 to 40 tentacles: 
Massachusetts coast northwards, in 40 to 1,000 fath- 
oms; Arctic Ocean. 

6. Phasooliov ThM. Small forms living in 
aima. ' ' tubes or in small shells; tentacles numerous, form- 

• See "Note* Id the ADstomy of the SIphucqIdb ganldll Fenrtalte," by B. A. 
Andrew^ 8tsd. Biol. Lab. Jobni Hopkloi Univ., Vol. 4. p. 389, ISBO. "Tbe Develop- 
tncDt of Phucolowuna," bj J. B. Owonid, ZooL Jabrb. AbL L Anat., etc, VoL 88, 
p. 77, IVOO. 

ns. 440— DIueo- 
Hod ot Phatoclonim« 
poBldKKIiigBli - ' 

iDtmUne ; 4, Depb- 
ridlam ; D, poBtenor 
''^t ; B.gonaa ; 


ing a single circle around the month; alimentary canal not spiral or 

incompletely so; no spindle muscle; 2 retractors; but 1 brown tube: 15 

to 20 species. 

P. strombi (Montagu) (Fig, 447). Body 30 mm. long, with papillae; 

a band of minute hooks back of tentacles, and large, dai^-brown, cres- 

centic or triangular hooks pointing forwards on the 
hinder part: common in 2 to 1,000 fathoms from the 
West Indies to the Arctic Ocean; Mediterranean; the 
worm lives in a snail shell, closing the aperture by means 
of sand cemented into a firm mass, leaving a hole through 
which the introvert is thrust out, and moves about car- 
rying the shell with it; common, there being many 

Phaeooiion varieties, some of which form a thick short tube of mud 

(Geroold). and sand. 


Body without tentacles; anus at the hinder end; introvert plump 
and covered with rows of small spines; trunk striated transversely and 
in most species bearing 1 or 2 large caudal appendages with respiratory 
papillae; alimentary canal in most cases straight and wide; pharynx 
muscular, provided with numerous teeth; main nervous system sub- 
epithelial, consisting of a ring around the mouth and a ventral cord 
without definite ganglia; no special sense organs, blood-vascular system, 
or nephridia in the adult, but in the young worm nephridia are present 
which open into the genital ducts; sexes distinct; gonads paired; genital 
ducts open to the outside near the anus: 2 genera and 6 species, which 
are found in shallow water in the colder seas, where they burrow in the 
sand and mud. 

PBiAPTTLinEi Lamarck. Caudal appendages, covered with hollow 
papillae present; introvert thicker than the trunk, about a quarter as 
long as it and with spines in longitudinal rows : 5 species. 

P. caudatufl Lam. Length 2 to 18 cm., color yellow or brown: 
Arctic seas. 

ANNELIDA.* (The Annelid Worms.) 

Elongated, segmented worms in which a distinct head, a coelom, and 
a digestive tube are present, and the paired appendages, where present, 
are not segmented. 

External Structure.-^The segmentation, which is the most character- 
istic featnre of annelids, is approximately equivalent (Fig. 461, A). 
This is the most pronounced in the Ciueiopoda, in which it affects both the 
inner and the outer structure, the segments or somites being separated 
from one another by muscular partitions called dissepiments; in the 
Hirudinea and the Myzostomida the internal structure is also completely 
segmented but the rings which appear on the outer surface may not mark 
the somites; in the Echiurida the larval worm alone is segmented. 

A heSEtd is more or less distinctly marked in most annelids and contains 
the mouih, the brain, and also often tentacles, cirri and palps, which 
may have a tactile and often a respiratory function; eyes are also often 
present The head is typically composed of two divisions (Fig. 459), the 
prostomium and the peristomium or metastomium. The first of these 
divisions is a distinct projection which forms the anterior end of the 
animal; it lies in front of the mouth (Fig. 450, A) and contains the brain 
and the eyes, tentacles, and palps, if these are present The second con- 
tains the mouth, which is ventral in position, and often cirri, and is con- 
tinuous with the segmented trunk, in many annelids appearing as a 
part of it. 

Paired, segmental appendages, which in the annelids are muscular 
projections of the body wall and are called parapodia, are present in the 
Polychista and the Myzostomida, and all annelids except the Hirudinea, 
most Archiannelida, and the Discodrilidae, possess paired, segmental g^ups 
of bristles, which are called setae and assist in locomotion. The parapodia 
are locomotory, respiratory, and tactile in function. The Hirudinea and 
a few other groups possess suckers, which assist in locomotion. 

The outer surface of the body of annelids is a cuticula and is usuaUy 
not ciliated in the adult worm. 

< See "Inyertebrate Animals of Vineyard Sound,*' by A. B. VerriU, Rep. IT. 8. 
Com. Fish, for 1871-72. "Preliminary Account of the Marine Annelids of the Padfle 
Coast," etc., by H. P. Johnson, Proc. Cal. Acad. Scl. (3), Vol. 1, 1897. "A Biological 
Barrey of the Waters of Woods Hole and Vicinity/' by F. B. Sumner, et aL, Bnll. Bar. 
WtalL, Vol. 31, 1013. 



Internal Stntdure.—The body wall consists of the cuticula^ which 
forms the outer covering, the hypodermis, a single layer of cells which 
secretes the cuticulay and two layers of muscle fibers, an outer ciixsular 
and an inner longitudinal layer. In the Hintdinea and Myzostomida the 
body cavity is filled more or less completely with a vacuolated connective 
tissue and muscle fibers, similar to the parenchyma of the Plathelminthes. 
In other annelids a spacious body cavity is present, which is usually 
divided by the dissepiments into as many separate spaces as there are 

The mouth leads into the pharynx (Fig. 487,5), which in most anne- 
lids can be thrust out through the mouth to form a proboscis, and 
is the means by which the lanimal takes its food. An oesophagus is 
usually distinctly marked and is followed by the intestine, which in most 
eases is straight and passes to the anus at the hinder end of the body; in 
many annelids a pair of lateral intestinal pouches is present in each 
somite and a dorsal and a ventral longitudinal mesentery joins the intestine 
with the body walL 

A well-developed system of blood tubes (Fig. 487, 7) is present in all 
except the lowest annelids, which often carry red blood, the most impor- 
tant of which are a dorsal longitudinal tube just above the intestine, a 
ventral tube just beneath it, and transverse tubes placing these in com- 
munication with each other. The body cavity has also a circulatory fluid 
of its own which in many annelids is in open connection with the blood 

The excretory system (Fig. 479,6) consists typically of a pair of 
coiled tubes called kidney tubules or nephridia in each somite. Each neph- 
ridium opens into the body cavity by the ciliated nephrostome at one end 
and to the outside through a pore in the body wall at the other. Respira- 
tion is carried on through the entire outer surface of the body. In the 
Polychata, however, special respiratory organs are present in the form of 
projections of the parapodia or the appendages of the head. 

The nervous system (Fig. 479) consists of paired, segmental, ven- 
trally situated ganglia and a pair of longitudinal nerves joining theuL 
The anterior ganglionic mass constitutes the brain ; it is dorsal in position, 
being situated above the phaiynx in the prostomium. In their most 
primitive condition these two longitudinal nerves are separated from each 
other, but in most annelids they lie close together, forming a single strand. 
Special sense organs exist in a variety of forms. Tactile organs in the 
form of the paired appendages of the head and trunk characterize the 
polychiBts and the Myzostomida; in the oligochaats and leeches the entire 
forward portion of the body is highly sensitive. Eyes are present in 
pofychaBts and leeches, and a few of the former also possess lithocysts. 


In the unisexual annelids (most polychaBts) the leproduetive organs 
are not well marked except during the period of breeding, when they 
appear as specialized portions of the peritoneum. The hermaphroditic 
annelids on the other hand have a complicated system of reproductive 
organs (Fig. 479). The unisexual forms are mostly bom in the form of 
the trochophore larva, which goes through a complicated metamorphosis 
before reaching the condition of the adult : in the hermaphroditic annelids, 
the development is usually direct, the young worm when bom having the 
form of the parent The body of the typical, primitive annelid may be 
divided into two portions, the prosoma, or the primitive head, and the 
metasoma, or the primitive segmented trunk. The trochophore larva, 
which in most cases is supposed to represent the prosoma alone, is a 
simple unsegmented animal, the metasoma not yet having made its appear- 
anea The^metasoma soon begins to grow, however, at the posterior end 
of the prosoma, the segments or somites developing one after the other as 
the worm increases in length, until in some cases a himdred and fifty or 
more may be present in the adult worm. In the higher annelids the 
prosoma annexes one or more of the anterior somites of the trunk and 
forms thus a head of increased size and complexity in which we can dis- 
tinguish the two divisions already mentioned, the prostomium and the 

In the hermaphroditic annelids, which have a direct development, 
these processes go on in the egg and the young worm is bom with its 
definitive form, although usually not with the full number of somites. 
Many annelids reproduce also asexually by transverse divisions or by 
serial or even lateral budding. 

Distributions and Hahits^—AU annelids live in the water or in moist 
places on the land or in the earth, the majority being marine. Most of 
them are predaceous animals, although the oligocheBts live chiefly on veg- 
etable substances. The leeches are either predaceous or parasitic and the 
Myzostomida are exclusively parasitic. 

B^istory.^lt was Cnvier who, in 1798, first called attention to the 
fundamental difference in structure between the higher and the lower 
worms, and Lamarck who gave the former the name Annelides. Savigny 
(1820) subdivided the group into the Annelides nereideae, serpuleae, lum^ 
hridneae, and hirudineae, and may be considered the founder of the 
modem classification. Milne-Edwards (1834) introduced the subdivisions 
Annelides errantes, tuhicoles, and terricoles, which for sixty years or more 
had a t>la<^ ^ the system, and Grube (1851) the subdivisions Polychceta 
and Oligochaia, which are still in general use. In more recent times 
Ehlers h)as been peiiiaps the most active in the development of the system. 

The phylum contains about 4,500 species grouped in 4 classes. 


Key to the daases of Annelida: 

Ox No suckers or sucker-like organs present (except ia the Difooilrilfdoe) ; 
segmentation usually distinct externally. . ^^ 

hi No setae (except in ChisBtogordiut) or parapodia present. 1. Aechtanwkuda 
5, Setae present 2. Ghjbtofoda 

Os Suckers or sucker-like organs present. 
hi Body ringed externally with a terminal sucker at each end ; leeches. 


h^ Body flat and oyal in shape with 6 pairs of parapodia and 4 pairs of 

sucker-like organs ; parasites on echinoderms • . .4. MTZOBTOiODtA 


Primitive, marine worms of small size, which are probably near the 
base of the line of the Annelida, having many characters which ally them 
to larval polyehflBts: 2 isolated, genetically unrelated families. 

K^ to the families of Archiannelida: 

Oi Body with 5 or 6 segments, marked by ciliated bands 1. Dinophilidab 

O9 Body with numerous segments 2. Poltgobdiidab 


Minute, marine worms living among seaweed; body short, thick, and 
cylindrical, and made up of a head or prostomimn, a tnmk consisting of 

5 or 6 segments, and a telson or tail; head with a pair of 
eyes, 2 bands of cilia and tactile bristles, no tentacles 
being present; each segment with 1 or 2 bands of cilia; 
ventral surface also ciliated; sexes separate and develop- 
ment simple, the worm becoming adult at a stage resem- 
bling a polychietous larva: 1 genus and about 9 species, 3 

DoroPEZLVa Schmidt With the eharaotere of the 

D. pygnuBUS Yerrill. Length .7 mm.; width .16 mm.; 

trunk segments 5; color whitish: Woods Hole, on piles. 

Ffg. 448 I^* gardineri A. Moore. Color orange red; trunk seg- 

^oof&Hni' ments 6; body ciliated in addition to the eiliated bands: 

(Nelson). ^^^^^ ^^j^^ ^ brackish pools. 

D. conUini Nelson (Fig. 448). Length .5 to 1 mm.; colorless; trunk 
segments 6: New Jersey coast. 


Small, marine annelids in which the segmentation is completely 
equivalent and often indistinctly marked externally or not at all, and 

* See "DinopMlldae of Mew Bnglandp'* by A. B. VerrlU, Trans. Conn. Acad., VoL 
8, p. 467. "The Morphology of Dinophllus conklini n. sp./* by J. A. Nelson, Proc 
Acad. Nat Sci., Phila., Vol. 69, p. 82, 1907. 




Fig. 440 

Larva of 




whieh have no parapodia and usually no segmental setae; head com- 
posed of prostominm and metastomium, the former lying in front of 
the mouth and hearing a pair of tentacles, the latter larger than the 
prostominm and without appendages; body cavity, 
digestive, excretory, and vascular systems typically 
annelidan in character; nervous system subjacent to 
the hypodermis and without distinct ganglia; animals 
nnisezual, the genital products developing from special- 
ized regions of the peritoneum during the breeding 
season; young bom as trochophore larvae: 2 or 3 
genera; the larvae are common in the plankton at many 
places along the Atlantic coast, but with the exception 
of Chegtogordius no adult worms have been found. 

1. PoLTOOBonni Schneider. Body filiform; segmentation indistinct 

at the forward end but more distinct at 
the hinder; tentacles short; anal segment 
enlarged: about 6 species. 

P. appendiculatus* Fraipont (Fig. 
449). Length 20 mm.; body salmon color; 
2 lon^ anal appendages present: Atlantic 
coast (only larval forms heretofore 
found); Mediterranean. 

2. OHJETOGORDnrst Moore. Segmenta- 
tion as in PolygorcUus; hindermost 10 or 
12 segments setigerous; no anal enlarge- 
ment: 1 species. 

0. caaaUculatus Moore (Fig. 450). Length 30 mm.: among marine 
oligoeiuets on Cape Cod. 

Class 2. 0HAT0P0DA4 

S^mentation distinct, except in the Echiurida, both internally and 
externally; setae segmentally arranged in groups on the parapodia, where 
these are present, or sunk in pits on the integument: 3 orders* 

^ Bee "On the Bearing of the Larvae of PolygordinB appendicnlatns and the 
Occurrence of the Adnlt on the Atlantic Coast of America/* by B. P. Cowles, BloL. 
BnlU Vol 4, p. 125, 1908. 

t See "A New Generic l^pe of Polygordlns/* by J. P. Moore, Am. Nat, Vol. 38, 
p. S19, 1904. 

t See "Annelida Ch»topoda of New Jersey," by H. B. Webster, Thirty-second Rep. 
N. T. St. Mus. Nat Hist, p. 128, 1879. "New Bngland AnneUds," by A. B. Verrlll, 
Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. 4, p. 285, 1881. "The Annelida Cluetopoda from Province- 
town," etc, by H. B. Webster and J. B. Benedict, Rep. Com. Fish, for 1881, p. 699, 
1884. "The Annelida Cluetopoda from Bastport, Maine," by same, same jour, for 
1886, p. 707, 1887. "The Annelida Chctopoda of Beaufort, N. C," by B. A. Andrews, 
Proc U. 8. Nat Mas., Vol. 14, p. 277, 1891. "Polycheta of the Puget Sound Region," 
by H. P. Johnson, Proc. Boat 8oc. Nat Hist, VoL 29. p. 381, 1902, 

Fig. 450 — Ohaiogi^rdiuB oana- 
UoutatUB (original drawings by 
J. P. Moore). A, anterior end; 
B» posterior end. 



Key to the orders of Chcstopoda: 

Oi Segmentation distinct 
61 Parapodia with complex groups of setae ; usually cephalic appendages 

present ; mostly marine « i . J 1. PoLTCHiBTA 

6a No parapodia or cephalic appendages present; mostly fresh-water or 

terrestrial * ... .2. OuG OOHiK TA^ 

Oa Segmentation indistinct or wanting in adult; marine.. 3. Bchiureda. 


« ■ ■ 

Fig. 461 — ^Diagram of parapodia 
(Cambridge Natural History). A, 
Nephthys: B, Amphinome; C, Gly- 
cera; I>, SylllB; B, Leodice; F, Phyl- 
lodoce. 1, Dotopodlum ; 2, neuropo- 
dlum ; 3, drms. 

Obder 1. POLTOHiETA. 

Mostly marine annelidsy either free- 
swimming or sedentary, which are pro- 
vided with parapodia. Two portions 
may usually be distinguished in the 
parapodium (Fig. 451), the dorsal no- 
topodium and the ventral neuropodium, 
both of which may contain setae; two 
cirri, a dorsal and a ventral, extend 
from it. In the sedentary polychsta 
the parapodia are much reduced in 
size on either the whole or a part of 
the body and in a few they are entirely 
The polychfets have a distinct head which is usually provided 

with special sense organs (Fig. 452). The prostomium may bear ten- 
tacles, which may number from one 

to ten and are dorsal in position, 

and two palps which are ventral 

and in certain forms are broken 

up into long respiratory filaments. 

Elongated peristomial cirri may 

also be present. Eyes are often 

present on the prostomium and 

lithocysts are found in a few forms 

{Arenicola), The mouth is in the 

peristomium and is often provided 

with a proboscis. Polychiets are 

often highly colored; bright red, 

green, blue, and yellow tints char- 
acterize many of them and make 

them very beautiful animals. 

Polychfets are usually bom as 

troehophore larvae and pass through a metamorphosis before reaching 

the adult stage. Many reproduce asexually by serial or even lateral 

Fig. 462 — Diagram of the heads of 
yariouB polychiets (Cambridge Natural 
History). A, polynoid; B, syllld; C» 
Nephthys; D, Leodice: B, Phyllodoce; 
F, Trophonia. 1, prostomliiin ; % peri- 
stomium; S. tentacles; 4, palps; S, 
peristomial cirrL 

F01YCR2ETA 283 

budding. In many the anterior part of the body is eezless and is called 
the atoke, while the hinder part is seznal and is called the epitoke, these 
two portions being different in appearance; in some the epitokes break 
off from the atokes and swim about independently, while the atokes bud ofE 
new epitokes. The palolo worm of the Samoan and Fiji Islands is the 
epitoke of Leodice vtridis, which comes to the surface in great numbers at 
the full of the October moon to breed, and which are caught by the natives 
for food. The palolo worm of the Atlantic is L. fucata. In Syllis the 
epitoke forms a new head; in Autolytua this happens before separation. 

In certain species of Nereis heterogony is present, a small pelagic 
form alternating with a large one which lives at the bottom. 

Distribution and Habits,— A very few polychasts live in fresh water 
{Manayunkia in the Schuylkill, a Nereis in California, and several others) ; 
the remainder, which are marine, are almost all bottom animals which 
burrow in the sand or in rocks or live in tubes they have built for 
themselves of lime or other material. They are found at all depths and 
are usually numerous in all parts of the world. The free-swimming poly- 
chffits are predaceous animals, while the sedentary ones live on all kinds of 
organic substances; a few are parasitic, and a number commensalistic. 

The order contains about 39 families and 2,500 species grouped in 7 

Key to the suborders of Polychata : 

Ox Worms free-swimming or burrowing, a few tubicolons ; head distinct, with 

tentacles and palps 1. Nebeidifobmia 

o. Worms tubicolous or burrowing; head not so distinct and not provided 
with both tentacles and palps ; sometimes with neither. 
hi Peristominm does not project forwards in form of a collar. 
Ct Head with gill filaments (except in Cirraiulidae) ., • ,S. Tebbebellifobmia 
Cs Head without gill filaments. 

di One pair of long peristomial cirri present 2. Sfionifobmia 

dt One pair of retractile tentacle-like organs on head. .4. CAFiTELLiFOBiaA 
dt Head with no appendages (except in ChlorhtBtnidae) ... .5. Scoi£OiroBMiA 
ft, Peristomium projects forward in form of a collar. 

C| Peristomial collar not setigerous 6. Sabellifobmia 

0| Peristomial collar setigerous 7. Hebmellifobmia 


Well-developed tentacles and palps present; peristomial cirri almost 
invariably present; parapodia well developed, with internal skeletal rods 
called acicula and ventral and dorsal cirri; proboscis present, often 
with prehensile hooks; worms predacious, a few forming tubes: about 
13 families. 

* See "Die Borstenwarmer/' by B. Bblers, 1864. 


Key to the families of Nereidiformia here described : 
a. Back partiallT or totally covered with broad, overlapplDg scales, 
o. Back witbont ih^ scale.. ^- AraMDiTiDA. 
b. Dorsal cirri broad and leal-like, overlapping one another, bnt not cover- 
ins the back 2. PBTLLODOCIDAa 

b. Cirri not broad and leaf-like. 

o. Dorsal cirri usaall; Ions and slender ; asexual badding usual. .3. Stludae 
Ct Dorsal cirri not ver; long ; asexual reproducUon onnauai 
di Pcostominm not annulated. 
Hi No large teetb or jaws on proboscis. 

/, ProboBcia simple; parapodie nsnally nniramous 4. Hesionidak 

/, Proboacis divided into lobes ; prostomlnm amall and acute. .9. Abichdax 
e. Two or more large teeth or jaws usually on proboscis, 
/i But 1 pair of jaws ; 1 pair of tentacles, 1 pair palps sad 4 pairs 

peristomial cirri 5. Nebeidab 

ft Two or more pairs of jaws. 

Qi One pair of dorsal and 1 pair of ventral jaws 6. Nefhth TOidab 

0, 3a.-vrB form a complicated apparatus T. Lbodicidab 

di Prostomium annulated; tentacles inconspicuoas ; proboscis very large. 

8. Oltokbidae 
Pamilt 1. APHEODITIDAE. (Fra. 452, A.) 

Worms with imbricated scales (elytra) on tbe back, mostly on alter- 
nate segments, which may take the place of dorsal cirri; slender dorsal 
cirri usually alternate with the scales; head 
with usually 3 tentacles and 2 long palps: 
numerous genera and species. 

Key to the genera of Aphroditidae described : 
0, Body with felt-like bristles on sides and back 

concealing tbe elytra i. Aphbodtia 

a. Body without this felt. 
6, Body with but few pairs of elytra. 
e, Prostomium prolonged into the base of the 
lateral tentacles; 12 pairs of elytra. 

2. Lepibomotdb 
0, Prostomium prodnced forward into a pair 
of pointed tips, quite free from the base 

of the tentacles 3. HaexotboU 

bi Body with uumeroua pairs of elytra. 

o. Over 40 pairs present 4. PHOnoK 

Cf Over 100 pairs present 0. Stsenklais 

1. Aphsodita L, Body elliptical, with 15 

^,*™d«»%lSa <Uoore). P^"^ ^^ ^'y^'^' ^''t*" ^^ «'^«™'^ *"? *^« 
long felt-like setae arising from the notopo- 
dium; strong dorsal setae also present, projecting through tbe felt; 1 
short tentacle and 2 long palps on the head : about 15 species, 2 in tba 
"Woods Hole region. 

A. hastata Moore (Fig. 453). The Sea Mouse. Body short, vide, 
and thick, the sides and back covered with tbe iridescent felt; dorsal 

Fig. 454 



setae carve over the back to the middle line where they end in hooks; 
len^ 12 em.; vridth 4 cm.: Vineyard Sound, in from 10 to 100 

S. lAiiDOHOTira Leach. Body broad, vith neatly paraUel sides, 
and 12 pairs of elytra; head with 3 tentacles, 2 long palps, and 2 pairs 
of peristomial cirri; eyes aessile: ander stones near tide 
lines; 2 New England apecies. 

Zb Mliuuiutiu (L.) (Fig. 454). Elytra tnberonlated; 
color dark brown; length about 3 cm.; width 8 mm.; very 
common from New Jersey to Labrador; Europe. 

Xb Boblerifl Verrill. Elytra smooth; color light brown 
or gray, with spots; length about 3 cm.; width 7 mm.: 
Yirginia to Massachusetts; not so common as the above. 

5. EaBKOTBOS Kinbei^. Body flattened and elon- 
gate, with IS pairs of elytra; head bUobed and with 3 
tentacles, 2 long palps, 2 pairs of peristomial cirri and 4 
eyes; s^ments completely or nearly covered by elytra: 
2 New England species. 

H. imbiicata (L.). Color variable, grayish or brownish, sometimes 
with a black dorsal stripe; 42 to 44 segments; 2 to 3 cm. long: Long 
Island to Greenland; from low-wat«r mark to 60 fathoms; Europe; 
North Pacific. 

H. acnleata Andrews (Fig. 455). Surface covered with spines; 34 
segments; length up to 2 em.: the com- 
monest scale annelid at Beaufort, N. C; 
nnder stones, etc., in shallow water. 

4. Fholos Johnston. Body with 
less than 70 segments and with numer- 
ous pairs of elytra which alternate with 
the dorsal cirri anteriorly but occur on 
every s^ment posteriorly ; 2 pairs eyes ; 
2 short peristomial cirri; 1 tentacle: 
several species, 1 is New England. 

P. minnta (Fabricius) (Fig. 456). 
Namber of s^ments in adult about 68; 
number of pairs of elytra 44; length 
2 cm.: Cape Cod, and northwards; in shallow water; Enrope; North 

6. Stxevxlais Kinberg. Elongated worms with numerous seg- 
ments (over 100) and but 1 tentacle; 2 pairs eyes; elytra very nnmer- 
ons, alternating with dorsal cirri anteriorly but on every segment poa- 
terioriy: many species, 2 in the Woods Hole region- 

Fix. 46e 


drews). 1, proboicls; 2, palp ; 3, 
teotaclea; 4, perlatDinlnl drrl ; B, 
praetDnilam. Tig. 468 — Pholof 

a (LeuDli). 



S. leidyi Quatrefages {8. picta Verrill). More than 150 pairs of 
elytra present; color grayish with a mid-dorsal stripe; head brown with 
a central red spot and a white spot on each side; length 15 cm.; width 
4 mm.: North Carolina to Massachusetts Bay, in shallow water. 

Family 2. PHYLLODOCIDAE. (Fio. 452, E.) 

Elongated, active polychiets with broad, leaf -like dorsal and ventral 
cirri which do not cover the back; prostomium with 4 or 5 short ten- 
tacles and 2 or 4 eyes; peristomium with usually 4 long cirri on each 
side; proboscis with longitudinal rows of prominent papillae: about a 
dozen genera with numerous species. 

Key to the genera of Phyllododdae here described : 

Ox Four pairs of peristomial cirri present. 

&i Four tentacles 1. Phtllodoce 

5a Five tentacles 2. Euiaua 

a. Two pairs of peristomial cirri 3. Etbonb 

1. Phyllodooe Savigny. Body long, slender, and flattened, with 4 
tentacles on the prostomium, and often a pair of rudimentary parapodia 
on the peristomium together with the cirri: about 60 species, 7 in New 

P. gronlandica Oersted. Color green or yellowish with irregular 
brown markings; usual length 10 to 15 cm.: New Jersey to Greenland, 
from low-water mark to 50 fathoms. 

P. catenula Verrill. Color pale green with longitudinal rows of 
brown spots on the back; prostomium longer than broad, with a pair of 
large brown eyes; tentacles short; peristomial cirri very long; length 
up to 7 cm. ; width 1.5 mm. : Rhode Island to Bay of Fundy and north- 
wards, from low-water mark to 50 fathoms; common. 

2. EuxALZA Oersted. Body slender and flattened, with 5 tentacles 
on the prostomium and 4 pairs of peristomial cirri: 7 species in New 

E. pistada Verrill. Color bright yellowish-green; body slender; 
tentacles short; peristomial cirri long; length 4 cm.; width 1.5 mm.: 
Long Island Sound to Maine, in 4 to 12 fathoms, among hydroids, etc. 

3. Eteovs Oersted. Body slender, flattened with 4 tentacles and 
2 pairs of cirri on somite 2 which is fused with the peristomium: 4 
species in New England. 

E. alba Webster. Color white; length 40 mm.: on mussel beds; 
New Jersey to Cape Cod. 

Family 3. 8TLLIDAE. (Fio. 452, B.) 

Elongated worms, mostly under an inch in length, with usually very 
long slender dorsal cirri, which may be flattened; prostomium with 3 



teotacles, 2 pftlps, and 4 eyes; peristominm with 2 cirri on each side; 
reproduction nomtally by aaeznal budding: numerous Bpeeiea; abondant 
in clean, Bhallow water among hydroids, mussels, and tunioates. 

Key to the genera of SyUidae here described : 
Oi Palpe prominent; ventral drri preaent; tentacles and cirri B^mented. 

1. Stujb 
a* Palps mdimentary ; ventral drri absent ; tentacles and cirri filiform. 

2. AinnLTTDS 

1. Stllib Savigny. Tentacles and cirri anniented, the latter often 
terminally dilated; palps lai^; new individnals /formed by terminal, 
and m case of Syllis ramoia, lateral budding: nnmerous 

epecies, 2 in the Woods Hole r^on. 

8. pallida Verrill. Body slender, tapering at both 
ends, 15 to 25 mm. long; color white; 
Long Island Sound to Bay of Fundy; in 
mud, sand, and on shells, from low-water 
mark to 30 fathoms. 

2. AnroLTTDi' Grabe. Tentacles and 
cirri not segmented; palps rudimentary 
or absent ; ventral cirri wanting ; the 
yonng individual acquires a head before 
separating from the parent, and a num- 
ber may be present in a row; males and 
females differ in appearance: numerous 
species, 6 in the Woods Hole region. 

A. comntns A. Agassiz. Length 15 
mm. ; color pinkish ; full-grown male hav- 
ing: 30 s^ments, female 40 to 50 seg- 
ments: New Jersey to Bay of Pnndy, 
from low- water mark to 15 fathoms; 

A. Tariaiu Verrill (Pig. 457). Lei^b 
15 mm.; intestine with bright-red spots which can be seen throng the 
body wall: North Carolina to Maine, often among hydroids. 

Big. 457 

Fig. 458 

Fig. 467 — ^«taf«t 
(UenBcb). 1, tenUcV. _, ,— 
■tomial^drrl ; S, baddlng iDdlvld- 

Faiolt 4, HESIONIDAE. 

Body rather short and often cylindrical; parapodia nsnally onira- 
mons and. with long, jointed dorsal setae; 4 eyes, 2 or 3 tentacles, and 
2 palps on the proetomium; peristominm with long cirri: species not 

* Be« "AntoijtDi,' 

J P. C, Hentch, Joor. Horpb-, Tol. 10, p. a<», IMO, 



PoDABXB Ehlers. Six pairs of long cirri on the peristomium and 
first two somites: several species. 

P. obscnra Yenill (Fig. 458). Color variable, usually brown or 
blackish, sometimes with transverse bands; length up to 4 em.; width, 
including setae, 3 mm.: Gulf of Mexico to Cape Cod; on eel grass and 
under stones; abundant. 

Familt 5. NEBEIDAE. (Fro. 459.) 

Elongated polychsets with 2 small tentacles, 2 palps, 4 eyes on 
the prostomium, and 4 pairs of peristomial cirri; proboscis with 2 

large jaws; parapodia well developed: several 

Ne&sib L. Clam worms. Body elongate and 
flattened; in some species during the sexual 
period the hinder part (epitoke) of the animal 
with the sexual products differs from the forward 
part (atoke) in appearance and the animal is 
called a heteronereis : numerous species, 7 in the 
Woods Hole region. 
N. virens Sars. Large worms, flesh-colored, with a 
greenish sheen; jaws black; dorsal division of notopo- 
dium foliaceous; length up to 30 cm. or more; width 
1 cm.: common from Long Island Sound to Labrador, 
buried in the sand near the low-water mark; breeding 
season spring; Europe. 

N. limbata Ehlers (Fig. 460). Color brownish; 
jaws light amber-colored ; dorsal division of notopodium 
foliaceous; length up to 15 cm.: Maine to South 
Carolina; in the sand from high-water mark to 5 fath- 
oms; abundant south of Cape Cod. 

N. pelagica L. Color reddish-brown; body widest 
in the middle; dorsal division of notopodium conical; 
length up to 20 cm.; width 8 mm.: Virginia to Green- 
land; on hard bottoms from low-water mark to 100 
fathoms; Europe; North Pacific. 

N. limnicola'^ Johnston. Color reddish-brown; length 47 mm.; 
width 3 mm.; eyes large and conspicuous: in fine sand in Lake Meroed 
(fresh water) near San Francisco. 

Fis. 450 — Head of a 
nereld. 1, prostomium ; 
2, tentacles ; 8, palp ; 4, 
peristomial cirri; 5, 

Fiff. 460 

H9 limhata^-' 


anterior end 

witb extended 



1, proboscis 

2, jaws. 

* See "Fresb-water Nereids from tbe Pacific Coast and Hawaii,** etc, bj H. F« 
Jobnston, Mark Ann. Vol., p. 206, 1903« 



Elongated polychasts with flattened dorsal and ventral surfaces, 
giving a quadrangular cross section; prostomium with 4 small tentacles, 
the ventral pair being modified palps; peristomium with parapodia bear- 
ing setae and a pair of short cirri ; proboscis very large with long fleshy 
projections in front; the two lobes of the parapodia widely separate: 
few genera and species. 

NXFHTHTB Cuvier (Fig. 452, C). Characters as given above: nu- 
merous species, 4 in the Woods Hole region. 

R. indsa Malmgren (N, ingena Stimpson). Proboscis with large 
dorsal and small ventral papillae; length 13 cm.; color white: Long 
Island Sound to Bay of Fundy and northwards, from below low-water 
mark to 60 fathoms, on muddy bottoms; Europe; common. 

R. bnoera Ehlers (N. picta Ehl.). Body slender with over 100 seg- 
ments; setae very long, often exceeding in length the diameter of the 
body; forward tentacles longer than half the width of head; length 20 
em.; width 5 mm.: South Carolina to Massachusetts Bay, in shallow 
water in sand, and among rocks. 

Familt 7. LEODICIDAE. 

EUongated polychiets with a complicated jaw apparatus in the pro- 
boscis; the cirri of the anterior parapodia form branching gills in most 
species; prostomium either with 3 to 5 tentacles and a pair of palps or 
without cephalic appendages; usually a permanent parchment-like tube 
formed: about 30 genera with several hundred species. 

Key to the genera of Leodicidae here described: 

a, Gills present 
bx Peristomiam coBsisting of 1 •egment and with cirri ; gills branched. 


h^ Peristomium consisting of 2 segments. 

Ci Gills branched 1. txoDiOB 

Ci Gills simple 3. Mabphtsa 

a. Gills absent 

hi Head without appendages. 

Ot Eyes absent 4. Litmbbinkiieis 

Oa Four^eyes in a transverse row 5. Akabeixa 

5, Head with appendages 6. Staubonebeis 

1. ZiBODZOB Savigny (Eunice Cuvier) (Fig. 452, D). Body elongate 
with numerous segments; peristomium consists of 2 segments with 1 pair 
of cirri; 5 tentacles and 2 large palps present; gills begin usually on sixth 
segmmt: species very numerous, 2 in the Woods Hole region, in rather 
deep water. To this genus belong the largest known polvchp^ts, the larg- 
est species having a length of 1 m. and more. 


It, focata* Ehlers. Atlantic p&lolo worm (Fig. 461). Length op to 
35 cm., the atokal portion being about two-thirds the whole; color 
brownish or yellowish: Weet Indies and Gulf of Mexico; living in coral 
rock and swarming within 3 days of the full of the Joly moon. 

2. DioPATKA Ehlers. Perisiomium with 

1 pair of cirri; 5 tentacles in a transverae 
curved line and 2 small palps present; gills 
banning several s^menta back from the 
bead: many species, 1 in New England. 

D. cnprea (Bobc) (Kg. 462). La^e 
worms up to 30 cm. long and 10 mm. wide 
which live in parchment-like tubes extending 

2 or 3 feet in the sand, the upper 2 or 3 inches 
of the tube projecting into the water and 
thickly covered with shells, etc.: common in 
shallow water and between tide lines; fjQJa 
South Carolina to Cape Cod. 

. Ka&pktba Quatrefages. Peristominm 
consists of 2 segments, and is without cirri; 
5 tentacles in a transverse row, 2 small palps 
and 2 eyes present; gills begin about the 20th segment but are variable 
in this respect: 1 species at Woods Hole. 

H. leklyi Qnatr. (2lf. tmguinea Leidy) (Fig. 463). Length 20 cm.; 
color yellowish or brownish-red; tubes not so perfect as those of pre- 
ceding worms : under stones and in the sand in shallow water; from 
North Carolina to Vineyu^ Sound. y 

4. LxmsDrcKEiB Bl&inville (Ltim- 
brieanereit Ehlers). Head conical, fnthout 
appendages or eyes ; peristomium consist- 
ing of 2 segments; dorsal cirri flat, and 
panpodia small: many species, 5 at 
Woods Hole. 

L. tennis (Verrill). Body filiform 
up to 30 cm. long, with the diameter of 
a coarse thread, bright red in color: Vir- 
ginia to Massachusetts; burrowing in 
mud and under stones. 

G. AxABBLU. Gmbc. Similar to 
Lumbrinereis but with usually 4 eyes 

FIs. 461 — Lsodioe facata 
(Harer). A. enttre worm; 
B, bead «nd. 1, tcutaclM ' 
2, palp; 3. perlBtominin : 4. 
penitomlal cirri ; 5, gllli. 


Fig. 463 — Dtonolraot 
tr»l view ot anterior — 

l,tentacleB; 2, peril.- 

F^. 49^ — Marptigia Itidiii — «iite- 
riocend (Verrill). 


a transverse row i 
: several species, 2 in the Woods Hole r^on. 


Ml. opaliiu (Terrill) (Fig. 404). Body cyliDdrieal, Unrest 
middle, reddiah or yellowish in color, up to 40 cm. long, and 3 nun 
North Carolina to Maine; burrowing in muddy sand; common 

6. SIAVBOVXXXIS Venill. Prostomium small and 
qnadrangnlar with 2 tentacles and 2 palps; gills not 
presoit, the dorsal cirri being long and slender: several 
species, 1 in the Wooda Hole region. 

8. palMnB Verr. Two pairs of eyes present; color 
pale yellow; length 6 em.; width .7 mm.: Vii^iinia to Cape 
Cod ; in the sand at low-water martc 


Elongated ^Undrical wonns with usually small para- '?v5iSi*)^ 
podia, and an annulated prostomium which bears 4 small 
tentacles and 2 rudimentary palps; proboscis very large and long, with 
4 teeth; special retractile gills present either on the body wall or the 
parapodia: aboat 6 genera; the worms live in cylindrical passages in the 
sand, wfaidi they make with the proboBcis. 

Key to the genera of Glj/ceridae here described : 

Oi Parapodia of same Btructare tbrougbout 1. Gltckka 

«i Parapodia with 1 lobe on anterior third of body aod 2 

lobes on posterior portions 2. GonuDA 

L OiTOZKA Savigny. Parapodia of the same atruo- 
tore throughout: several species, 3 at Woods Hole. 

a. dlbranchlata Ehlers (Fig. 465). Length 20 cm.; 
proetomiom sharp and conical; both dorsal and ventral 
^Is large, simple, and flat: from North 
Carolina to Bay of Fimdy and north- 
wards; in shallow water, burrowing 
very rapidly in sand and mud; often 
very common. 

a. unerlcuia Leidy (Fig. 466). 
Length 20 cm. ; width 4 mm. ; dorsal gills 
branched; ventral gills absent: from 
South Carolina to Cape Cod; in shallow 
water ; not so common as G. dtbranchiaia. 
2. GoHUDA Audouin and Edwards. Parapodia on the first third 
of the body with a single lobe, on hinder part with 2 lobes; several 
species, 2 in New England. 

Q. macolata Oersted. Body slender with about 194 segments; the 
first 40 parapodia 1-lobed, the following 2-lobed; 2 principal teeth; 

Els. 466 

<rlth proboscts 


length 10 cm. : Maine coast, from low-water mark to 30 fathomBy in rock 
and sand; Europe. 

Familt 9. ABIGIIDAE. 

Usually cylindrical worms with short knob-like tentacles and palps, 
or none at all, and with filiform gills which are more or less dorsal in 
position: the worm forms a tube by cementing the sand around its 
burrow, the position of which can be detected by a mound at the opening; 
species not numerous. 

1. Arzoza Savigny. Body short and composed of many small s^* 
ments; tentacles and peristomial cirri absent; ventral cirri fimbriate or 
pectinate: several species, 1 at Woods Hole. 

A. omata Yerrill. Body stout and somewhat flattened; gills flat- 
tened, lanceolate, and beg^n on the sixth segment; length up to 26 cm.; 
width 7 mm.: North Carolina to Cape Cod; in shallow water. 

2. SooLOFLOS Blainville. Body usually elongate and fragile, with- 
out tentacles or peristomial cirri; proboscis lobulate: several species, 
3 at Woods Hole. 

8. robustus (Yerrill). Large worms 30 cm. long and 7 mnu wide^ 
with an acute head and small anterior parapodia; elongate gills begin 
on segment 26; proboscis divided into about 18 long slender lobes; color 
yellowish-brown : in shallow water, from North Carolina to Cape Cod. 

8. fragilis (Yerr.). Body 12 cm. long, 3 nun. wide; head acute, with 
a 6-lobed proboscis; the gills begin to appear in segment 16; color yel- 
lowish: between tide lines; from North Carolina to Maine. 


Neither tentacles nor palps present; 1 pair of long peristomial cirri 
usually present; parapodia small, the dorsal cirri often large and form- 
ing gUls; proboscis without jaws; worms burrowing or tubieolous: 2 

Family 1. SPIONIDAE. 

Small burrowing worms with a pair of long peristomial cirri which 
usually curve over the back; dorsal cirri acting as gills; proboscis pres- 
ent, but unarmed; body divided into 2 regions: in tubes in the sand, or 
burrowing in wood or shells; species not numerous. 

Key to the genera of Spkmidae here described. 

At Segment 5 not enlarged. 

5t Gills on hinder half of body 1. Sfb> 

5. Gills absent on hinder half of body 2. Laohiob 

Oa Fifth segment different from the others* • 8. PoLTDOia 


1. 8no Akbrieins. Segments alike tbronghout; head with a promi- 
nent median lobe which may be troneated or divided in front; 4 eyes; 
gills on all the segments: several species, 2 at Woods Hole. 

8. setosa Verrill (Fig. 467). Body long, flattened above and rounded 
below; parapodia 2-lobed; color green; gills and cirri red; length 8 cm.; 
width 2.5 mm. : Long Island and Yinqrard Sounds; at low- 
water mai^ 

2. Laonos Malmgren. Segments alike throughout; 
prostomium with 2 or 4 eyes, very broad in front; gills 
absent from hinder half at least of body : several species, 
2 at Woods Hole. Y\g. 467 

L. {SeoUcoUfna BlainvUle) Tiridis (Verrill). Body ^5iV^ewV 
flattened; color olive green or brownish; length 10 cm.; ^^verrtiiT^ 
breadth 3 mm.: Long Island and Vineyard Sounds; near ^'^nuSu^^^ 
low-water mark; often common. 

8. PoLTDOmA Bose. Fifth segment different from the others, being 
mneh longer and with characteristic setae: many species, 7 at Woods 

P. condiamiii VerriU. Body long and slender, being 14 cm. long 
and 1.5 mm. wide, with 200 segments; color grayish or yellowish: very 
common from Cape Cod to Nova Scotia; in 10 to 100 fathoms, often 
borrowing in shells. 


Worms living in U-shaped parchment-like tubes up to 50 cm. long, 
bnried in the sand and mud; 3 distinct regions in the body; no tentacles 
or palps present and but 1 pair of peristomial cirri which tend to project 
backwards; proboscis wanting: few genera and species. 

OEJBTOPTBBini Cuvier. Parapodia simple, consisting of large, ex- 
panded notopodia in the anterior body region, but may be biramous in 
the other two regions: 15 species, 1 at Woods Hole. 

0. pergamentacens Cuv. Body short and stout; anterior region 
much flattened; middle region composed of 1 segment with large wing- 
like parapodia and 4 swollen segments; body walls very thin, intestine 
and genital products showing through; highly phosphorescent; length 
15 em.: North Carolina to Cape Cod; Europe. 


Prostomium a prominent lobe with or without tentacular filaments 
which represent the tentacles and without palps; peristomium with or 
without cirri; parapodia weak, without ventral cirri, the dorsal cirri 


sometinies anting as gills on the anterior or all segments ; no probosas or 
jaws present: 4 families; worms burrowing or tubicolous. 
Key to the families of TerebelUformia: 

a. Head without appendages !• ClBE&TDIJDAB 

0, Head with long tentacular filaments. 
b, Teutacalar filaments very long. 

0, No Mtae on head 2. TKamnxnux 

0, A bundle of setae on each side of head S. A]ifhi.bbtidax 

b, Tentacnlar Qlaments short 4. AjipaxoTEHiDAx 


Small and medium-sized cylindrical worms which are usually found 
in burrows or nnder stones; head distinct but without appendages or 
proboscis; parapodia rudimentary, bat dorsal cirri very long and fll&- 
mentons and acting as gills: sev- 
eral genera. 

OlUUTULira l«marck. Head 
conical; cirri very long and slen- 
der, a pair of them being present 
on almost every segment ; a trans- 
verse row of long branchial flla> 
ments on one of the anterior seg- 
ments: many species, 4 At Woods 

0. drratns (0. F. Miiller). 

Head consists of a prostominm 

and a peristomial segment ; a row 

of eyes on the prostominm ; length 

8 cm.: width 4 mm.: coast of 

1, dor«ai cirrL Maine ; m tni>ee onder stones; 


0. grsndis Yerrill (Fig. 468). No eyes present; first 3 segments 

without cirri; color yellowish-green; Imgth 15 cm.; width 6 mm.; length 

of longest cirri 6 to 10 cm.: Virginia to Cape Cod; in sand and gravel, 

in shallow water; common. 

Fauilt 2, TFBEPEIjLFP A T! 

Long and often thick worms living in burrows or tubes; head with 
a prominent horseshoe-shaped preorsl lobe whose anterior marpn is 
reflexed, behind which is a transverse ridge bearing large numbers of 
long tentacular filaments which act as gills; behind these are usual^ 
1 to 3 pairs of branching gills belonging to the anterior segments ; pars- 
podia reduced; both capilliform and hooked setae: numerous species. 


Ke7 to the geaen of TeTtbeUidae here described : 
«, Womu not fllamentonB ; braDcUDK gllla prewnt. 
b. Three pain of braucbing silk present. 

Ci GapilUform setae only on anterior Bomites 1. Ami 

o, GapUliform setae also on posterior aomitee. . . 
&i Two pairs of brauchlns eills. 

Ci CapllUform setae begin on •egment 4 2. PistA 

o, CapilUform setae begin «d segment 3 5. Thelepub 

b. Bat 1 gill, wbicb baa 4 branches 3. TKamn.i.HMg 

0, Worms filamentous and blood red ; no braocblng gills. 

b, Parapodia simple 6. POLTOIBSOS 

h, ParapodiK eiongsted and branched 7. BnonxiBnAitCHUs 

1. Amphit&iti 0. F. Miiller. Body cylindrical, thickest towards 
the forward end ; 3 pairs of branching gills ; aetae begin on the 4tb seg- 
uent and confined to anterior part of body; no eyes: many species, 4 
in the Woods Hole i^ion. 

A. ornaU (Leidy) (Fig. 469). Color pinkish; length np to 30 cm., 
with about 40 setigerooa segment)!; tentacular filaments very long, na- 
meroos, and contractile: North Carolina to 
Cape Cod, at low-water mark; common, living 
in flrm tubes which are sometimes cast up on S* " ^^- T - 
the beach. ^ -^^^T*- 

A. bnuuiea (Stimpson). Color dark red- ~ ~' 

dish-brown; segments about 100, 25 of which 
have setae; each gill with 7 to 12 brancbes; 
length np to 18 cm.: north of Cape Cod at 
low-water mark, in deeper water towards the 

8. PiSTA Malmgren. Two pain of branch- 
ing gills; setae begin on the 4th segment and 

extend to the 20th; no eyes; first 3 somites -.^^ a^^B^ Ta»>S: 
with large ventral and lateral wings: 3 species ''^»^^^^K ^r1 
in the Woods Hole region. ^.pM.ri.r?;^^ fVerHU,. 

P. pafanata (Verrill). Body rather slen- L toDtacn^r^iamants 
der, with 17 setigerons s^meats; color reddi^- 

brown; length 7 cm.; width 2 mm.; animal constructs tubes of bits of 
abell, etc.: Long Island and Vineyard Sounds. 

3. Tewebxllidbs Sars. Two pairs of gills present which are 
large and form 4 wide, oomb-like branches on a single peduncle; ten- 
tacular filaments numerous (over 100) : 1 species in the Woods Hole 

T. ftKBiiii Sars. Body with about 60 segments and reddish in color; 
length 7 cm.; width 6 mm.: Vineyard Sound to Bay of Fundy; in 10 
to 250 fathoms; Europe. 


4. LsPEXA Malmgren. Three pairs of branching gilla; setae begin 
on 4th segment and extend the length of the body: several speciesi 1 in 
the Woods Hole region. 

L. mbra Verrill. Body elongate, swollen anteriorly; color bright 
red; length 5 cm.; width 3 mm.: North Carolina to Vineyard Sound; 
in tubes on shells, etc., below low-water mark. 

6. Thslefitb Leuckart. Two pairs of branching gills; setae b^in 
on the 3rd segment and continue nearly or quite to the hinder end; eyes 
numerous: 1 species in the Woods Hole region. 

T. cindnnatUB (Fabricius). Setae extend almost to the hinder end 
of the body; eyes present; length up to 12 cm.; color yellowish or red- 
dish: coast of Maine to Vineyard Sound; in tubes often covered with 
shells; Europe. 

6. PoLTOZBXxrs Grube. Blood worms. Very long, slender worms 
with bright-red blood; no branching gills: several species, 2 in the Woods 
Hole region. 

P. eximins (Leidy). Body bright red with about 100 segments, of 
which 25 bear setae: North Carolina to Cape Cod; in sand and mud in 
shallow water; veiy common. 

P. phosphoreos Verrill. Brilliantly phosphorescent worms when 
disturbed; length 8 cm.; first 24 segments bear setae: Long Island 
Sound to Bay of Fundy. 

7. EvoPLOBBAVOHiTB Verrill. Blood worms. Body flattened; setae 
extending to the hinder end of the body; with branched parapodia in 
the middle division : 1 species. 

E. sanguineus (Verr.). Body very long and slender; branched para- 
podia begin on segment 12; color bright red; length 35 cnL; width 7 
mm.: Virginia to Gulf of St. Lawrence; common at low-water mark; in 
mud and sand. 


Similar to the previous family; a bundle of setae present on each 
side of the head in front of the gills; tentacular filam^its small and not 
numerous; no branched gills, but 4 pairs of filamentous ones present: 
several genera. 

AxPHABETB Malmgren. Tentacular filaments few in number; 
gills on 3rd and 4th segments: numerous species, 2 in Woods Hole 

A. aetosa Verrill. Body thick anteriorly, tapering backwards; 40 
tentacular filaments; color light green or red; length 20 mm.; width 3 
mm.: Long Island and Vineyard Sounds; in rough tubes in shallow 



Snmll wonns which form tabes of sand open at both ends irhicli 
can be carried about by their occupants; the prostotnium bears short 
fllamentons tentacles which are protected by long yellow setae; binder 
end of the worm without paiapodia and folded on the forward part: 
several gaiera and few species. 

PsoTDMXiA Malmgren, Characters as given above: several speeies, 
2 in the Woods Hole region. 

P. go>iildi (Verrill) (Tig. 470). Body flesb-cotor, mot- 
tled; length 4 em.; width 7 mm.; North Carolina to Maine; 
in shallow water, 


Head pointed and not distinctly set off, 
withont tentacles or palps but with a psir of 
ciliated, retractile, tentacle-like organs; para- 
podia rudimentaiy, with sessile capillifi 
setae on the anterior and sessile hook-like 
ones on the po^rior segments; proboscis 
without jaws: 1 family. 

With the characters of the suborder: 
several genera. 

1. IToTOiuiTns Sars. Prostominm con- 
ical, without eyes ; body composed of 2 por- 
tions, a forward thicker part (thorax) consisting of about 12 biannu- 
lated segments, and a long hinder portion: several species, 3 in Woods 
Bole r^on. 

V. Inridni Verrill. Long, cylindrical worms, 15 cm. long, 2 mm. 
thick; color dark brown: Long Island Sound to Maine; at low-water 
mark io tubes in muddy sand. 

H. llUfomii Verr. Body filiform, 10 cm. long, 1 mm. thick; color 
pale red, often mottled with whitisb: Long Island and Vineyard Sounds; 
at low-wat«r mark. 

2. OAniS£l.a Blainville. Large genital setae on 8th and 9th seg- 
ments; thorax consisting of 9 s^;ments; only the middle portion of the 
body with setae: several species, 1 in Woods Hole region. 

0. fraeUij (Verrill). Length 5 cm.; color red; head trian- 
gular: Cape Cod to Bay of Fundy; in tubes in the mud in shallow 



Head without appendages (except in the ChlorhcBmidae) ; parapodia 

poorly developed or absent; proboscis present but unarmed: 6 families. 

Key to the families of Scoleciformia here described: 

Oi Head without appendages. 
hi Segmentation equivalent ; body not made up of different regions. 

1. Ophet^dab 
5, Segmentation not equivalent ; body made up of 2 or 3 more or less dis- 
tinct regions. 

Oi Worms slender and without gills 2. Maldanidab 

Ps Worms thick, with branching gills on the middle segments. .8. Abeniooudab 
Oa Head with appendages 4. Ghlokhjbmzdab 

Family 1. OPHELIIDAE. 

Small burrowing worms which occur in shallow water; head with- 
out appendages but with a proboscis; parapodia rudimentary, the dorsal 
cirri of which are elongate and act as gills: about 6 genera. 

Akxotbtpahe Rathke. Head conical and acute; 
ventral side flattened: 1 species at Woods Hole. 

A. fimbriata Verrill (Fig. 471). Body elongate, being 
thickest in advance of the middle and tapering to both 
ends; color purplish; length 7.5 cm.; width 3 mm.: Vine- 
yard Sound to Maine; in shallow water. 

Family 2. MALDANn)AE. 

Slender, cylindrical worms which live in sand tubes; 

Fig. 471 head formed of the fused prostomium and peristomium 

fimbriata and usually obliquely truncated by a cephalic plate and 

without appendages; parapodia rudimentary, with setae 

but without gills; hinder end funnel-shaped, usually with frilled edges: 

7 genera. 

Key to the genera of Maldanidae here described : 

Ox Anus dorsal to caudal funnel 1. Maidaits 

Of Anus in center of caudal funnel. 

5i Anal funnel without cirri : 2. Glticenbixa 

ht Anal funnel with cirri 3. Nicomaghb 

1. Maldave Grube. Body elongate, truncated at both ends, most 
of the segments being biannulated; anus dorsal: numerous species, 
several in the Woods Hole region. 

M. urceolata (Leidy) (M. elongata Verrill). Body elongate with 19 
setigerous segments, the middle ones being much elongated ; color reddish- 
brown; length 30 cm.; width 5 mm.: in sandy mud at low-water mark; 
North Carolina to Cape Cod. 



2. OLTnvzLLA Verrill. Body with 18 or more setigeroos segments 
and with obliquely truncated head: several species, 2 in the Woods Hole 

0. toiqnata (Leidy) (Fig. 472). Body with 
a membranous collar arising near the middle of 
the 4th setigerous segment; 22 segments, 18 with 
setae; color reddish; length 10 cm.: North Caro- 
lina to Bay of Fundy; in sand from low-water 
mark to 60 fathoms. 

8. KioOXAOHX Malmgren. Funnelnshaped ter- 
minal segment with marginal cirri; head without 
truncating plate; prostomium sharply bent down- 
wards: several species. 

N. InmbricaliB (Fabricius). Body slender and 
fragile, consisting of 26 segments; color pink; 
length 7 cm.: Cape Cod and northwards; Europe. 

Fig. 472 — Clymtffiella 
torquata (Leldy). 

A, entire worm 

B, hinder end. 

Fig. 47« 






Elongated worms which burrow deep in the sand; 
head without appendages, with an unarmed proboscis; 
peristomium with a pair of lithocysts; parapodia rudi- 
mentary, with branching gills above them in the middle 
of the body: 1 genus. 

Ajlehioola Lamarck. Anterior end blunt, the pro- 
stomium and peristomium being fused together; body 
cylindrical, thickest at the forward end: few species, 2 
in the Woods Hole region. 

A. marina (L.) (Fig. 473). Segmentation indistinct, 
the skin being annulated; about 21 setigerous segments 
present, of which 8 compose the anterior and 13 the 
middle region, but only 4 dissepiments and 6 pairs of 
nephridia; length up to 20 cm.; diameter 8 mm.; Long 
Island Sound northwards; in deep burrows in the sand; 
rare south of Cape Cod; Europe. 

A. cristata Stimpson. Head veiy small; middle 
branchiate region with 11 pairs of gills; color greenish- 
yellow; length 35 cm. or more: Florida to Cape Cod. 

Family 4. GHLOBH^MIDAE. (Fko. 452, F.) 

Rather small worms which live in burrows and under stones; body 
not divided into regions; whole head retractile and with a circle of 3 to 


300 ANtlEUDA 

20 purs of green, short tentacular filaments wliieh act as gilla; palps 
large; proboBcis unarmed; blood green; setae of the anterior Begments 
often very long and projecting directly forwards: 6 genera. 

1. TaoraonA llilne-Kdwarda. Anterior setae pro- 
longed, enclosing the bead: 2 species in the Woods Hols 

T. ftfflnis (Leid;) (Fig. 474). Body slender and 
elongate; S tentacular filaments on head, which are blunt 
and of unequal length; length 6 cm.; width 3.5 mm.: 
Vineyard Sound and New Jersey; in 20 fathoms. 



'^gjj^ Prostomiatn more or less hidden by the forward 

""■""' ' extension of the peristomium which nsiially forms a 
projecting collar; tentacles rudimentary or very small; 
palps very large, forming the bnmchial crown; proboscis present; body 
consisting of 2 regions, a thorax of about 9 segments, and an abdomen ; 
worms tubicolons: 4 families. 

Key to the families of Sc^eUtformia here described : 

0, Tabea membrBnans. 1. Sabbludax 

a, Tobea calcareona. 2. SxiFOLinAi 


Worms which live in membranous tubes in mnd and sand; arising 
from the prostomiom is a pair of large semi-circular feathered gilts rep- 
resenting the palps, which may be surrounded by a collar formed of the 
peristomium; tentacles rudimentary or hidden; parapodia very rudi- 
mentary: many genera. 

Key to the genera of SabelUdae here described; 
a, Feristomtal collar preoent. 

b. Collar lobes separated donall; 1. SABBXa 

b. Collar lobes meeUugdorsally 2. PoraiULLa 

a. Collar aboent. 

&, WoriDB live in gelatinous massee; no eyes 3. Mtxiooa 

h, Wonna live in distinct tubes ; e;es present. 

o. Worms in freah water 4. Hakatukku 

e^ Womui uariDe S. Fabsiou 

1. Sabblla Malmgren. Gill filaments long and slender; peristo- 
minm raised and reflexed to form a collar around the gills which is 
notched dorsally: many species. 

■ See "TnblcolonB Anoellds of the Trlbei Babellldea ■ad Serpolldea from tha 
FldBc Oceaa," b; K. J. Baab, BarrlmaD Aluka Bip., Vol. 12, 1010. 

poLjcBMTA an 

5. mlcropbtlulina Venill. Body ahort, eompowd of about 60 s^- 
mentB; anterior region composed of 8 setlgeroua aegments; gill filaments 
with minute eye spots; color greenish-yellow; length 5 cm.; diameter 

3 nun. : North Carolina to Cape Cod ; at low-water mark, often incrusted 
on oyster shells, etc 

2. FoTAxnj^ Malmgren. About 12 to 30 gill filaments on eaeb 
side, some of which have eyes at the base; 

peristomial collar witbont a dorsal notch: 
several species. 

P. ocnllfen (Leidy) (P, nrnformia 
Ualm.). Length 8 cm.; color greenish or 
reddish-brown : New Jersey to Bay of 
Fnndy; on shells in tide pools; Europe. 

3. MrziOOLA Koch. Body thick; hinder 
region with numerous hooks in transverse 
rows; gill filaments united by a mem- 
branons web; without eyes on head; eye 
spots on terminal segment; 2 small ten- 
tacles; worms live in gelatinous masse* 
attached to shells, eto., in which each worm 
has a separate tube; several species. 

11 rteeiutmpi (Kroyer). Body thic^ 
with about 60 segments, of which 8 belong 
to the anterior body region; color pink; 
length 6 cm.; width 5 mm.: north of Cape 
Cod; Europe. 

4. MAVATinnu Leidy. About 36 gill 
fllameDts with eyes at their bases; body 
eompoeed of bnt few segments: 1 specie*; 
in fresh water. 

H. nwdoaa Leidy (Fig. 475). Body 

4 nmL long and coasisting of 12 segments, 
and yellowish-brown in color: in tabes on 
atones in SchnylkUi River, Philadelphia, also in Egg Harbor Biver, Kev 
Jersey, associated with UnuaeUa graciiia. 

6. Fasuou Blainville. But few gill filaments or tentacles; body 
eompoeed of bnt few s^ments: few species, 1 in the Woods Hole 

F. Mdyi VerrilL Body 3 mm. long and 2 mm. wide, oonsisting 
of 13 segments and yellowish-brown in color; 6 ^1 filaments: Long 
Island Soond to Bay of Fnndy; in slender tubes, at and below low- 
water mark. 



Familt 2. SEBPULIDAE. (Fto. 476.) 

Worms whieh live in calcareous tubes; arising from the prostominm 
are a pair of large semicircular feathered gills which represent the 
palps; an operculum usually present, composed of the dorsal gill fila- 
ments; just beneath the gill filaments is the 
collar, a paired membrane employed in smoothing 
the inside of the shell: numerous genera and 

Key to the genera of SerptiUdae here described : 

Oi Tubes incrusted on shells, etc 1. Htdboides 

d. Tubes minute, spiral, usually on seaweed or shells. 

2. Spirobbis 
a. Tubes Intertwining 3. Filograna 

{v\f. 476--A aerpuUd 1. Hydbox2>S8 Gunnerus. Small worms living 

trofecting from Its ^ 

'*Hi^5™^'*^® 5SJ"' in long contorted tubes incrusted on shells, etc.: 

ral History). 1, gills; ® ' ' 

2, op«reuiam ; 3, col- funnel-shaped operculum present: several species, 

1 in Woods Hole region. 

H. hezagonns Boso {H. dianthm Verrill) (Fig. 477). Color of gills 
variable, oftenest a purplish-brown; length 75 mm.; diameter 3 mm.: 
Florida to Cape Cod; very common. 

2. SpzxomBls Daudin. A small worm living 
in a tube coiled usually in a flat spiral, which is 
incrusted on seaweeds, etc.; operculum present: 
many species, 6 in the Woods Hole region. 

S. spirorbis (L.) (^S^. boreaUs Daudin). Coiled 
tube 3 mm. across; length of animal 3 mm.; 9 
gill filaments present; color of gills greenish- 
white: Long Island Sound to Bay of Fundy and 

S. FzLOOBAVA Oken. Small worms living in slender white tubes 
which intertwine, forming masses 7 cm. high; 8 gill filaments present: 
1 sj)ecies in Woods Hole region. 

F. implexa Berkeley. Body compressed, 4 mm. long; tubes very 
thin; color purple or pink: Maine to Vineyard Sound; Europe. 


Peristomium very much enlarged and forming a setigerous bilobed 
hood enclosing the prostomium, which bears a x>air of tentacles and a 
pair of palps; the latter are fused with the ventral edges of the peristo- 
mium and project in the form of numerous gill filaments from the hood ; 
body composed of 2 regions, a thorax and a long tail-like abdomen whieh 
has no parapodia and folds back on the thorax : 1 family and few species. 

Fig. 477 
Idea he9c_ 
rgltt) on a sheU. 

Hudroidea hetfogonua 


With the oharactera of the enbonler: 3 genera. 

Sabkllaua L&marck. With the characters of the eaborder: sev- 
eral species, 1 at Woods Hole. 

8. nlgaris Venill. Color yellowish or reddish; length 3 cm.; width 
2.5 nun.: North Carolina to Cape Cod; from low- water mark to 10 
fathoms; common in tnbes of sand, also on sfaeUa. 


Mostly ftesb-water or terrestrial, 
hermaphroditic annelids which are with- 
out parapodia and cephalic appendages 
(Fig. 478). The setae are few m num- 
ber and project from pits in the body 
wall; in the DiacodrHidae and Attack^a 
they Are wanting. Some oligochnts have 
eztemal gills- (a few naids and tufaificida). 
The head is small and consists of the 
proetominro, which is a small projection 
in front of the month, and the peristo- 
minm, which contains the month and 
often appears doisally like the firat somite 
of the trunk, hnt differs from the somites 
ID that it has no setae. 

Pured ovaries and testes are pres- dacti 
ent (Fig. 479); a number of large mS^m" oruie «nt«for' 
sperm sacs or vesiculae seminales act as 
i«Bervoii8 of the sperm, in which the 
sperm ripens as it comes from the testes, 
and one or more pairs of pockets called 
the receptaonla seminia or spermathecae 
receive the sperm of another animal dur- 
ing the act of pairing. The egf^ and sperm are extruded into a capsule 
called the cocoon which is secreted by a thickened portion of the integu- 
ment called the clitellum. Development is direct, the young animal being 
bom with the form of the parent; of the numerous eggs in a cocoon only 
a few, sometimes only one, hatch out. Many oligochets reproduce asex- 
nally, bj transverse division, and the regenerative powers of all are great. 

• Bm "A Uonosraph or tbe Order OllgochnU," br F. Beddard, 1893. "Notea on 
Spcdts of Mortb AmcTlcBii OUgocbMU," b; F. Bmltb. Bait. 111. Bt Lab.. Vol. 4. p. S8S, 
189S. "Notef on SpedM ot K. A. Ollsocbete, II," bj aame, samo Jour., ToL 4, p. 

Fls. 478 Els. 4TB 

Fig. 4T8— Diasram of the an- 
terior portion 01 an esrtbworm, 
Luptbricut terrettrU (Sedsirlcli 
and Wilson). 1, proatomlum ; 2, 
mouth ; 3, opemocB of tbe aper- 

. 4. openli„ 
i, opeolnn of the 
!, clltr""- ~ 


__. jh»t (an enchrbield), 

■bowlnf ftie internal ornna with 
tbe digestive tract and %e rh[l]t- 
hsnd male organs and tb« left- 
hand female organa remored (Qal- 
lowar). 1. proBtomluni : 2, brain; 
8, month : 4, Tentral nerre chord; 
S, Bp^rmatbecae ; 6. nepbrldlnm; 
T, teetlB : B. clltellam ; a, aperm 
dact ; 10, ovarj : 11, aperni »te: 
'" ■■■—•■ 13.egg»ac 

, oTldnct ; 


Oligochnts are poorly provided with special sense organs, 
ment eyes are present in certain naids; tactile cells and processes may 
be present but ^tentacles never are. The forward part of the body of 
earthworms is especially sensitive to light and other stimnlL 

The terrestrial oligochiets are the earthworms. These familiar ani- 
mals are often of large size, the largest being six feet in lengthy and 
are found in temperate and tropical countries in all parts of the world. 
They are nocturnal AniTnala which live in burrows in the soil and feed 
on decaying vegetation and the oiganic particles in the soil, which they 
pass in large quantities through the intestine. Darwin has estimated 
that an acre of ordinaiy ground will have about 63,000 earthworms 
which bring many tons of earth to the surface from a foot or two 
beneath. They are thus important agents in renewing the surface soiL 

The aquatic oligochsts live mostly at the bottom of fresh-water 
streams and ponds, although a few live in the sea, often in tubes of 
mud or sand, and eat aquatic vegetation. The order contains over 1,200 
species and about 11 families. 

Key to the families of OUgochcsta here described: 

Oi WomiB microecopic 1. .22oL080MATmk4B 

Oi Worma not microscopic. 

hx Parasitic worms with terminal sucker 2. Disoodrilidab 

ht No sucker present 

Ci Worms very long and filiform 8. Haflotazidab 

€^ Worma not so formed. 

4i Worms usnally very small and slender and mostly aquatic 
0i Reproduction mostly by serial budding, animal chains being formed. 

5. Naididab 
et Such reproduction not present, or at least uncommon, 
/x Spermatbeca far forward, usually opening in segment 4 or 5. 

/, Spermatheca farther back. *• Bwch^tbmda. 

ITi Setae usually more than 2 in a bundle and usually of more than 

one form 6. TuamomAK 

Qt Setae paired and all of one form 7. Lumbsicuudak 

d^ Worms large and mostly terrestrial ; earthworms. 
ex Clitellum begins before segment 18 and contains the male pores, 
/i Male pores in hinder margin of clitellum or entirely behind it. 

8. Mboabooucidab 

/, Male pores in forward portion of clitellum 0. Gbosoolectdab 

et Clitellum begins at or behind segment 18 ; male pores some distance 

in front of it 10. Lumbbigidab 

800, 1895. *'Notes on Spedes,** etc., by same, same Joor., Vol. 5, p. 441, 1000. "NMm 
on Species of N. A. Ollgocbsta, IV," by same, same jour.. Vol. 5, p. 450, 1000. 
''OUgocheta,*' by W. Mlchaeleen, Das Tierreich, 1000. "Besearcbes In American 
OUgocbeta,** etc., by G. Bisen, Proc CaL Acad. Sd., 8d 8er., ZooL, VoL 8, 1000. 
"Hirndlnea and Ollgocbsta Collected In the Great Lake Begion,** by J. P. Moore, 
Ball. U. 8. FIsb. Com., Vol. 25, p. 165, 1905. **8ome Marine Ollgochftta of New 
Bngland,** by J. P. Moore, Proc. A. N. 8., Pbila., 1905, p. 378. "Die Sasswaflserfanna 
Dentocblands," Heft 13, "OUgocbaeta," by W. Micbaelsen, 1900. "The Cwnmoa 
Fresbwater Ollgocheta of the United States,** by T. W. Galloway, Trana Am. MIc 
Soc., Vol 80, p. 285, 1911. 



ICeromopio fr«sh-water worms nsaally with brown) red, or yellow 
oil ^boles in integimient, giving them a epotted appearance; no dia- 
Bepiments present; setae in 4 bundles in each segment, of 1 to 6 setae 
each ; elitellnm only on ventral side on segments 
G to 7; neiTons system hypodermio; prostomiiim 
ciliated veotrally; the most primitive oligo- 
eluets, nprodncing by division: 1 genns. 

^OLOKnu. Ehrenberg. With the eharaeters 
of the family: abont 9 species, 6 in this 

A. qiutvniMlmn Ehr. (Fig. 480) {A. vmu- 
xttnw Leidy). Head of same width as body; 
setae sharply bent, those of the same btmdle of 

the same length; the worm encysts itself; spots ^oi<«OM*i»otennirtti«» 
red; length 1 mm., with 7 to 10 segments: ''^'"ELteto^j^'"'"' 

among algae. 

A. h«mprichi Ehr. Head broader than body; setae nearly straight; 
spots red or crimson; length 2 to 5 mm., with 4 to 13 segments: among 

*^' Pamilt 2. piSCODEILIDAE. 

Small parasitic oligoehnts which were formerly grouped with the 
HtriMimM, wiUi a sucker at the hinder end of the bod; and withont 
setae, which Uve on the gilb or the onter surface of crayflsb ; month with 
a dorsal and a ventral chitinoos jaw; anus dorsal; 2 pairs of nephridia; 
1 or 2 pairs testes; single median genital pore in sixth segment: several 

E^ to the genera of DucodriUdae here described : 

a. One pair testes 1. Bkahchiobdku:.i 

o. Two pairs testes. 

A, No dorsal appendages 2. Bdeuxidbilus 

bi Dorsal appendages present S. Ptebodbii.US 

1. Bkavobiobsxixa* Odier, Dorsal and ventral jaws similar; 1 
pur testes in fifth segment: 3 American species. 

B, pvlcheiTliiut Moore. Body 6 mm. long and 1.3 mm. wide, very 
transparent forward and somewhat fl«ttened; eighth and ninth seg- 
ments flattened, each with a pair of adhedve organs: North Carolina. 

B. turtabllia Moore. Body 5.6 mm. long, 1.3 mm. wide; hinder 4 
e^ments forming a flattened disc-shaped expansion which is almost as 
wide as long, anterior segment very contractile: eastern states. 

* Bee "On Some Leeehlike Parailtei ot Americtn CnjBabtt," bj J. P. Moore, 
Froe. Ac. Ktt. Bd., Pblla., ISOS, p. 418. "Notei on Br*DdiIobdeIl&," bf W. M- BmsU- 
wood, Biol. Boll., ToL 11, If. 100, 1905, 

2. BoxLLOOULin Hoore. Two pairs of testes and apenu daets: 2 

B. iUnmliutas (Moore) (Fig. 481). Body 4 mm. toi^; and J9 mm. 
wide, the head being composed of 4 segments, the trunk of 11, all being 
biaimulated ; clitellum is the donum of segment 
6: often comman on the gills of crayfish; co- 
coons also on the gills; eastern North America. 
B. phlUdfllpbldU (Leidy). Head the 
broadest part of the body; length 10 mnL: on 
BMiodf^^mmminaiu* the external (usually the ventral) aorface of 
crayfish; eastern and central North America. 

3. PrXBODBlLini Moore. Two pairs of testes and sperm ducts ; l<»ig 
paired, dorsal appendages on certain of the body segments: 2 species. 

P. diaUchna Moore (Fig. 482). 
Dorsal appendages not branched; 
length 1 zmn. : on the external sur- 
face of the crayfish in western 
New ToA. 


Body very long and slender or 
filamentous; setae s^moid, single 

or paired, in 4 rows; 2 pairs of ovaries; central blood vessel contractile: 
2 genera and 3 species. 

Haploiaxu Hoffmeister. Clitellum on s^menta 11 
to 14; 2 pair male pores on segments 11 and 12: 2 species. 
H. gordioidos Hartmann (S. emiaaariut Forbes) (Fig. 
483). Dorsal setae absent on the hinder four-fifths of 
body; length 18 em. and more; width .6 mm.; 375 seg- 
ments: in wet ground or in the water (lUinois; Phila- 

Fauilt 4. ENCHTTRffilDAE.' 

More or less slender worms 30 mm. or less in length 

which live in fresh water along the shore of the sea or in 

decaying or living plants; setae hair-like, in 4 bundles in 

each s^ment; cliteUum when fully developed occujnea 

to 13; dorsal blood vessel arises near the clitellum; testes 

and ovaries in segments 11 and 12: about 13 genera and 170 species. 

" by a, BUen, BiuTt- 


Key to the genera of EncHyUaidae here described ; 
e. Setae Btraight, or Dearly so. 

fti All Mtae in a bundle of equal lengtb 1. EncHTT&BUS 

b. Setae not all of equal leogtb, iooer setae of each bundle Bmaller than 

outer 2. FKiDEKtOU 

Oi Setae ilgmold. 

6, Blood yellow or red ; testes maasiTe 2. I<iTiCBnctU.C8 

ht Blood ninallj colorless ; testes subdivided 4. Meskncbttiisub 

1. EvOKTTmxn Henle. Setae straight or nearly so, all those in a 
boDcUe of equal length (Fig. 484) ; blood colorless; lai^ salivary glands 
present: 10 species. 

E. alUdos Henle. Uilk-white worms 25 mm. long and 1 mm. thick ; 
setae nearly stra^ht but hooked at inner end 2 to 6 in a bundle; num- 
ber of segments 53 to 69 : New Jersey to Maine, along the seashore near 
high-water mark under decaying seaweed and ston^ also inland near 
the shore; very common in Europe and America. 

E. BodaliB Leidy. Body translucent and 20 nun. long; setae 5 to 7 
in a bundle; month triangular: in groups, in rotten stumps and logs. 

Fiff. 4B4 — Setae of EtKfiatrttMt (SBuw. F. Deut.). Fig. 48E — Setae of LmniricaUtt 
(BUbsw. V. Dent.). Ftg. 48fl — Setae of Frfdsrtoto (SUbbw. F. Dent). 

2. LTmsxionXTra Oersted (Fig. 485). Setae sigmoid; testes mas- 
sive; blood yellow or red; no salivary glands; clitellum covers segments 
11 and 12: 15 speoies. 

L. BCiUa Moore. Transparent worms with pink or brown internal 
organs, 16 mm. long and .4 mm. thick: Maine to Vineyard Sound, along 
tbe seashore under seaweed near high-water mai^s 

3. Fbiseuou Michaelsen (Fig. 486). Setae strai^t, 2 to 6 in « 
bundle and not of equal length, the inner setae of a bundle beii^ shorter 
than tbe outer; blood colorless; salivary ^ands present: 21 species, 6 
in this eountry. 

F. alba Moore. Length 22 mm.; number of segments 58; sper- 
matheca simple; salivary glands branched; setae long and slender: in 
wet moBB and leaves in the woods. 

F, pam Moore. Length 16 mm.; number of segments 46; sper- 
jnatbeca and salivary glands onbranched; 4 setae la a bundle as far ae 



segment 25, then 2; color opaline white: among damp leaves, in the 

F. agilis Smith. Length 30 mm.; number of segments 57 ^to 66; 
dorsal blood vessel begins at segment 19; salivary glands much branched: 
in the soil (Illinois). 

4. MxszvOKTTBJEini Eisen. Setae sigmoid; blood nsnally colorless; 

no salivary glands: 30 species. 

U beomeri (lUchaelsen). Length 

30 mm. ; setae 3 to 5 in lateral bnndles 

^ ^ ^ ^ '^ '^ ' and 5 to 8 in ventral ones; clitellum 

, ,1 J - ^ . ■ r . on segments 11 to 13: Philadelphia, 

in wet places; Europe. 

Fig. 487 — Dtasram of anterior por^ _ - *♦ * >»>'»% a •« « 

Uon of a naid (Walton). 1, prosto- Familt 5. NAIDIDAE.* 
mium ; 2, eye ; 3, brain ; 4, month : 

5, pharynx; 6, cesophagns; 7, blood ^ ,, ... 

▼easel ; 8, testis : 9, ovary ; 10. hair- Small aquatic. transparent worms 

like setae; 11, forked setae; 12, In- -i j r 

testine; 13, cUteUnm. (Fig. 487) with 2 to 4 groups of ^etae 

on each segment, and often with a 
distinct head; ventral setae foiiced; testes and ovaries usually in seg- 
ments 5 to 7; the worms reproduce principally by transverse division, 
forming animal chains : 15 genera and 50 species, mostly in fresh water. 
Key to the genera of Naididae here described: 

ai Hair-like setae present dorsally. 

bx ProstoDaiam not tentacular. 

Ot Without retractile rear appendages 1. Naib 

Oa Retractile rear appendages present 4. Dno 

6a Prostomium long and tentacular. 

Ci Dorsal setae begin on 5th or 6th segment 2. Sttlabia 

0^ Dorsal setae begin on 2d segment 5. PBiSTUfA 

d. Hair-like setae absent dorsally. 

hi No dorsal setae present 6. GHJBTOGAsm 

ba Forked dorsal setae present 3. Paba^nais 

1. Kazs 0. F. Miiller. Head distinct; dorsal setae begin on segment 
6 and are partly acicnlar and partly long and hair-like; ventral setae 
shorty with cleft ends; blood yellow or red; eyes usually present: in 
standing or flowing water, in mud or on plants; reproducticm by budding 
very common; 10 species, 5 American. 

N. elinguis Miill. (N. rivulosa Leidy). Two or 3 dorsal hair-like 
setae present; length 2 to 10 mm., with 15 to 37 segments; color light 
brown; eyes usually present: often abundant on algae; Europe. 

K. parvnla Walton. Prostomium blunt; eyes present; dorsal bundle 
composed of 1 hair-like and 2 cleft setae; length L2 mm.: Cedar Point, 
Lake Erie. 

• See "Naididae of Cedar Point," by L. B. Walton, Am. Nat, VoL 40, p. CSS, 190e. 



Fig. 488 




2. Sttlabxa Lamarck. Prostomium very long and tentaele-like; 
aetae as in NaU: 2 speeiesy in Europe and America. 

8. laenatrla (L.) (Fig. 488). Length 15 nmi., with 25 segments: 
common; Europe. 

5. Pabavazs Ccemiavsky. Head distinct; setae all 
forked; dorsal setae begin on segment 5; no eyes: 3 

P. litoralls (0. F. Miiller) {EHehytr€BU8 inventrah- 
pedmatus Minor). Length 10 mm.; segments about 20; 
blood greenish-yellow: Long Island and Vineyard Sounds^ 
under stones or decaying vegetation near high-water mark 
on the seashore, also in fresh water; often very common; 

4. Dbko Oken. Setae as in Naia; ciliated branchial 
appendages extend from the funnel-shaped rear end; 
blood reddish; no eyes: 15 species, 4 in America; often 
in tubes. 

D. Umosa Leidy. Length 12 mm. or less with about 
48 segments; color reddish: in tubes at the bottom of stagnant pools 
and among algae; common; Europe. 

D. oUnsa Udekem. Length 10 mm.; a long and a short seta in each 

dorsal bundle: lUinois; Europe. 

D. Taga Leidy (Fig. 489). Length 8 nmi.; 
number of segments 25 to 35; body ending in 2 
long finger-like processes: often very common. 
6. PxzsTnrA Ehrenberg. Dorsal setae all 
hair-like and begin in second segment; ventral 
setae all forked; prostomium very long and re- 
tractile; rear end sometimes with long projec- 
tions; no eyes: 8 species, 3 American. 

P. leidyi Smith. Length 8 mm., diameter .15 
mm., with about 30 segments; 3 setae in each 
dorsal bundle, 5 to 9 in each ventral bundle; 
clitellum on segments 7 to 9 : in streams and lakes 
in the eastern and central states; common. 

P. serpentina Walton (Fig. 490). Length 2.2 
mm. with about 22 segments; dorsal bundle with 
6 to 9 setae, ventral bundle with 5 or 6: very common; Cedar Point, 
Lake Erie. 

6. OflUBTOGASTXB von Baer. Veiy transparent worms with 2 bundles 
of hooked setae on the ventral side of each segment and no dorsal setae; 
blood colorless: 6 species, 5 American. 

Fia. 489 Fig. 4eo 

Fig. 489 
Dero vQoa (Walton). 

Fig. 490 

Friat4ma serpentina 


0. limftsi von Baer (Fig. 491). Anterior bnndles of set&e with 10 
to 20 each; length 5 mm.: eastern states, usually found on Lymruea and 
Planorhis or parasitic in their liver; also free-living; common; Europe. 

0. pellncidns Walton. Setae forked, 6 to 7 
in a bundle; length 1.5 mm.: Cedar Point, Lake 
Erie; common. 


MiiifU0i(Stts8W. F. Dent) 

Slender, red or brown worms living in fresh 

or brackish water in tubes from which they protrude the hinder end; 4 

bundles of setae on each segment; testes and ovaries in s^ments 10 or 

11; but 1 pair of sperm ducts; no reproduction by division; clitellum on 

segments 11 and 12: about 14 genera and 50 species. 

Key to the genera of Tuhificidae here described : 

Ox Dorsal setae both forked and hair-like 1. Tubifex 

a. Dorsal setae all forked. 

hi Setae of segment 11 modified 3. Bothbioneubuii 

5, These setae not modified. 

Ci No blood capillaries in body wall 2. Cuteixio 

c, CapUlaries in body waU 4. Liicnodbilus 

1. TinszTEX Lamarck. Forked and usually hair-like setae in the 
dorsal bundles; usually forked setae alone in the ventral bnndles; con- 
tractile hearts in segment 8: several species. 

T, irroratns (VerriU) {ClitelUo irroratus Verr.). Pink or brown 
worms 3 cm. long; prostomium acute: near high-water mark south of 
Cape Cod on the seashore. 

T. benedeni Udekem. Qray or black worms ; cutic- 
ula studded irregularly with flattened papillae; length 
4 cm. : Long Island Sound to Maine, near high-water 
mark on the seashore. 

Flff. 492 — TMhife^ 

T. tubifex (0. F. Mtiller) (Fig. 492). Reddish «»m76»— forked se- 

tEe with middle 
worms about 4 cm. long with about 60 segments; the teeth (Sttasw. F. 

forked setae in dorsal bundles in front of the clitellum 

have 1 to 3 middle teeth; ventral setae all forked: in mud in standing 

and running fresh water; often common, forming reddish patches on the 

mud where they are seen waving their hinder ends in the water; Europe. 

2. OuTELLio Savigny. Forked setae alone present; contractile 
hearts in segments -8 and 9 ; no blood capillaries in body wall ; prostate 
glands diffuse: 1 species. 

0. arenarina (0. F. Miiller) (C. irroratus Yerrill). Body veiy slen- 
der and reddishy up to 6 cm. long; setae sigmoid: Long Island Sound 
to Maine, often very conmion under rocks and stones near high-water 
mark on the seashore; Europe. 


3. BoTBSXonirBim Stole. Forked setae alone present; ventral 
setae of s^^ment 11 modified for eopulatory purposes: several species. 

B. glaber Moore. Body pinkish or brown, 4 cm. long and .8 mm. 
wide; setae short and forked at the end: Vineyard Sonnd, under decay- 
ing vegetation and stones near high-water mark, especially where the 
water is brackish. 

4. LnarODBZLiFB Clapar^de. Forked setae alone present; contrac- 
tile hearts in segment 8 and 9; blood capillaries penetrate the body wall; 
prostate gland large and massive, in segment 11: about 10 species, in 
fresh water. 

L. daparedianns Ratzel. Length 4 to 7 cm.; segments 150: eastern 
states, in fresh water. 

L. snbsalsns Moore. Body red or brown in color and 4 cm. long; 
aegmeats 120; setae deeply bifid, 4 to 6 being in each group before and 
2 to 4 behind the elitellum : in brackish water at New Bedford, Mass. 


Small worms usually red or brown in color, living in mud in fresh 
water; 2 pairs of dorsal and 2 of ventral setae in each segment; 2 pairs 
of sperm duets, but with 1 pair of openings: 8 genera and about 15 

1. TazOHODBiLVS Clapar^de (Thinodrilus Smith). Setae simple or 
forked at the end; dorsal blood vessel with paired contractile, blind 
appendages; male pores in segment 10: 3 species. 

T. inconstans (Smith). Length 6 cm.; width 8 mm.; color reddish, 
anteriorly greenish; 5 pairs of small spermathecae : in mud or vegetation 
in fresh water. 


Usually terrestrial, sometimes aquatic oligochaets; setae curved, 8, 
12, or more on a segment; male pores on segment 18 or 17; ditellum 
beginning on or before segment 16, not appearing excepting at certain 
times and without sharp boundaries: 56 genera and about 600 species, 
principally in the southern hemisphere and the tropical portions of the 

1. DzPLOOABDiA Garman. Setae paired, 8 on a segment, absent on 
segment 18; elitellum on s^ment 13 to 18: about 10 species, all 

D. commnnis* Gar. Length 30 cm.; diameter 3 mm.; flesh-colored; 
dorsal vessel double; 3 pairs of spermathecae in segments 7 to 9: in the 
soil of the prairies (Illinois). 

* See "On the Anatomy and Histology of a New Barthworm {Diplocardia oom^ 
miHilf)/' by H. Garman, Ball, of 111. St Lab. of Nat. Hist. VoL 3, p. 47, 1892. 


D. riparia Smith. Length 25 em.; diameter 3 mm.; color brown; 
dorsal vessel single; 2 pairs of spermathecae, in segment 8 and 9: in wet 
forest soil (Illinois). 

Family 9. GE08G0LECIDAE. 

Aquatic or terrestrial, usually tropical oligochats with 8 curved 
setae in a segment, paired or not; eUtellum concave ventrally; male 
pores just before or in clitellum; gizzard in middle of oraophagns: 20 
genera and about 90 species. 

Spasgahophilifb Benham. Prostomium not marked off from peri- 
stomium; clitellum in segments 15 to 25; male pores on segment 19; 4 
pairs of setae on a segment, a pair on each comer of the quadrangular 
cross section : in the mud of streams ; 4 species. 

8. eiseni Smith. Length 20 cm.; diameter 2.6 mm.; dorsal setaa 
project laterally beyond the ventral; a pair of large glands open on seg- 
ment 3; central and western states, in mud of springs. 

8. tamesis Benham. Length 10 cm. ; color red or blue; ventral setae 
project laterally beyond the dorsal: Philadelphia; England; on water 

Faioly 10. LUMBBICEDAE. 

Earthworms. Terrestrial, occasionally aquatic, oligochnts with 4 
pairs of setae to a segment; clitellum concave ventrally, not beginning 
before segment 18 or after segment 61; male genital pores on segment 
15 (rarely on s^^ments U to 14) ; 2 pairs of testes in s^;ment8 10 and U 
(rarely 1 pair); 1 pair of ovaries in segment 13; cocoons ^g-shaped: 
5 genera and over 100 species. 

Key to the genera of Lwnhriddae here described: 

Oi Feristomiom completely divided dorsally by proBtomium (Fig. 498). 

1. LuifBUOua 
o, Perifltomium incompletely divided by prostomium (Fig. 494). 
hx Oixzard occupies more than 1 segment ; ditellom reaches at least through 
segment 82. 

Ox Clitellum begins mostly on segment 24 2. Bisbnia 

c% Clitellum begins mostly behind segment 24 8. HSLonuLUS 

^s Gizzard occupies but 1 segment; clitellum reaches at most to segment 

27 4. BlSBinEIXA 

1. LuiCBBioUB L. Peristomium (buccal segment) oompletely divided 
by prostomium (Fig. 493) ; setae strictly paired; 3 pair vesiculae semi* 
nales present in s^ments 10 and 11 which fuse together in the middle 
line; 2 pairs of spermathecae^ in segments 9 and 10; tail end flattened; 
8 species, 3 American. 


K^ to the Amerkan species of Limbricus: 

e& CUtelliun on segments 81 or 82 to 87 L. tsbbxbtbib 

m GliteUum on segments 26 or 27 to 82 L. bubeixub 

q» Glitellom on segments 28 to 83 L. castankub 

L. tarrestris L. (Fig. 478). Length up to 30 cm., with about 180 
aegments; color purplish; elitellnm on 8^;ment8 31 or 32 to 37: in wet 
places; Europe and America. 

Ik mbelliia Hoffmeister. Length up to 15 cm. with about 150 seg- 
ments; color pink; clitellum on segments 26 or 27 to 32, usually nearly 
in center of body: in wet places; cosmopolitan. 

Ik castaneus (Savigny). Length up to 5 cm. with about 90 seg- 
ments; color chestnut or violet brown, strongly iridescent; clitellum 
on segments 28 to 33: America and 
Europe. ' **/*^ 

2. EzsxvxA Malmgren (AUolohophora l- Yx l\ 
Eisen) (Fig. 494). Peristomium incom- J I 

I^etely divided by prostomium; 3 or 4 Fig. 493 Fig. 494 

pairs of vesiculae seminales which do ng. 498-— Dlamim showing 
not fuse together in the middle line; 2 %aMw.**V ^iSut.). "^iJ^proBt™ 
or 3 pairs spermathecae in segments 8 to ^Diagram ^8how^ng"?ncompifetehr 
11; tail end cylindrical: 9 species, 3 ^^if ^^^^^^^^ ^suasw. H'. 

E. fostida (Savigny). Length up to 9 cm. with about 100 segments; 
color pink with a dark ring on each segment ; clitellum on segments 24, 
25, or 26 to 32; setae strictly in pairs; 2 pairs spermathecae, in segments 
9 and 10: the worm lives often in manure and has a disagreeable odor; 

E. rosea (Sav.). Length up to 6 cm. with about 150 s^;ments; 
color red; clitellum on segments 24, 25, or 26 to 32; 2 pairs of sper- 
mathecae in s^ments 10 and 11; setae strictly paired: in wet places; 

8* HxLODBZLVa Hoffmeister (Allolohophora Eisen). Peristomium 
incompletely divided by prostomium (Fig. 494); 2 to 4 pairs vesiculae 
seminales which do not fuse together in the middle line; tail end cylin- 
drical: 64 species, 10 American. 

H. caliginosw (Savigny). Length up to 17 cm. with about 250 nar- 
row s^;ments; color very variable, being gray, pink, yellowish, or bluish, 
but never purple; clitellum on segments 27 or 28 to 35; setae strictly 
paired; 4 pairs vesiculae seminales; 2 pairs spermathecae: in fields and 
gardens; cosmopolitan. 

H. chloroticas (Sav.). Length up to 6 cm. with about 125 seg- 
ments; color variable, but never purple; clitellum on s^;ments 29 to 37; 


setae in pabrs, close togetber; 3 pairs of spennathecae in segments 
9| 10, 11; 4 pairs vesieulae seminales: terrestrial; cosmopolitan. 

H. palnstris* (H. F. Moore). Length 7 cm.; segments 100; color 
red; clitellum on segments 23 to 28; 2 pairs vesieulae seminales; no 
spermathecae : Pennsylvania to North Carolina; in wet soil. 

4. EiSEHZELLA Michaclscn {AUurus Eisen; AUolohophora Eisen). 
Peristomiom incompletely divided by prostomium (Fig. 494), ditellnm 
beginning with the segment 23 or in front of it; male pores on segment 
11 to 15; gizzard confined to segment 17; 4 pairs vesieulae seminales, 
which do not fuse in the middle line: 2 species. 

E. tetndra (Savigny). Color yellow, brown, or blackish; hinder 
and middle portions of body rectangular; length 5 cm.; thickness 4 mm.; 
s^ments 90; male pores on segment 13, female pores on segment 14; 
clitellum on segments 22 or 23 to 27: cosmopolitan; in wet soil. 

Order 3. ECUlUKIDA.t 

Thick-bodied, cylindrical annelids in which the segmentation is 
wanting or indistinct in the adult. The animals are, however, bom as 
typical trochophore larvae and at an early period of the metamorphosis 
have fifteen rudimentary somites. Parapodia and cephalic appendages 
are wanting. A pair of large setae is present on the ventral side near 
the forward end; in Echiurus two groups of setae are also present at the 
hinder end. 

The formation of the head is peculiar. The prostomium is very 
much elongated and forms a long spatulate or trough-like structure in 
front of the mouth, which may be very elastic and forked at the end. 
The grooved ventral surface of the prostomium is ciliated and in it the 
minute animals which constitute the food of the worm are swept into 
the mouth. The prostomium is called the proboscis. 

The alimentary canal is much longer than the body and terminates 
with the anus at the hinder end; joining the rectum is a x>air of long 
cylindrical anal pouches which communicate with the body cavity and 
are modified nephridia. From one to three pair of typical nephridia are 
also present in the forward part of the body. The vascular system con- 
sists of a dorsal and a ventral longitudinal blood vessel, which join each 
other anteriorly, and no lateral vessels. The nervous system includes 
a ventral chord which is segmented in the early developmental stages 
but unsegmented in the adult. A distinct brain is wanting, but ail 

* See "On the Structure of BlmastuB iMilustrls, a New Ollgoclittte/' by H. F, 
Moore, Jour. Morph., Vol. 10, p. 473, 1895. 

t See "Thallasema melllta," by H. W. Conn, Stud. Biol. Lab., J. H. U., Vol. 3, 
1884. "North American Bchiurtds," by C. B. Wilson, Biol. Bull., VoL 1, p. 163, 1900L 




cesophageal ring is present which is much elongated, as it extends from 
the front end of the prostomium to the ventral chord back of the mouth. 
Special sense organs are wanting but the prostomium acts as a feeler. 

The animals are unisexual, the gonad being unpaired but 

the ducts paired. 

The Eehiurida are marine worms which live in the 

sand and mud or between stones, usually near the shore. 

The order contains about 20 species and 5 genera, 3 genera 

and 5 species being known on the Atlantic and 1 species 

on the Pacific coast. 

Key to the genera of Eehiurida here described : 

Oi Preaoal bristles present 1. Eohtctbub 

Oa No preanal bristles 2. Thalassema 

1. EoHiTTBlFB Cuvier. Preanal bristles and 2 ventral 

hooks present; body marked with rings bearing spines; 

2 or 3 pairs of nephridia: 3 species. 

E. pallasi Gu^rin {E, chryaacanthophorus Pourtal^s) 

(Fig. 495). Proboscis spoon-shaped but cylindrical at 

base; about 22 body rings present; color gray, yellow, or 

orange; length 30 cm. or less; length of proboscis 6 cm.; 

width 6 cm.: North Atlantic (Casco Bay) and Alaska; 


2. Thalassexa Gaertner. Proboscis rather pointed at 

end; no preanal bristles but 2 ventral hooks present; 1 to 

4 pairs of nephridia : 12 species. 

T. meliUa Conn (Fig. 496). Color dull red with 8 Ion- ^ ^^^ 

gitudinal bands; proboscis light yellow; length 25 mm., ThaioMema 

exclusive of proboscis, which is long and flexible: (oriiiDai) 

dr&wiiis ^y 
Beaufort, N. C, often in sand-dollar shells. H. W. Conn). 


Fix. 495 




1, proboscis 



Class 3. HXBUDINEA.* 

Leeches (Fig. 501). Dorso-ventrally flattened, often brightly col- 
ored anqelids, which are completely s^mented internally and are marked 
externally with three or more rings to each somite. A large sucker is 
present at the hinder and a small one at the forward end by means of 
which the animal moves on hard surfaces. Parapodia, tentacles, and setae 

* See Leeches of the V. S. Nat. Musenm/' by J. P. Moore, Proc. 17. S. Nat Mns.,^ 
VoL 21, p. 543, 1898. "The Hlrndlnea of Illinois," by J. P. Moore, Bull. 111. St. Lab.,' 
Tol. 5, p. 479, 1901. "Notes on the Leeches of Nebraska,'* by H. B. Ward, Studies 
from the Zool. Lab. Neb., No. 61. "Hlrndlnea and OUgocheta Collected In the Great 
Lake Region," by J. P. Moore, Bull. U. S. Fish. Bur., Vol. 26, p. 166, 1905. "Die 
SUsswasserfanna Dentschlands, Hlrndlnea," by L. Johansson, 1909. "The Leeches of 
Minnesota," by J. P. Moore, Part III, Geog. and GeoL Sor. Minn., 1912. 


are wanting. AcanthohdeUa, a Russian fresh-water leeeh, is an ezeeption 
to this rolei having setae on the first five somites. Paired gills are present 
in a few genera. The head is not distinctly marked off from the trunk 
but the prostomium projects in front of the mouth, as in the OUgochaia, 
The body cavity differs in character from that in most other annelids in 
that it is filled secondarily with a vacuolated parenchyma; several tube- 
like spaces are, however, still left in it which are connected with the 
vascular system and contain blood. 

The mouth is ventral or subtermitial in position and opens into a 
pharynx which is provided with salivary glands and in turn leads into 
the cBBophagus and the large crop; this organ has paired segmental 
pouches and passes back to the stomach, which may also be provided 

with paired pouches. The short intestine passes to the 
anus at the hinder end of the body above the sucker. 
The pharynx (Fig. 497) is provided with three serrated 
ehitinous plates in the medicinal leech and its allies, by 
means of which the animal may draw blood from the 
body of its host The RhynckohdeUidae, on the other 
hand, have no such plates but a proboscis which can be 
thrust out of the month and be made to pierce the akin 
of another animal. The main vascular system consists 
in general of four longitudinal blood vessels, a dorsal, a 

¥is 497— A, 

anterior end ol ventral, and two lateraL The excretory S3rstem consists 
?eecb ;^ B,^anto- of paired nephridia in the middle portion of the body 
rhynchobdeiiid (seventeen pairs m Hifudo)^ the inner ends opening into 
1, "cbit'in^o'uB the sinuses representing the body cavity. The nervous 
iende^ probM^ system is like that of other annelids. The two longi- 
.'^^.r.'' ^'*' tudinal nerve, are doee together uid sevend of the 

anterior ganglion {mira are fused together forming an 
infra-OBSophageal ganglion. The special sense organs consist of a number 
of pairs of eyes (in Hirudo five) at the forward end of the body and sense 
buds which are most numerous at the forward end. 

The leeches are hermaphroditic. A number of pairs of testes alter- 
nate usually with the s^mental lateral pouches of the digestive tract 
and communicate with a pair of vasa deferentia which proceed to the 
male genital pore in the anterior part of the body, joining to form a 
penis at their anterior end. The female pore lies just behind the male; 
two ovaries are present which are joined by the oviducts with the vagina. 
Fertilization is effected by means of a spermatophore and the eggs are 
usually laid in a cocoon formed by a ditellum on the ninth, tenth, and 
eleventh somites. The young animal is bom with the form of the 


Leeebes are mostly aquatio animals which live in fresh water in all 
parts of the world; a few live in the sea and a few in moist earth. They 
are predaeioos animals, feeding on oligoehets, snails, and other small 
animals and are also at times external parasites, sucking the blood of 
aquatic vertebrates. The class contains two orders and about 150 

Key to the orders of Hirudinea: 

Qi Proboecis present and no jaws ; blood colorless ; somites rarely consisting n 
of 5 rings each 1. Rhtnohobdellioa 

a^ No prolKWcis but usually 8 Jaws present; blood red; somites usually 

consisting of 5 rings each 2. Gnathobdkluda 


Leeches with a proboscis which can be thrust out of the mouth, and 
no jaws, and with colorless blood; segments consisting of 3 or more but 
rarely of 5 rings each: 2 families. 

Key to the families of Rhynchohdellida: 

Ot Both suckers distinct from body 1. Ichthtobdellidas 

Oi Hinder sucker distinct, forward sucker more or less fused with body. 



Leeches parasitic on fishes, tortoises, and some other animals; both 
suckers pedunculate; body elongate, narrow anteriorly, and broad pos- 
teriorly; body segments containing more than 3 rings each: 7 genera. 

Key to the genera of lehthyohdellidae here described : 

Ox No gilUi present 1. Piboioqla 

Ot Gills present. 

hx Paired papilliform vesicles act as gills 2. Gtstobbanohus 

bt Paired arborescent gills present 3. Branchellxon 

1. PiaoxooLA Blainville. Body cylindrical, distinctly 
annulated with many (usually 14) rings to a somite; eyes 
distinct: many species. 

P. rapax (Verrill) (Fig. 498). Body long and slender, 
dark olive in color with a row of rectangular white spots 
along each side; length 40 mm.; width 2 mm.: on the 
summer flounder. p&^u:^ 

P. funduli (Yerr.). Body smooth, distinctly annu- (ve/rifi). 
lated, lig^t green in color with fine dots of brown and 
green; length 18 mm.; 2 large and 2 smaU eyes: on Fundulus 

* See "Some North American Freshwater RhynchobdeUida and Their Parasites,* 
by W. B. Castle, BnU. Mna. Comp. ZooL, VoL 36, p. 17, 1900. 


2. OTSTOBBAVOBini Diesing. Gills present in form of paired papil- 
liform vesicles along the sides of the body; body composed of 2 regions, 
a narrow anterior region of 11 somites and a broad posterior region; 
each s^ment contains 7 rings: 2 species. 

0. yividns Verrill. Body with 11 pairs of vesideSy brownish or 
pnrplish in color with 3 irregular rows of white spots on the back; 
length 25 mm.; eyes 4: on Fundulua piaculentus; Long Island Sound; 
also in fresh water. 

3. BsAVOKBXXiov Savigny. Gills present in form of paired 
aborescent appendages; body with a slender anterior neck: several 

B. raveneli (Girard) (Fig. 499). Body with about 30 pairs of 
gills, dark brown or purple in color; length 6 cm.: on skates and 

Faiolt 2. GL06SIPH0NIIDA1L 

Fresh-water leeches in which the anterior sneker is fused with the 
body and the posterior sucker is distinct; each segment contains 3 
rings ; no cocoon is formed, the eggs and young being fixed 
to the mother's body: several genera. 

1. Glosszpkovxa Johnson (Clepsine Savigny). Body 

wide, attenuated forward, often brightly 
colored; animal cannot swim but roUs 
up when alarmed: numerous species; in 
fresh water. 

G. parasitica (Say) {Clepsine plana 
Whitman). Body broad and flat, with a 
smooth surface; color variegated, being 
(Verrtii). Fig. 600— oio99iphonia greenish or yellowish, with longitudinal 

complanata — anterior end showing j» x i .^ i •. «• 

eyes (SUbbw. F. Dent). rows of spots; lower surface longitudi- 

nally striped; 2 eyes; length 6 cm.; 
width 2.6 cm.: the most abundant American species; on turtles or 
under stones. 

O. complanata (L.) (Fig. 500). Body 30 mm. long and 10 mm. 
wide, very flat; color greenish, spotted wit^ yellow; eyes 6, in 3 pairs: 
often common under stones in running water; very active; Europe. 

O. fnsca Castle (G. Uneata Yerrill). Body 12 mm. long, flat and 
broad, with 12 longitudinal brown stripes; 2 large eyes: in cold 

O. elegans (Verr.) (Fig. 501). Body elliptieal, 18 mm. long and 
7 mm. wide, brownish in color; head colorless; 6 eyes: abundant in 
shallow waters, often with 0» atagnalis; sluggish in its movanents. 



O. rUfOBft (Verr.). Body rough and pspilloee; color variegated, 
spotted irregnlarlj with yellow and green; 2 eyes; length 5 Dm.: abon- 

dant under stones is run- 
ning water. 

a. ttacnallB (L.) 

(F^. 502). Body small, 

rather elongate, grayish 

or pinkish in color, and 

25 mm. long by 2 mm. 

wide when extended; 10 

mm. long at rest; anon- 

lation distinet; 2 eyes; 
between rings 12 and 13 is a con- 
^ieucus brown, enticnlar plate; crop | 
with but one pair of ponebes: in 
ponds and sluggish streams, where it 

feeds on small snails; very common; ^ 

Europe; very active in its move- 

a.hrterocUta (L.) (Fig. 603). Body 
transparent, yellowish or brownish in 
color, about 10 mm. long and 3 mm. 

wide, and with indistinct rings; 6 eyes Jt 

arranged in pairs at the comers of a 
trian^e: in ponds and sluggish 

streams; Europe. 

2. HBiaoixpaiB Vej- ^ 

dovsky. Anterior sucker 

pedunculate; body wide 

and flat: several species. 
B. cariaata- YerrilL 

Body 35 mm. long, rather 

slender ; color greenish 

with longitndinal stripes ; 

eyes 2, conspieuons: com- 
mon in streams, some- 
times attached to fn^ 

or toads. 

Fig. BOl— Oloirtphowia 

dlBfTBH] ibawliig the dlsotiTe and 
xeultBl tncta, BMQ frou) the dorul 
■nrfsce, the Bomitea belns DnmbcKd 
on the left knd the rlnfi on tbe 
right aide <C»t1e). >n., «nna; br., 
brain; er, crop; In., Inteetlne ; or., 
OTRrr; pr., protmadB; p.e., pogte- 
rior aneter ; iL, BallTary BUnds ; 

pore ;' V, /emale genital pan. 

FrNb-water and terrestrial leeches without a proboscis and usually 
with 3 jaws (Fig. 497, A) ; blood red; 2 families. 


Key to the familiefl of GnathobdeUida: 

Oi Three timthed jaws preaeut 1. HiK7mi(IIIi4> 

o. Three anamied maacular rid^ee preaent in pUce of the jbwb. 

2. Hn 

Leeches with 3 toothed jawe; segment containa 5 rings; 5 p&irs of 
eym: scTeral genera. 

1. EiKinw L. Elongate, flattened leeehes with about 96 annnU- 

tions; wmr gin of body eerrate; crop with about 10 pairs of lateral 

pockets; teeth very nameroQB, over 100 in 

number; body eontmets and does aot roll 

M np: namerons species. 

M H. mwHdiuJii L. The medidnal leech. 

■ Body yellowish-brown, 10 to 20 em. long: 

H an Enropean animal which has been iDtro- 

^1 duced into some ponds and streams in the 

^H eastern United States; used for blood- 

^B letting. 

^m 8, Hnom Savigny. Body rather thick, 

^H with smooth margins; crop with 1 pair of 

^M c»ca but without lateral pockets; teeth few, 

^H aboat 20; 5 pairs of eyea. 

^^L H. mamuwatls (Say). The horsdeec^ 

^^^^. Body 10 em. long or more, 15 mm. wide, 

^VOP Emooth, and very soft; color vmriegated, 

being blackish or brownish, blotched with 

irregular spots: in the mnd at the side of 

pools and streams and also occaaionaUy 

on the land; will occasionally sock blood bat nsoally eats worms, 

snails, etc 

H. grandis (Verrill). Body 20 cm. long or more, specimens 46 em. 
having been found; color yellow, mottled with black; the largest 
American leech: New England, the Great Lakes, and westward. 

S. Uaobobdeila Verrill. Body strongly annulated, broad and flat- 
tened, and tapering bnt little; about 65 teeth on each jaw; male oriSee 
between segments 26 and 27 and the female orifice between segments 
31 and 32: 3 species. 

H. decora (Say). Body up to 30 cm. long and 26 nun. wide, brown 
or olive green in color, with a median row of about 20 red spots and a 
row of black spots near each margin ; lower surface reddish : very eom- 
moD in fresh water, a fierce blood sacker, attacking men, cattle, flah, 
frogs, etc., bnt also eating other animala. 



Body Bubcylindrical, elongate with 3 imBrmed muscalar ridges io 
place of j&wb; crop withoat lateral pockets: several genera. 

1. HSBPOBDKLLA Blaltiville (Nephelis S&vigny), Body long and 
narrow and with smooth margin; segments contain 5 rings each; genital 
orifices separated by 2 or 3 rii^: many species; on plants and on the 
nnder side of stones in streams. 

H. punctata (I«idy] (Tig. 504). Body up to 10 cm. long and 1 cm. 
wide; color hrownish-black with 4 longitudinal rows of irregular black 
spots ; 3 pairs of eyes : common in streams and pools. 

H. (Dina Blanchard) farvida (Verrill) (Fig. 505). Body tip to 5 
cm. long, variegated pale red in color; 3 or 4 pairs of eyes: abtmdant 
in the Great Lakes region. 

Cuss 4. mZOSTOBUDA.* 

These animals are small disc-shaped parasites of crinoids, ophinrans, 
and starfishes, on the bodies of which they live either in cysts or free. 
The body is oval in outline, much fl)>^ 
tened, and externally nnsegmented. 
poBSflSses, however, five pairs of pai 
podia, each of which is stiffened 
two setae, and four pairs of latei 
ventral snoker-like organs which t 
probably sense oi^ans. The edge 
the body is serrate in some species ; 
others ten pairs of short cirri exte 
from it. A distinct head is not pr 
ent (:F^. 506). 

The body cavity is obliterated by p^. bos-dubwd. of . myioBtomi. 
the growth of a vascular parenchyma i;^45iSum!-4.\kttrlii»in™or'g™ 
throngfaont it. The month is ventral <>■ '?ifSP°" b™o<iie«; c, ov»ry; 7 

^ DepDridium ^ S, utcnis; v. atonmca. 

in position and near the anterior end l^re,'""'* ' **' """" " """'* genital 
of the body; it opens into the pharynx, 

which forms a proboscis. The intestine la straight and sends out a num- 
ber of loi% branches on each side. The anus is near the hinder end of the 
body. Special vascular and respiratory organs are wanting; nephridia are 
present. The nervous system is highly specialized. It consists of two 

■ Sm "TanelcbDlw dcr von dm V. B. Cout Bnrrer Stomen HBraler und Blake, 
voa 1887-1879, fewmmelten Hyioitomldeen," by L. vod araff, Bnll, Mm. Comp. 
tool.. VoL tl, p. lau. 1888. "The aeiual Phaaei of Hrioitoma," by W. M. Wheeler, 
Mitt ans d. ZooL 8t an Neap., Vol. 11, p. SST, 1B9S. "New Harioe Warma ot Um 
0«o« Hrwitoma," b; I, T. HeClendoQ, Froc. V. B. Nat. Hua.. Vol. SZ, p. «S, 1807. 



oesophageal nerve rings and a large ventral nerve mass whicli is composed 
of about six fused pairs of ganglia and sends off numerous nerves. No 
special sense organs are present. The animals are hermaphrodite. The 
testes are paired, branched organs which are joined on each side by two 
vasa deferentia with a lateral sperm sac; this opens to the outside by a 
marginal pore near the middle of the body. Two ovaries are present ; the 
ova are collected in a median uterus which communicates with the rectum. 

The class includes over 70 species and 2 genera. 

Myzostoxa F. S. Leuckart. With the characters of the class: 
numerous species. 

M. glabmm F. S. Leuck. Body nearly circular, 4 mm. long, with 10 
pairs minute protuberances; parapodia short; cloaca dorsal: Europe, on 
Antedon rosacea, attached to the oral plates. 

M. cnbanum McClendon. Diameter 1.7 mm.; thickness .08 mm.; 
dorsal surface flat, with 10 pairs of short conical cirri; ventral surface 
convex; parapodia prominent; suckers absent: West Indies, from 
erinoids off Havana. 


ARTHROPOD A. (Cbustaceaks, Abachnids, Mybiapods, 


Animals which are externally segmented and have segmented ex- 
tremities (Fig. 542, A). 

External Structure.— The segmentation of arthropods is heterono- 
moos, the somites or body segments being unequal in size, and in most 
eases the body is made up of three divisionsi the head, the thorax, and 
the abdomen. Fusion occurs very frequently between contiguous somites 
so that their boundaries are obliterated: the somites of the head are 
always thus fused. The appendages or extremities are elongated, seg- 
mented projections of the ventral body wall, there being typically a 
single pair on each somite except on the terminal one. In many 
cases where the segmentation has disappeared secondarily the number 
of pairs of appendages gives a clue to the number of somites originally 

The appendages are primarily locomotoiy and sensory oi^^ans, but 
^e find them performing many other functions. The first pair forms 
the antennae or feelers, where these are present, and their function is 
usually purely sensory. One or more pairs form the jaws, which have 
thus a right and left position. The appendages of the middle and hinder 
part of the body usually preserve their locomotory function and form 
the walking or swimming legs. These, however, often serve also other 
purposes, as for respiration and the transportation of eggs or young, or 
as spinnerets in spiders, and as stings, anal feelers, and ovipositors 
among the insects. 

The following scheme taken from Korschelt & Heider's Textbook of 
Embryology illustrates the homologies of the anterior pairs of appendages 
in the principal groups of Arthropoda: 




Antennae 1. 


Antennae 2. 





Maxillae 1. 

Legs 1. 


Maxillae 2. 

Legs 2. 


Thoracic appendages 


Legs 3. 

Legs 1. 

Thoracic appendages 


Legs 4. 

Legs 2. 

Thoracic appendages 


Legs 3. 



The laigest group of arthropodsi the insects, is distinguished by the 
possession of wings, two pairs of which are typically present, arising as 
projections from the dorsal wall of the thorax. 

The principal organs of special sense are the eyes, the tactile hairs, 
and the auditory or balancing organs. The tactile hairs are usually dis- 
tributed over the body, but are probably most sensitive on the antennae 
and the palps, where they are organs of touch, hearing, taste, or smell. 
The eyes are of two kinds, simple and compound. A simple eye or 
ocellus is a minute structure formed by a modification of the integu- 
ment and consisting of a convex retina and a lens. A compound eye is 
a much larger and more complex structure and consists of a large number 
of distinct elements called ommatidia. Each of these is a separate light- 
perceiving body, and the sum of the images of all the ommatidia of a 
compound eye forms the picture the animal sees. This is called mosaic 
vision and characterizes crustaceans and insects alone among animals. 
A pair of lithocysts, or so-called auditory organs, are present in certain 
crustaceans; they are organs of equilibration. A few species of insects 
have genuine auditoiy organs. 

The integument of arthropods is composed of a shell-like cuticula 
which forms the entire outer surface, and a layer of glandular cells called 
the hypodermis which lies beneath the cuticula and secretes it. The 
cuticula is rendered tough and thick by the presence of chitin and 
sometimes of calcium carbonate and forms a very efficient outer cov- 
ering. During the period of growth an arthropod sheds its cuticula 

Arthropods are often highly colored, some of them being among the 
brightest of animals: many are protectively colored and many crustaceans 
are transparent, being almost invisible in the water in which they live. 
Sexual dimorphism is very common, the males being distinguished from 
the females by size, color, or other external markings. 

Internal Structure.-'The digestive tract extends from the mouth to 
the anus and is made up of f oregut, midgut, and hindgut, which, however, 
in all arthropods have undergone a large degree of specialization. Sali- 
vary glands are generally present in the terrestrial arthropods but are 
absent in the aquatic ones. Other digestive glands are wanting in insects, 
but in crustaceans and arachnids a voluminous liver is often present. 
The excretory organs or kidneys are present in the form of one or more 
pairs of tubular glands. 

The circulatory system is not highly specialized. A blood fluid is 
always present which circulates among the organs in the extensive body 
cavity. In many small crustaceans no heart or other vessels are present, 
but the circulation is maintained by the movements of the intestine or of 


the whole body. In most arthropods, however, a heart, usually tubular 
in shape, is present in the dorsal part of the body cavity, the beating of 
which keeps the blood in circulation. In no arthropods, however, is there 
a dosed vascular system, as the blood, even in the highest, passes from the 
tissues to the respiratory organs through open spaces of the body cavity. In 
most arthropods respiratory organs in the form of projections from the 
legs or the sides of the body are present. In the crustaceans these pro- 
jections extend into the water and form the gills, while in the air-breathing 
forms the projections extend into the body cavity and become the so-called 
lungs of the arachnids or the tubular tracheae which carry respiratory 
&.ir directly to the blood. The muscular and nervous systems of arthro- 
pods are highly developed. The muscles are all striated and are probably 
the most energetic among animals. 

The main nervous S3rstem, like that of annelids, consists of a number 
of pairs of segmentally arranged ganglia and nerves connecting them. 
The anterior pair constitutes the brain and is situated in the dorsal 
portion of the head; from it nerves go to the eyes and the antennae. 
The remaining parts are ventrally situated, one pair being typically 
in each somite. In most arthropods, however, fusion has occurred among 
the ganglia so there are fewer pairs of them than of somites. This fusion 
has gone so far in some of the highest arthropods that all the ventral 
ganglia have come to form a single mass. In all arthropods the brain 
is distinct and is joined with the ventral ganglia by a pair of connecting 
nerves, one of which passes on each side of the oesophagus. 

With a few exceptions arthropods are unisexual, the hermaphroditic 
forms being a few parasitic or sessile crustaceans and a few arachnids. 
The gonads are usually paired, tubular glands which open to the outside 
by a pair of openings in crustaceans and by a single median abdominal 
opening in most other arthropods. Parthenogenesis occurs among certain 
crustaceans and insects, and pedogenesis occurs as a rare phenomenon 
among the latter. 

Arthropods are generally characterized by the care they take of their 
eggs and young. Many of them carry their eggs until they hatch, and 
often the young animals are also carried. Among insects a family life 
of remarkable complexity characterizes many species, which often leads 
to the formation of colonies characterized by a division of labor among 
their individual members, as in the case of the bees, termites, and many 

Distribution.— Arthropods constitute the largest phylum of animals, 
numbering about 400,000 known species, or four-fifths of all known spe- 
cies of animals. They form also one of the most widely distributed 
groups, being found in all parts of the sea and land. The crustaceans 


are almost exclusively aquatic and the arachnids and tracheates almost 
exclusively terrestrial and aerial animals. 

Htstori/.— Ldnnffius gave the name Insecta to all the animals which 
are now included under the Arthropoda, the crustaceans, spiders, and 
myriai>ods being Insecta aptera. Cuvier in 1800 created the Crustacea 
as an independent class, and Lamarck in 1801 performed the same service 
for the Arachnida, restricting the term Insecta to the Hexapoda and the 
Myriapoda. The last-named group was created in 1796 by Latreille. All 
these animals were joined by Cuvier with the Annelida to form the Ar- 
ticulata, but in 1845 von Siebold separated the Annelida from the others, 
making a class of them under the Vermes, and formed an independent 
group of the Crustacea, Arachnida, and Insecta to which he gave the name 

The phylum contains 3 classes. 

Key to the classes of Arthropoda: 

Oi Aquatic arthropods (with a few exceptions) having gills and 2 pairs of 

antennae 1. Cbustacea ^ 

Ot Air-breathing arthropods (with a few exceptions). 

hy Antennae absent 2. Araghxoidea 

5, One pair of antennae present 3. Tbacheata 

Class 1. OBTTSTAOEA • 

Aquatic arthropods which breathe by means of gills and have 2 pairs 
of antennae and biramose appendages (Fig. 542). 

External Structure,-— An elongated body with distinct segmentation, 
in which the primary division into head, thorax, and abdomen is evident, 
characterizes most crustaceans. A tendency is however present in all the 
groups towards a fusion of the somites and a shortening of the body. 
Those forming the head are always thus fused and are besides often 
joined with some or all of the thoracic somites, forming thus a body 
division called the cephalothorax, which in many crustaceans is wholly or 
partly covered by a bivalve shield called the carapace. 

The appendages are fitted primarily for locomotion and respiration in 
the water and are typically biramose, each consisting of a basal piece, the 
protopodite, and two segmented, terminal pieces, an outer one, the exopo- 
dite (Fig. 516,16), and an inner one, the endopodite (Fig. 516,17). Although 
this is the primitive condition of the appendage, the performance of special 
functions has in many cases brought about a modification of it and often a 
loss of some of its parts. 

* See "Crastacea," by A. Gerstaecker and A. B. Ortmann. Bronn*8 ''Elass. o. 
Ord. d. Tbierreichs/' Bd. 5, Abt. 1 and 11, 1866-1901. "Crustacea,** by J. S. Kingsley, 
Standard Natural Hist., Vol. 2, 1888. "List of tbe Crustacea,** by Mary J. Ratbbun, 
Fauna of New England in Occasional Papers of tbe Boston Soc. of Nat. Hist., VII, 


Vive pairs of Appendages are present in the head, the first antennae, 
seeond antennae, mandibles, first maxillae, and second maxillae. Of these, 
the first pair of antennae (antennnles) differs from all the other api)end- 
ages of the body in not being typically biramose; th^ are not, however, 
necessarily simple, but the distal portion of the appendage is frequently 
split into two, three, or more branches, called flagella (Fig. 614,1). The 
mandibles are short, stout appendages, fitted for biting, and may bear a 
sensory palp which is the modified endopodite, the exopodite being want* 
ing. The two pairs of maxillae are usually delicate structures whose 
function is probably chiefly sensory. 

The number of thoracic appendages varies g^reatly among crustaceans. 
The smallest number of pairs (2) is found among ostracods and the 
largest number (60) among the Apodidae, The abdominal appendages 
are wanting in the Entomostraca and in the youngest larval forms of 
most Malacostraca. In adults of the latter group, however, these are 
present on all the abdominal segments except the last one (telson). 

The cuticula of crustaceans is shed periodically. In the smaller 
species it is very delicate and the animal is often quite transparent. In 
the large Malacostraca it contains calcium carbonate as well as chitin and 
is very hard and thick : it is such animals which have given the g^roup the 
name Crustacea. 

Internal Structure (Fig. 623).— The digestive tract is in most crus- 
taceans a straight tube going from the ventrally located mouth to the 
anus at the hinder end of the body. Tubular livers, often very volumi- 
nous, ftre present in most forms; salivary glands are absent. The ex- 
cretory organs consist of a pair of tubular glands, the kidneys, which 
open to the outside in the neighborhood of the mouth. The respiratory 
organs are lacking in some of the small crustaceans, the outer surface of 
the body performing this function. In most of them, however, ^lls are 
present, lus projections of the thoracic or abdominal appendages or of 
the sides of the body. 

With the exception of most of the Cirripedia, which are all either 
sessile or parasitic, all crustaceans are unisexual. Among the Phyllopoda 
and Ostracoda parthenogenesis is common. In the lower crustaceans the 
animal usually leaves the egg as a nauplius larva, a minute animal with 
three pairs of appendages, of which the first pair is uniramose and the sec- 
ond and third pairs are biramose. With a few exceptions {Peneus, Lucifer) 
all the higher crustaceans pass through the nauplius stage while still in 
the egg and are bom in some later stage of development. Many of them, 
as the cra3rfish, have the form of the adult when bom, the entire meta- 
morphosis having been completed in the egg. 

Habits and Distribution.—The sowbugs, land crabs, and a few other 


forms live on the land, but all others are aquatic anitnala The majority 
of these live in the sea, the PhyUopoda being the only order which is 
better represented in fresh than in salt water. Crustaceans feed largely 
on decaying animal and plant substances. Many are parasitic, especially 
among the Copepoda, Cirtipedia, and Isopoda* The barnacles are the 
only sessile crustaceans. 

Histoty.'^Crabs and other decapods have been known and used for 
food from time immemorial. They were first described by Aristotle who 
calls them Malacostraca or soft-shelled animals in contradistinction to the 
hard-shelled moUusks. LinnsBus placed them among the Inaecta aptera. 
The lower crustaceans were seen by the earlier microecopists, but very 
little studied or understood until the time of 0. F. Miiller, who in 1785 
brought together a large nmnber and called them Entomoatracaf or insect- 
like crustaceans. Cuvier, Latreille, and Lamarck in the first years of the 
new century introduced the term Crustacea to include aU crustaceans, 
although the term had already been used as a eynonym of Malacostraca, 
The creation of the various orders of crustaceans is largely due to Lar 
treille, who introduced the names Branchiopoda, Isopoda, Amphipoda, 
Decopoda, and Phyllopoda. Mihie-Edwards formed the order Copepoda, 
and Burmeister introduced the terms Arthroatraca and Thoracoatraca. 

American crustaceans have attracted many able investigations from 
the time of Thomas Say in the first quarter of the last century to the pres- 
ent time. In 1852 appeared the Cruatacea of the WiUcea Expedition, by 
James Dwight Dana, which was one of the most important zoolog^ical 
works of the day. This and the works of Say, Stimpson, S. I. Smith, 
and others form the groundwork of our present knowledge of American 

The class contains about 16,000 species, grouped in 2 subclasses. 

Key to the subclasses of Crustacea: 
Hi Small, often minute crustaceans without abdominal appendages. 


0| Larger emstaceana usually with abdominal appendages. ..2. Malago8TBA.Ga 

Subclass 1. ENTOMOSTRACA. 

Small crustaceans, the majority of which are under a centimeter in 
length; somites variable in number; head, thorax, and abdomen usually 
distinctly marked, but in many the head and one or more thoracic somites 
are fused together, forming a cephalothorax ; body either elongate with 
distinct segmentation or much shortened and enclosed in a chitinous shell 
called the carapace; parasitism has produced great changes in the form 
of many entomostraceans so that all semblance of the crustacean form is 
often lost ; appendages confined to the head and the thorax, 5 pairs beings 


eephalie and the thoraeic appendages varying in number from 2 pairs 

to 60: 4 orders with about 4,800 species. 

Key to the orders of Entomoatnaea: 

Oft Free swimming or parasitic on fish (rarely on other animals) . 
hg Thoracic appendaaes flattened and leaf-like; body either elongate and 
segmented or short and more or less covered with a carapace. 


hg Body either elongate and segmented with cylindrical thoracic appendages, 

or greatly modified when the animals are parasites 2. Copefoda * 

&B Body short and wisegmented and entirely enclosed in a bivalve cars- 

pace 3. Obtraooda« 

«9 Body sessile and enclosed in a calcareous shell (barnacles) or parasitic 

on decapods or moUusks. A nisMiPfniA 


nioracie appendages flat and leaf -like, as the name indicates, being 
organs of respiration; body either long and vermiform and composed 
of numerous segments or short and compact and unsegmented; carapace 
nsnally present; parthenogenesis common, the usual eggs being relatively 
small and thin-shelled and called summer eggs; at the approach of a 
period of drought or cold males are bom from the parthenogenetic eggs 
which fertilize the females, land the eggs which these then lay are large 
and thick-shelled and called resting or winter eggs, and are capable of 
enduring the winter's cold or the summer's drought, if need be: 2 sub- 
orders and more than 600 species, most of them being fresh-water animals, 
living in pools, lakes, and streams containing the minute algae which form 
their principal food. 

Key to the suborders of Phyllopoda: 

Oi Body elongated and distinctly segmented 1. Bbanghiofoda^ 

«B Body short with indistinct segmentation or without any, and usually with 

a bivalved carapace 2. Clasooera 


Elongated phyllopods with numerous distinctly marked segments, and 
either with or without a carapace; the young bom as nauplii: several 
families and over 100 species, which, with a few exceptions, live in fresh 

Key to the families of Branchiopoda here described: 

Oi Carapace absent. 1. Bbaitchipodidae 

a. Carapace present. 

hi Carapace flattened dorsoventrally and arched 2. APOomAB 

hg Carapace compressed laterally 3. Limnadiidab 

* flee "Die SfiBSwaiserfaiina Dentschlands/' Heft 10, 1900. 

t See *'Pbyllopod Crustacea of North America," by A. S. Packard, 12th Ann. Rep« 
U. 8. OeoL Sur. of the Ter., 1878 (1883), pt. 11, p. 294. 



Body elongate, being composed of many segments and without cara- 
pace; head distinctly set off; first antennae filiform; second antennae of 
male used for clasping the female, being very large and composed of 2 elon- 
gated segments and with or without extra frontal appendages between 
them; thoracic segments and appendages mostly 11; abdominal segments 
8 or 9 in number; 2 stalked eyes present; a pair of egg sacs extend from 
the last thoracic segment of female: 8 genera; the animals live in fresh 
and salt pools and swim on their backs. 

Key to the genera of Branchipodidae here described : 

Oi Frontal appendages present. 

&i Frontal appendages simple in form 1. Bbanchifus 

&a Frontal appendages branched 2. Ghibocefhalus 

a. Frontal appendages absent. 

6i Abdomen with 8 segments 3. Artemia 

6t Abdomen with 9 segments 4. Bhanghinbcta 

1. Bkanchifvb SchaefTer. Beweep the second antennae of male 
are 2 onbranched frontal appendages; abdomen consisting of 9 segments 



3 • 


Big. 607 Fig. 508 

Fig. 507 — Branchipus vemaUs — male (Packard). 1, first antenna; 2, second 
antenna; 3, frontal appendage. Fig. 508 — CMrocephalua holmani — ^front view of 
bead of male (Packard). 1, eye; 2, first antenna; 3, second antenna; 4, frontal 

and 2 long caudal projections which have setose margins: 2 American 

B. yemalis Verrill. The fairy shrimp (Fig. 507). Body semi- 
transparent and pinkish in color; length 23 mm.; frontal appendages 
broad and fiat: eastern North America, in fresh-water pools during the 
spring, autumn, and winter, passing the summer as resting e^^s; often 
conmion, but sporadic. 

2. OsxBOOEBHALUS Pr^vost. Between the second antennae of male 
2 very long, branched, and coiled frontal appendages; abdomen con- 
sisting of 9 s^ments and with 2 long, broad caudal projections with setose 
edges: 1 American species. 

0. holmani Ryder (Fig. 508). Body slender, 15 mm. long: eastern 
North America (Philadelphia, Long Island). 


3. AxTZKiA Leaeh. No frontal appendages present; second joint of 
second antennae flat and triangular; abdomen of 8 segments and with 2 
very short caudal projections; egg sac short: several 

species, all in salt pools and lakes ; 2 American species. 

A. gradliB Verrill (Fig.509). Bod^ semitranapar- 
ent, pink or green in color, 10 mm. long: eastern and 
central North America, as far west as Qreat Salt Lake. 

A. frandscuia Kellogg. Body translucent whitish 
or doll brick red in color and slender; length 13 nun.; 
caudal appendages with setose edges: California. 

4. BHAxoHDrxoiA* Verrill. No frontal append- 
(tges between second antennae, the second joint of 

, which is simple and slender; ab- i..,?lf'^..,,,. 

domen of 9 segments; egg sac i/iStl'^Jia 
long and slender: 3 species, in the a, BMODd Mtennm 
western states. 

B. coloradensls Packard (Fig. 510). Length 18 
mm.; second antennae large, and broad and bent in, 
and not serrate: very common in Colorado. 

Fakilt 2. APODIDAE. 
Body elongate and composed of many segments, 
and with an oval, low-arched carapace covering the 
head and thorax; eyes sessile; first antennae short and 
filiform with 2 or 3 flagella; second 
antennae minute or wanting in the 
adult; 40 to 60 pairs of broad feet, the first pair end- 
ing with 3 long, slender branches, the eleventh pair 
forming egg capsules in the female; 2 long caudal 
bristles; larva a nauplius: 2 genera; in fresh water. 
Am Scbaeffer (Triopa Schrank). With the 
characters of the family: about 4 American species, 
all in the western states. 

A. lucaaaniu Packard (Fig. 511). Telson with 
3 central spines; length, with caudal bristles, 41 mm.: 
western America, abundant in Kansas. 

Body elongate and entirely enclosed in an oval laterally compressed 
carapace, which gives the animal the appearance of a bivalve mollnsk; 

., bj R. L. Sbaatt, 


vyes sesnie And close t<%ether; first antennae minute, second la^e, witb 
2 termin&l branches; 18 to 28 pairs of broad feet, the first or the first 
and second pairs being prehensile in the male : in fresh water, differing 
from the Cladocera and Oatraeoda in being much larger and in having 
diBtinct segmentation and more appendages and an abdomen vhich is nirt 
bait onder the tborax; about 5 genera. 

Ee; to tbe genera of Limnadiidae here described : 

a, Lines of srowtb on shell ; 24 pairs of fe«t 1. Ctzicds 

a. No Unes ol growth : 10 to 12 pairs of feet 2. LiHitma 

1. Otziotts Audouin {Eathe- 
ria Ruppell). Shell oval and 
opaque, amber-colored ; body 
rather thick; head with a long 
narrow rostrum; about 24 pairs 
of flat feet, the first two pairs 
twing prehensile in tbe male: 
numerous species, about 8 in 
America, all in tbe West. 
Illg.012-O*rto«»m<,r.rt(Pactaca). 0. morsei (Packard) (Fi^. 

512). Shell 12 nun. long, S nun. 

hi^, and 6 mm, across; the two branches of second antennae with 17 

and 16 joints each: widely distributed throughout 

the central and western parts of the country. 

8. LnoTBTlS Lov^n. Shell oval or spherical, witb 

no Unes of growth ; head with a large rostrum ; 11 or 

12 pairs of feet, the first pair being prehensile in the 

male; eggs carried in a dorsal brood chamber: 4 

species in America. 

L. (onldl Baird (Fig. 613). Body rather thick; Ftg.'sis— u««fti* 

second antennae with 16 segments m each branch; 

length of shell 3 mm.; breadth 2.5 mm.; color pink; eyes black: eastern 

and central America, westward to the Mississippi. 


Water fleas. Body usually short and compact, without s^fmenta- 
tion, and enclosed in a bivalve carapace; 4 to 6 pairs of thoracic ap- 
pendages; flrat pair of antennae often minute, second pair very lai^ge, 

• Bee "Hotea on Cladocera," b; B. A. Blrge. Tram. Wis. Acad., Vol. 4, 18T8. 
"Uat of CruiUceB Cladocen from Hadtwn, Wl>,." b; same, ditto, ToL 8, 1891. 
"Notea OD Cladocera," by nine, ditto, Vol. B, ISaS. "Sjnopila of tbe BntO- 
moitraca of Mlnneaoti," etc., by C. L. HerrJck and C. H. Turner, Second Bop. of 
State Zool., 1SS5. "Tbe Cladocera of Nebnaka," b; Cbarlea Fordyce, Stud, trom tb* 
Eool. Lab. of the TJnW. of Neb., Mo. 49, 1601. 


with the two brunches (exopodite and endopodite) prominent, and used 

for swinuning; abdomen small and usually bent under the thorax; 2 

large compound eyes which in many species unite to form a single 

median eye; a large dorsal brood sac in the female in which the eggs 

develop, the young animals being born with the form of the parent; 

the winter eggs are often provided with an extra shell called the ephip- 

pitun, consisting of 2 chitinous plates, like watch crystals, whose edges 

fit together, one, two, or more eggs being in a single ephippium: about 

8 families and several hundred species, most of which live in fresh water. 

Key to the families of Cladocera here described : 

Oi Carapace endosing the entire body. 
hx One branch of second antennae with 2 segments, the other with 3.1. Sididae 
ht One branch of second ^tennae with 3 segments, the other with 4. 

Ox First antennae minute 2. Daphnidae 

Ci First antennae long and beak-like 3. Bosminidae 

\ Both branches of second antenna with 3 segments 4. Ltnceidae 

Ob Carapace not enclosing the legs and the abdomen. 
hx Abdomen curved and rudimentary ; 4 pairs of legs ; fresh and salt 

water 5. Poltphemidae 

Jft Abdomen straight and very large ; 6 pairs of legs 6. Leptodobidae 

Family 1. SIDIDAE. 

Head large and separated from the body by a depression and usually 
with a beak; first antennae one-jointed, but long in the male, with a 
long terminal flagellum; second antennae very long, the two branches 
having 2 and 3 segments respectively; 6 pairs of legs; heart elongate 
and intestine straight, without liver sacs: several genera. 

"Key to the genera of Sididae here described : 

§1 Dorsal branch of second antennae three- jointed 1. Sida 

Of Dorsal branch of second antennae two- jointed. 

hx First joint of second antennae with a long side branch 2. Latona 

ht No such side branch 3. Daphnella 

1. SiDA Straufl-Diirkheim. Ventral branch of v | _ t 
second antennae with 2 segments; dorsal branch 
with 3 segments; beak distinct: several species. 

8. crystallina (0. F. MiiUer) (Fig. 514). SheU 
elongate with rounded ends; first antennae in male t f '3 

long, short in females ; body colorless, sometimes Fig. Slir—Sida orys- 

.., , J J ui 1. 1 _Lt. o • tallina (SUssw. P. 

With brown, red, and blue spots; length 2 mm.: in Dent.), i, second an- 

clear lakes; often widely distributed; often com- na; i, abdomen; 4^ 

n brood sac 

mon; Europe. 

2. Latova Straus-Diirkheim. Ventral branch of second antennae 
with 3 segments, dorsal branch with 2 segments, the first segment having 
a long side branch: 1 species. 


L. aatifara (0. P. Hiiller). Body and appendages very aetcee; color 

yellowish, often with spots; length 3 mm.: among weeds in clear lakes; 

widely distiibuted; Europe. 

3. Daphhzij^ Baird. Ventral branch of second 

vith 3 segments; dorsal branch 2 segments; 

beak absent; no teeth on the abdomen; first antennae 

Fig. BIB Rhort in female: several species. 

DaphneOa _ , 

braoA^ora D. bracnynra (Lievm) (Pig, 515), Length ,7 mm.: 

1, meond BDteuna in dear water: widely distributed; Europe. 
2. BntaDteDDa j i~ 

Fakily 2. DAPHNIDAE. 
Body oval; bead rounded, usually with a short beak; first antennae 
usually minute, consistuig of a single segment; the 2 branches of the 
second antennae consisting of 3 and 4 segments respectively; 5 pairs of 
legs, the last pair separated from that next to it; intestine not coiled 
and with a pair of liver sacs : about 12 genera. 

Fig. Bia — DapTMia pulem (Klusaler). 1, flrat antenna ; 2, Kcond aDtcDna ; 3, eje ; 
4, optic gangUoa; 6, bratn i 6. liver sac; T, IntesUne ; 8, Udnej ; 9. beart; 10, brood 
sac with two egxB; 11, abdomen; 12, aaas; 13, ovar; ; 14, legs; IB, moatb ; 16, 
eiopodite; IT, enaopodlte. 

Key to the genera of Daphnidae here described : 
a, Head terminating ventraU; in a beak, 
b, Head not separated from bod; bj a doiaal uotcb ; shell with a caudal 

■pine et the apper posterior angle 1. Daphhia 

b, Soch a notch present. 
0, Shell abruptl; tmncated behiad, with a abort spine at the lower 

posterior angle 2. Scapbch^bkbu 

c. Shell rounded below, with a blunt spine above 3- SiKOCEPHALns 

a. No beak, or a rudimentary one, present 

hi At>domen aot enclosed by shell 4. Moina 

b. Shell enclosing the whole abdomen B. CKuoDAPHtru 

1. Dafhvu 0. F. Hiiller. A sharp caudal spine, extending from 
the upper posterior angle of shell ; head not separated from the body by 
a doraal notch: about 50 species. 

D. mlnpwt'a*'!! Herrick. Caudal spine less than half the length of 
the shell ; general form oval, tapering behind ; length 1.8 mm. ; a project- 



ing spur present on the dorsal margin of the head, which in males and 
young females has from 1 to 4 sharp teeth: Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

D. pnlex DeGeer. The common daphnia (Fig. 516). Body oval, 
often reddish ; a prominent beak on the under side of the head ; length 2 
mm. or more : very common and widely distributed in America and Europe. 

D. hyalina Leydig (Fig. 517). Body oval; caudal spine almost 
as long as body; head extended forward in a helmet-like crest but very 
variable in shape and size; length 1.8 mm.: widely distributed in this 
country and Europe. 

2. SoAFEOLEBEBZS Schodler. Body short with a truncated hinder 
end from the lower margin of which a pair of caudal spines, which are 
sometimes very short, extend backwards: 6 species. 

Fig. 510 

Fig. 517 — Daphnia hyalina (Herrtck). Fig. 618 — SoapholeherU muoranata (Herrick). 

- -" "- }hi- ■ -'-" 

Fig. 517 '^^ "* Fig. 518 

ia hi 
Fig. 519 — Bimocephalus vetulut (Sttssw. F. Deut.). 

8. mucronata (O. F. Miiller) (Fig. 518). Spines short; color dark; 
leng^th .8 mm.: common in eastern America and in Europe. 

3. SzxoosfHALVS Schodler. Body obliquely truncate behind, with- 
out a caudal spine; abdomen with 2 dorsal processes: 8 species. 

8. yetolns (0. F. Miiller) (Fig. 519). Body large, short, and high ; head 
rounded in front, 2.5 mm. long: common in eastern America; Europe. 

8. Bermlatna (Koch). Head narrow, extending forwards sharply; 
length 2 mm.: central United 
States; Europe. 

4. MonrA Baird. Head with- 
out beak; first antennae long; the 
end of the abdomen not covered 
by the shell; pigment spot (acces- 
sory eye) absent: about 10 spe- 
cies; in muddy swamps, often in 
impure water. 

M. brachiata (Jurine) (Fig. 520). Body almost as high as long, 
greenish in color; 1.3 mm. long: eastern America; Europe. 

5. Oebxobapehia Dana. No beak present; first antennae short; 
head rounded; shell oval or circular, and reticulate: about 20 species; 
often in foul water. 

0. reticulata (Jurine). Claws of abdomen dentate; length .8 mm.: 
eastern and central America; Europe. 

Fig. 520 — Maina hracMaia (Herrick). 

336 CmjSTACEA 

Familt 3. BOSHINIDAE. 
First sntennae ^reatl^ elonKftted and esteniliiig from the beak fonns 
a long curved proboecis; 5 pain of feet and radinwnta of the sixth; 
second antennae small; pigment spot (actiessor; eye) wanting; intestino 
Btraight and without liver sacs: 1 genus. 

BonnXA Baird. With the characters mentioned above: about 20 
species; mostly bottom forms. 

B. longiroatils (0. F. Muller) (Fig. 521). 
Shell oval with hexagonal markings and with 
S a caudal spine projecting from the ventral 
margin; length .35 mm.: very eommon in east- 
ern and central America; Europe. 
Pig B21 Faiolt 4. LTNCEIDAE. 

^'^"(Herrt'S'r"^ Second antenna© small, each branch of 

' BntEnnB*-""! ' egg"°in'* each consisting of 3 segments; pigment spot 
thB brood gac. (accessory eye) very large; intestine bent or 

coiled and usnally without liver sacs: the largest cladoceran family, 
containing about 20 genera. 

Key to the genera of Lynceidae here described : 

0, lotestiiie not coiled or bent 1. BUBTCBBCDB 

a, Intestliie coiled. 

b, A donal keel on head 2. Acaopnua 

&, No kecL 

(^ Body oval or elongate, 
di Outer margin of poat-abdomen concave in outline; second antennae 

with 7 Ions setae 3. GaAFTOijcmtKU 

d, Oater margin of post-abdomen straight 

Bi Terminal claw ol abdomen with 1 basal ipine 4. AnoHA 

e. Two basal spines present 6. pLXCBOXtTS 

c. Body globular ; animals minute 6. Ghtdobds 

1. EraTOEBOirs Baird. Body large and oval with short antennae; 
intestine hent like an S and with liver sacs: 1 species. 

E. lamellatos (0. F. Miiller) (Fig. 522). Body very large, bein; 
sometimes 3 nun. long; hinder side of the abdoman serrate: central 
states; Europe. 

2. AOBOTESiTB Baird. Body minute, elon- 
gate, with a long, broad abdomen; head and 
back with a keel; shell with diagonal mark- 
ings; intestine coiled: 3 species. 

A. lurpa* Baird (F^. 523). Body truncate 
behind: length .7 mm.: widely distributed over Tig. 682— gwiroBrow Iw— >- 

^ r . 1 . t;. T*'«* < 8a«w. F. Dent.) . 

eastern and central America; Europe; common. 

3. O&APTOL&BBaiB Sars. Body minute, elongate; posterior margin 
straight; second antennae with 7 long setae: 1 species. 

FB7LL0P0DA 337 

O. tMtsdliUTiA (Fischer) (Fig. 524). Length .7 mm.; Bh«U retica- 
lato: eaatem &ud eentral America; Enrope. 

4. AlX»A Baird. Bod; minute, more or lees oral or rectanf^lsr 
in form, with small antennae, the second having 8 setae; with a coiled 
intestine: numerotis species, which are vety variable in form. 

A. ftiiadraiigiitoris (0. F. Muller) (Fig. 525). Body oral or qiiad- 
rangnlar; pigment spot smaller than eye, abdomen very broad and short; 

^ ^^WUU^""-^ 

Fix. S2S PiB. 624 Fig. D20 

Fig. &2S — iorppernu harpae (Herrick). Fig. .124 — (/rapid Ia&«ri« tMliHUnaHa (SOuw. 

F. Dent.). Fig. 52(i — iUma tuadrangutarlt (SQaiw. F. Dent.). 

shell smooth and yellowish in color; length .9 nun.: widely distributed 

over eastern and central America; Earope. 

6, PiXDKOXua Baird. Front end of bead long and pointed, forming 
a beak; shell with an arched dorsal edge; intestine coiled: niunerous 

P. procoTVU Birge (Fig. 526). Hinder mai^in of shell dentienlate; 
beak carved upwards, forming a hook; length .6 mm.: eastern and 
eentral America. 

8. OHTSOBm Leach. Body minute, spherical, with a long curved 
beak; antennae short; intestine coiled: 8 species. 

Fig. Bse Fig- GZT 

■" -'- - ■ CHerrlck). Pig. 

,r I pedicHliM (SQiBW. 

2, lecoDd anteima ; 3, brood 

1 (0. F. Muller) (Pig. 527). Shell reticnl^ted; jngment 
spot almost as large as the eye; color yellowish; length .4 mm.; widely 
distributed over eastern and central America; Europe. 
Carapace not enclosing the legs and abdomen, and servir^ only as 
» brood sac; 4 pairs of legs which lack the flattened respiratory pro- 
jections of other Phyllopoda; abdomen slender, with 2 long caudal 
spines; head very large, with a single large eye and large second anten- 
IMS;.! genera. 



Key to the genera of Polyphemidae here described : 

Oi Fresh-water animals 1. Poltfhsiixts 

a. Marine animals 2. EvADins 

5i Head and thorax continuous dorsally. 

&i Head and thorax separated by a notch 3. Podon 

Fig. 529 

Fig. 530 

Fig. 529 — Evadue nordmanni (Sharpe). 

A, female ; B, male. 
Fig. 530 — Podon leuokarti (Sharpe). 

1. PoLTPEEmre 0. F. Miiller. 
Head separated from thorax by a 
dorsal depression: 2 species. 

P. pwUculiifl (L.) (Fig. 528). 
^y^^^ ^KH/i/'^j Length 1 mm.; body highly colored 

jHT ^^^^> f^ «1Wkc^-^ ^^^ transparent : usually in deep lakes 
•vH^"'^ JA^ and rivers; a back-swimmer; widely 

distributed throughout America and 


2. EvADNX Lov^. Head and 
thorax not separated by a dorsal depression; brood sac very high; 
antennae small: 3 species; marine. 

E. nordmanni Lov. (Fig. 529). Outer branch of third pair of legs 
with a single spine; length 1.15 nun. or less; colorless: very common 
along the Atlantic coast. 

3. PoDOH Lilljeborg. Head and thorax separated by a dorsal depres- 
sion: several species; marine. 

P. lenckarti (Sars) (Fig. 
530). LfCngth 1 mm.; both 
branches of the second an- 
tennae with 6 bristles each: 
common along the Atlantic 
coast occurring with the pre- 
ceding; Europe. 


Shell rudimentary and not covering the 
legs or the long, segmented abdomen; 6 
pairs of cylindrical legs, the first pair 
being much larger than the others; 2 ter- 
minal claws on the abdomen: 1 genus. 

Leptodo&a Lilljeborg. With the 
characters mentioned above: 1 species. 

L. byalina Lillj. (Fig. 531). Body elongate; first antennae small 
in female, but veiy long in male; length 9 mm.; transparent: in clear 
fresh-water lakes in America and Europe; it comes to the surface usually 
only on dark nights. 

Fig. 631 — Leptodora 
hvaUna. 1, first anten- 
na ; 2, second antenna ; 
3, shelL 


Order 2. OOPEPODA.* 

Body elongated, the thorax and abdomen being usually distinctly 
segmented, and made up of 15 somites, 5 of which are united to form the 
head and 5 form each the thorax and the abdomen. The head and thorax 
together form the cephalothorax. In many forms fusion takes place 
between the head and the first thoracic somite, or between the fourth 
and the fifth thoracic Smites, so that but 4 free thoracic segments are then 
present. The abdominal somites are also often united in the female, the 
first and second invariably. The last abdominal segment ends with 
the furca, a pair of terminal projections bearing a definite number of long 
caudal bristles. In the parasitic copepods the form and structure of the 
body have often been profoundly changed, and all semblance to the typical 
copepod form may have been lost. Ten pairs of lappendages are present, 
5 of which are cephalic and 5 thoracic. The first pair of antennae 
is uniramose and is longer than the second and may be used for locomo- 
tion; in the male either one or both of the first pair are often modified 
to form clasping organs. The second pair is biramose (but occasionally 
uniramose) and sometimes provided with prehensile hooks and spines. 
A poisonous sting is present in front of the mouth in Argulus, The 
thoracic appendages are biramose swiouning legs (Fig. 542,6), which are 
without gills. Except in the PontelUdae and the Argulidae a single 
median eye is present. 

The genital openings are in the first abdominal segment: except in 
the Argulidae the female carries her eggs in 1 or 2 gelatinous masses, 
the so-called egg sacs, which project from the segment into the water. 
The young animal is bom as a nauplius. 

More than 2,200 species of copepods are known, of which nine-tenths 
are marine. About half of these are non-parasitic and form one of the 
most important elements in the plankton, because of their enormous 
numbers: they are among the most important scavengers of the sea 
and form besides the principal food of herrings and many other fishes. 
The parasitic copepods are called fish lice and live on the external surface 
and gills of fishes and occasionally on squids and other animals. The 
order contains about 20 families grouped in 2 suborders. 

• See "Die fretlebeoden Copepoden/' etc., by C. Clans, 1868. "Dentschlandi 
freilebende Sttsswasser Copepoden/* by O. Schmell, Blbliotbeca Zoologica, 1892-1896. 
"Synopsis of tbe Entomostraca of Minnesota/' etc., by C. L. Herrldc, Sec. Rep. of 
State Zool., 1895. "Copepoda of the Woods Hole Region/' by W. M. Wbeeler, Bull. 
U. S. Fish. Com. for 1899, Vol. 19, p. 157. "Freshwater Copepoda of Mass.," by 
A. S. Pearse, Am. Nat, Vol. 40, p. 241, 1906. "Notes on Marine Copepoda of R. I./' 
by L. W. Williams, Am. Nat., Vol. 40, p. 639, 1906. "Sdsswasserfauna Deutschl./' 
Heft 11, 1909. "Notes on the Marine Copepoda and Cladocera of Woods Hole," etc., 
l)y B. W. Sharpe, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., Vol. 38, p. 405, 1911. 


Key to the suborders of Copepoda: 

0| The female carries egg sacs .1. Euoofefoda 

Oa No egg sacs present 2. Bbanchiuba 


Body elongate; mouth parts biting in the free and sucking in most 
of the parasitic forms: 15 families. 

Key to the families of Eucopepoda here described: 

01 Free-swimming forms (with a few exceptions), 
bi First antennae 17 to 25-jointed, being very long, usnally as long as the 
body; but 1 egg sac. 

Ci First antennae prehensile in male ; animals marine 1. Cajjuxjdam 

c. Right first antenna prehensile ; marine and fresh-water animals. 

di First pair of legs normal ; but 1 eye present 2. Centbopagidak 

da First pair of legs weak or rudimentary ; 3 eyes usually present. 


h^ First antennae not more than 17-jointed ; usually 2 egg sacs. 
Ci Abdomen markedly narrower than thorax; 2 egg sacs; mostly fresh- 
water animals 4. Ctclopidab 

c. Abdomen not markedly narrower than thorax 5. Habpactigidab 

Oi Parasitic forms, but which may usnally be free-swimming at times. 
5i Segmentation distinct. 
Oi Body with the usual number of segments ; first antennae 5 to 7- jointed. 

Ot Segmentation indistinct and irregular. iciioasiijdae 

dx Body wide and flat 7. CAUomAS 

dt Body elongate j 8. Dichblestiidak 

bt Segmentation wanting or indistinct in the egg-bearing female. 

Ci Legs rudimentary ; proboscis present ; body worm-like 9. Lebivjbidab 

Ot Legs rudimentary or wanting; no proboscis present; body worm- 
like 10. Ghondbacanthidas 

Cg Legs wanting ; proboscis present ; body thick and sac-like. 

11. Lbbn^oopodidae 

Family 1. CALANIDAE.* 

Body elongate; first antennae very long, with 

23 to 25 joints, in the male but slightly modified; 

second antennae large and biramose; first 4 pairs 

of legs biramose, outer branch 3-jointed ; fifth pair 

A W ^ f^ either like the preceding or modified and unlike 

^ on the two sides; heart present; a single egg sac 

present : 26 genera, and over 100 species, all marine. 
mar3ii^t^^ieV)X ^' Oalaots Leach. Thorax composed of 

B?"Sla'i"pSrtiSD oTflftil either 4 or 5 segments, the last one being some- 
pain of legs. times asymmetrical ; first antennae 25 jointed in 

the female: many species. 
0. flnmarchicuB (Gunnerus). Brit (Fig. 532). Length about 4 mm.; 
color yellowish or reddish, but sometimes absent; thorax of 5 segments; 
fifth pair of legs biramose; first antennae as long as the body: New Eng- 

f See "Copepoda/* by W. Olesbrecht »xid 0, SqhmeU, Das Tlerreich, 1898. 


land eoasty a widely spread, pelagic species, sometimes so abundant that 
the sea is colored yellow or red, and of great economic importance 
because it forms an important source of food of herring and mackerel, 
as well as of the Greenland whale. 

0. minor Glaus. Length about 1.8 mm.; thorax of 4 segments; fifth 
pair of legs biramose; 
first antennae not as long 
as the body: Gulf stream, 
off New England, a wide- 
ly spread species. 

2. Oalooalavvs 
Giesbrecht. Thorax of 
female consists of 3 seg- 
ments, the first somite 
being fused with the 

bead, and the fourth with 
,_ ' -,, ., , , Fl|(.533 — Calocalanua pavo (Wheeler). 

the fifth somite; abdo- 
men of female of 2 or 3 segments; abdomen of male of 5 segments; 
caudal spines very long and plumose: 3 species. 

0. pavo (Dana) (Fig. 533). Abdomen of female of 2 segments; 
caudal bristles symmetrical, branched, and spreading; length 1 mm.; 
body transparent and reddish : a tropical species which may be found in 
the Gulf stream off New England. 


Body elongate; first antennae very long, with 23 to 25 joints in the 
female; the right one (sometimes the left) in the male being prehensile; 
second antennae large and biramose; heart present; first 4 pairs of legs 
biramose, the outer branch being 3-jointed, the inner branch 1 to 3- 
jointed; fifth pair of legs biramose, often modified for clasping; a single 
egg sac present : about 25 genera and 200 species ; in salt and fresh water. 

Key to the genera of Centropagidae here described : 

Oi Marine animals. 
bi First antennae with 24 segments. 

Oi Thorax of 5 segments 1. Centbopageb 

Oji Thorax of 4 segments 2. Temoba 

ft. First antennae with 23 segments 3. Metbidia 

Of Both marine and fresh-water animals. 

6, First antennae with 25 segments; fifth feet biramose. . . .4. Limnocaianus 
l. First antennae with 24 segments ; fifth feet uni ramose 5. Eubytemora 

o. Fresh-water animals ; first antennae with 25 segments. 

fti Fifth feet nniramose ; abdomen asymmetrical 6. Epischtjba 

5, Fifth feet biramose ; inner branch of first pair of feet 2- jointed. 


* See "The North American Centropagidae/' etc., by F. W. Scbacht, Bull, of 111. 
8t Lab.» Vol. 5, p. 225, 1898. 



Fig. 534 

typicus — 

dorsal aspect 

of female 


1. OxvTEOPAOXS Kroyer. Thorax of 5 segments; abdomen of male 
of 5, of female of 4 segments; first antennae with 24 segments; the 2 

branches of all 5 pairs of legs 3-jointed: 13 speeies; 

0. typicns Kr. (Fig. 534). Fifth thoracic segment 
with 2 lateral projections; first abdominal segment of 
female with 4 thorn-like bristles; length 2 mm.; color 
reddish or bluish, translucent: coast of New England; 

2. Texoba Baird. Furca long and slender; lurcal 
bristles short; thorax of 4 segments; abdomen of male of 
5, of female of 3 segments; first antennae with 24 seg- 
ments ; the 2 branches of the 5 pairs of legs 2 to 4-jointed : 
5 species; marine. 

T. longicomis (O. F. Miiller) 
(Fig. 535). Length 1.5 mm.: 
Woods Hole; very common, especially in the 
winter; Europe. 

3. Metbidia Boeck. Thorax of 4 seg- 
ments, abdomen of male with 3 segments; first 
antennae with 23 segments; the 2 branches of 
the first 4 pairs of legs 3-jointed; of the fifth 
pair 2 to 4-jointed in female and 5-jointed in 
the male: 10 species; marine. 

M. Incens Boeck {M. hibemica Brady and 
Robertson) (Fig. 536). Length 2.5 mm.: New 

England coast; Europe. 
4. LncvooALAinni 
G. 0. Sars. Thorax of 5 segments ; abdomen in 
female with either 3 or 4 segments, in male 
with 5; body slender; furca very long; first 
antennae 25- jointed; all the legs biramose, both 
branches 3-jointed, except the outer branch of 
male, which may be 2-jointed: 3 species; in 
fresh and salt water. 

L. macmnu G. O. Sars. Right outer 
branch of fifth foot in male indistinctly 3- 
jointed with a hook-like process on second 
segment; length 2 mm.; color hyaline: cosmo- 
politan; often common in deep lakes; Europe. 
5. EvBTTEXOBA Giesbrecht. Thorax of 5 segments; abdomen of 
male with 5, of female with 3 segments; first antennae about as long as 

Fig. 536— IfetHtfia I«- 
ceH8 (Wheeler). A, dor- 
sal aspect of male: B, 
fifth pair of legs of male: 
C. flrth pair of legs of 

Fig. 635 — Temora Ion- 

Sieomis (Wheeler). A, 
orsal aspect of female; 
B, fifth pair of legs of fe- 
male : C, fifth pair of legs 
of male. 


th« thorax and 24- jointed ; fifth feet uniramose: 7 Bpeeies; in freab, 
brackish, and salt water. 

E. hirandoidei (Nordquist) (Fig. 537). Last thoracic segment of 
female vitb 2 large projections; length 1.16 mm.; tnuisparent, with yel- 
low bands: Golf of Mexico and its estaaries, abundant; 
Boston and Narrag&nsett Bays; Europe. 

6. EFisosnA Forbes. Thorax of 5 segments; abdo- 
men 4-jointed in female, in male 5-jointed, aBymmetrieal 
and with prehensile processes on right side; first 4 pairs 
of legs biramose, the outer branch 3-jainted, the inner 
branch 1-jointed; fifth pair uniramose, prehensile in male: 
3 species; in fresh water, 

B. lacmtrls Forbes. Length 1.7 mm.; second ab- 
dominal segment as long as the rest of the abdomen: in su^i^Kiora 
deep lakes; central and western America. "('Hll^ldt^ 

7. DuPTOinrB' Westwood. Thorai usually of 5 seg- 
ments; abdomen of male with 4, female with 3 sepnents; first antennae 
with 25 joints; inner branch of first pair of legs 2-jointed, outer branch 
3- jointed; both branches of legs 2 to 4 are 3- jointed; fifth pair irregular 
in form, the inner branch being often rudimentary, the outer branch 
OBually 4-jointed in the female, and 5-jointed in the male: about 80 
species, of which 34 are American; in fresh water. 

1« of female ; C, flflli lea o( 
ofboAj (Herrick) ; B, BRb Ic 

D. oreconenBls Lilljeborg (Fig. 538). Body small, 1.5 mTn . long; 
first abdominal segment of female expanded and equal in length to rest 

■ Bee "The North Am. Spedes of IXaptomoB," by F. W. Scbacbt. Bun. in. 8t Lab., 
Tol. 0. p. 97, 1S9T. "A revlsloD ot the North Am. Spedei of IHaptomiu," by C. D. 
Harah, Trans. Wis. Acad. Bel., Vol. IS, p. 3S1, 190T. 


of abdomen; oephalothorax widest in the middle: widely distributed and 
common over the entire northern part of the country. 

D. leptopus Forbes (Fig. 539). First antennae about as long as the 
body; thorax of 4 segments; length 1^ mm.; body transparent, with por^ 
pie bands, especially on the terminal portion of the onteniute and the 
abdomen: common in the central states. 

D. Haimiinem Forbea. Body bright red and 2 mm. long; last tho- 
racic segments with strong lateral spinea, and a dorsal hnmp; first 
abdominal segment with strong lateral spines: central and eastern United 
States; common; it occurs only in the early spring, in stagnant poola. 

D. minntiiB Lilljeborg. Body small, 1 nun. long, and slender; thorax 
of 4 segments; antepenultimate joint of first ant«iinae with a long slender 
process; terminal hook of right fifth feet in male broad: common in the 
Great Lakes and widely distributed in northern America; Europe. 

Body elongate, with 4 thoracic segments; first antennae very long, 
the right one in the male being prehensile; second antennae large and 


Fig. B40 FIC 641 

FlK. G4n — TortatHU »etacatiSatii» (Wllllami). A, donal upect of female; B, 
■bdamea. Flf. 041 — ZioUdooem aittva (Wlie«ler). A, dorsal aspect of fonsle; 
B, liltb leg of male ; C, rlgbt flftb leg ot temsle. 

biramose; first pair of legs weak or rudimentary; heart present; median 

eye and also often paired eyes present; but 1 e^ sac: 10 genera and 

orer 70 species; marine. 

Key to the genera of Pontellidae here described : 

a, First aatennae SS-jointed 2. L&Bmoona 

a. First antennae 17-}ointed. 

h. The 2 branches of the second antennae of eqca) length L ToaramiB 

b. These branches of oneqaal length 3. Acama 

1. ToxTAVTTS Giesbrecht. First antennae of female 17-jointed ; abdo- 
men of female consists of 2 or 3 and of the nude of 5 segments;' tha 2 



bnnelies of the aooond antennae of about the same length; 1 large dorsal 
eye present; fifth pair of Ic^ muraiiiOBe: several species. 

T. UtacandatM Williams (Fig. 540). Length of fem&le 1.4 mm.; 
thonz of 5 segments ; fifth pair of feet 2- jointed in female and 3-jointed 
in nutle: Narragansett Bay; common. 

8. Labisoocba Lnbbock. Thorax of 4 aeg^nents; abdomen of female 
of 2 or 3, of male of 5 segments; first antennae of female of 23 s^mentB; 
eyes present, a dorsal pair and a rentral median eye: about 14 species. 

L. MUn Wheeler (^. 641). Lei^ 2 
mm.; body transparent; last thoracic s^ment 
in male sometimes asymmetrical : Woods Hole ; 

3. AOABTU Dana. First antennae of fe- 
male 17-joiDted, of uniform thickness through- 
out; thorax of 4 s^ments; 1 large dorsal eye 
present; abdomen of female of 3 segments; 
outer branch of second antennae much shorter 
than the inoer; 18 species. 

A. toiua Dana. Length 1.3 nun.; body 
transparent: Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; 
often very common; a widely distributed 

Paiolt 4. CTCLOPIDAE." 

Thorax with 4 free segments, first an- 
tennae usually about two-thirds the length of 
the body, both being modified in the male to 
serve as prdiensile organs; second antennae 
abort and uniramose; first four pairs of feet 
binmons, onter branch 3-jointed, inner branch 
1 to 3-jointed; fifth pair of feet mdimeutary, 
alike in both sexes, rudiments of a sixth pair 
sometimes present; heart absent; 2 egg sacs 
present : about 75 species and 5 genera, mostly 
in fresh water. 

1. OrOLOWt 0. F. Mullcr (Fig. 542). Thorax with 4 free segments, 
abdomen with 5 segments in the male and 4 in the female; first antennae 

* See "A Ctmtnbatlot) to a Knowledse of North Am. Frtsb-Water Cjclopldae," by 
■. D. TottM, Bna IIL Bt Lab., Vol. G, 1897. 

t See "A Rerldon of the Nortb American aii«etea o( Cyclone," by C. D. Harah, 
Traoe. WU. Acad. 8d., VoL IS. p. ]06T, IB09. "The ^Istribotloii ot the Geaiu 
Crelope la the Vicinity of HSTcrford, PemujlTanla," b; Reynold A. Spaetb, Pro«. 
Acad. Nat. 8cl., Vol. 06, p. 20, IBll. 

Ftg. S42 — Diagram ot 
Cyctops {altered trom 
BUbbw. F. Deut.). 1. Brat 
antenna ; S, seeoai Bnten- 
na; 3, mandlblee; 4, flrst 
laaillla; S, aecond roaillla 
(miilUlped) ; 6, T. 8, 9, 
the flrst foar pain of tbo- 
radc leei, each leg being 
compoHed of a baul piece, 
the pratopodlte, and two 
terminal pieces, tbe eiopo- 
dlte and endopodlte ; ID, tbe 
flftb pair ot thoradc lega ; 
■■ ' receptacnlnm aemtnte, 

abdomen ; 


with not more than 17 and second antennae with 4 segments: over 50 
species, about 18 being American, all in fresh water, although some 
species occur also in brackish and even in salt water; many sp>ecies are 
extremely variable in form. 

K^ to the species of Cyclops here described : 

0, First antennae 17-jointed. 
hi First antennae not reaching the hinder border of head segment.. G. vieedib 
6, First antennae reaching beyond this point. 

Oi Fifth feet with 2 long plumose terminal bristles C. leuokabti 

Ca Fifth feet with 2 smooth terminal bristles G. bicuspioatus 

c. Fifth feet with 3 terminal bristles G. AI.BIDUB 

Ot First antennae 12- jointed G. bebbuiatxts 

Ob First antennae 10 or 11-jointed G. phalkbatus 

0. lenckarti Glaus (C. edax Forbes) (Fig. 543). Body slender and 
1.3 mm. long; first abdominal segment very long, equaling the other 3; 
first antennae 17-jointed ; fifth feet 2-jointed, the second joint with 2 very 

long bristles, the outer one 

w springing from the middle of 

ia '"Mniii^^ fc^^ *^® segment, the first joint also 

JF ^ ^SjK'^ ynih, a bristle : very common 

J^ \ \ j in the Great Lakes and in all 

^ ^ * C parts of the country; Europe. 

Plg.543-C|fcZop.Z<fi.cJfcartt(Stl88w.P.Dent). ^' ^^^^^ •^"^^^ (^• 

A, fur«i and f ureal bristJeB: B fifth 544). Body 1.5 to 6 mm. long 

foot ; C, receptaculum seminls. ' ^ .^ .^ ,^ <«««*. w^e 

and variable in color, usually 
greenish; first antennae 17-jointed and very short, hardly reaching the 
hinder border of the head; fifth feet 2-jointed with a very broad basal 
joint, each joint bearing a plumose bristle. This species, which occurs also 
in Europe, is usually the commonest one in small ponds throughout the 
country. It is extremely variable, 
the 2 principal varieties being C. 
viridis var. brevispinostis Herrick, 
which tends to the larger size, and 
C. viridis var. americanus Marsh 
{C. insecttis Forbes), the smaller f ^^ •^ *■ ^ 

and more numerous one. «. ... ^ , , ,^, ,«- « «> ^ ,. 

Fig. 544 — Cyclops vMdio (Sassw. F. Deat.). 

0. bicnspidatUS Glaus (C. a, f urea and f ureal bristles; B, fifth 

^ foot; C, reeeptaculum seminls. 

pulchelltts Sars; C, forhesi Her- 
rick) (Fig. 545). Body slender and 1.3 mm. long; first antennae 17- 
jointed; fifth feet 2-jointed, the terminal joint with 2 terminal bristles; 
f urea and caudal bristles very long : very common over the entire country, 
in lakes and rivers, being one of the commonest pelagic cyclops in the 
Great Lakes; Europe. 



O. albidwi Jniine (C. signatus Herrick) (Fig. 546). Body 1.4 mm. 
long, and banded with blue or green ; first antennae 17-jointed ; fifth feet 
S-jointedy the first joint being longer than broad, the second joint with 3 
terminal bristles: common throughout the country in clear lakes; Europe. 

Fig. 546 

Fig. 545 — Cyclopt l^iouspidatut (Sassw. F. Deut). A, furca and farcal brlstlea; 
B, flftb foot; C. receptaculum seminis. Fig. 546 — Cyclopt albidua (SUasw. F. Deat.). 
A, flftb foot ; B, furca and furcal bristles ; C, receptaculum seminis. 

O. BermlatOB Fischer (Fig. 547). Body 1.4 mm. long, rather opaque; 
first antennae 12-jointed; fifth feet 1-jointed and plate-like, with 3 
terminal bristles: very conmion everywhere; Europe. 

0. phaleratns Koch (Fig. 548). Body 1.2 mm. long, brown in color 
with blue feet; antennae 10 or 11- jointed and very short, not reaching 
beyond the middle of the head: not common, but generally distributed 
in shaUow lakes and stagnant pools; Europe. 

Tj 1^ ?5 

Fig. 547 

Fig. 548 

Fig. 547 — Cyclops serrMlaius (Sttssw. F. Deut.). A, flftb foot ; B. furca of male ; 
C, receptaculum semlnls. Fig. 548 — Cyclops phaleratus (Sttssw. F. Deut.). A, flftb 
foot ; B, receptaculum semlnls ; C, furca and furcal bristles. 

2. OzTHOVA Baird. Head terminating with a beak-like process; 
abdomen with 4 or 5 segments; first antennae in part indistinctly jointed 
and with very long bristles; second antennae 2- jointed: marine. 

0. similis Claus. Beak bent down at right angles to head; caudal 
setae not plumose; body .75 mm. long and usually colorless: Woods 
Hole; Narragansett Bay; Europe. 


Minute, elongate copepods with a cylindrical body, the thoracic seg- 
ments not being much larger than the abdominal; first antennae short, 4 



to lO-jointedy in the miale modified and prehensile ; second antennae usoally 

hiramose; fifth pair of feet 1 or 2-jointed and serving as egg support in 

the female; heart absent; usually a single egg sac present: about 30 

genera and 150 species, mostly marine, usually found among vegetation. 

Key to the genera of Harpaetiddae here described : 

0} Fresh-water animals 1. Oaitthogaicptcb 

Of Marine animals. 

fti The outer branch of the first pair of legs much longer than the inner. 

2. Habpacticus 

\ The inner branch longer than the outer 3. Ectinosoma 

1. OAHTKOOAXPTTnei Westwood (Fig. 549). Thorax of 4 segments; 
head with a rostrum; first antennae with 6 to 9 joints, usually 8 in the 

female; abdomen 5-jointed in the male and 4 in the 
female: mostly in fresh water; about 6 American species. 
0. minutns Claus. Body 1 mm. long; first antennae 
8- jointed; legs 3-jointed in both branches, except the 
fifth leg, which is 2-jointed: eastern and central states; 
common, especially in muddy pools; Europe. 

2. Habfacticvs Milne-Edwards. Outer branch of 
the first leg 3-jointed, almost twice as long as the 2-jointed 
inner branch; conical rostrum present; third pair of legs 
with very strong outer branch: 12 species; marine. 

H. chelifer (0. F. Miiller). Length of male 1 mm.; 
first pair of legs with 1 spine, outer branch with 3; inner 
caudal spines longer than the cephalothorax: Atlantic 
coast; Europe. 

3. EoTnroBOKA Boeck. First antennae 5 to 7-jointed; 
first pair of legs scarcely smaller than the others and with 

the inner branch longer than the outer; fifth pair of legs 2-jointed: 12 

E. cmrticome Boeck. Length .7 mm.; color dark brown; first an- 
tennae very short, 6-jointed: common in Narragansett Bay; Europe. 

4. PABATEaABTES G. 0. Sars. First antennae 6 or 7-jointed ; second 
antennae with a 1-jointed outer branch; last pair of legs very large in 
the female, with an expansion on the basal joint. 

P. spluericnB Claus. Leng^th .35 mm.; color brown: abundant in 
Narragansett Bay; Europe. 

Family 6. EBGASILIDAE.* 

Body more or less cylindrical, somewhat like Cyclops in shape^ 
usually well segmented ; first pair of antennae 5 to 7-jointed, second 3 or 

* "North American Parasitic Copepods Belonging to the Family Brgasllldae/* by 
C. B. Wilson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 89, p. 263, 1911. 

Fig. 540 

Diagram of 



( SQssw. 

F. Dent.). 


4r-joiiited and modified to form k pair of large hooks for prehensile pnr- 
posee ; female carries a pair of long egg sacs and is parasitic, usually on 
the gills of fresh-water fishes: ahont 10 ge- 
nera and 85 species; about 15 species known 
in America. 

EnQAnLTTB von Nordmann. Cephalo 
thorax pear-shaped, fifth pair of legs rudi- 
mentary: several species. 

B. msicolor C. 6. Wilson (Fig. 550). 
Length 1.5 mm. : parasitic on the gills of the 
common bnllhead and three kinds of catfish, 

Fakilt 7. CALIOIDAE.* 
Bod; wide and flat, the segmentation 
being more or less obliterated and the female 
being larger than the male; first antennae 
short, with 2 to 3 joints; second antennae in 
form of short hooks; mouth parts form a 
suctorial heak; first 4 pairs of l^s usually 
biramoee and facilitate rapid swimming; 

fifth pair reduced or "«■ "V^'SiSSS- "*'**" 

wanting; 2 long egg 

sacs with the eggs in a single row in each : about 

35 genera and 200 species, which are parasitic 

externally on fishes. 

Key to the genera of CaUgidae here described: 

Oi A pair of snckera at froDt end of body. .1. CALiatJs 

0, No snckera present 2. LefbophtheibU8 

1. OAUen 0. F. Miiller. First and fourth 
pairs of l^s uniramose, second and third bira- 
mose; body composed of 4 parts, a cephalothorax, 
a thorax, a genital segment, and an abdomen; a 
pair of suckers at the base of the first antennae: 
17 American species. 

0. rapax Milne-Edwards (Fig. 551). Free 
thoracic segment small and narrower than the 
genital s^ment, which in the female is about 
twice as wide as the abdomen; length of female 
about 6 nun.: the commonest species, occnr* 

• Bee "Nortb Aid. Fanudtlc Copepoda BelonglDK to tbe Finillr Callgldae," etc.. br 
C. B. WUioD, Proc V. B. Nat Has., Vol. 38, p. 479, IMC ; ToL 31, p. S69, 1»07 ; ToL 
S3, p. 323, 1W8. 



Fig. 652 
ru9 edicardai 


ring on the cod, flounder^ and more than 25 other kinds of marine 

2. Lepeopkteei&vs von Nordmann. Similar to Caligus bat witii 
out the suckers: 12 American species. 

L. edwardsi C. B. Wilson (Fig. 552). End segment 
less than half as long as the genital segment and 
1- jointed; length of female aboat 7 mm.: on flounders 
.. and other fish. 


Body usually elongated and flattenedy with segmen- 
tation partially obliterated; first antennae delicate and 
usually many-jointed; second antennae in form of long 
hooks; hinder pair of legs usually reduced: about 20 
genera and 60 species, which are parasitic on fishes, 
principally selachians. 

DiCHELESTixm Hermann. First 2 pairs of l^s 
small and biramose, third pair broad and plate-like, 
fourth and fifth wanting; first antennae 8-jointed: 3 spe- 
cies, in fresh and salt water. 
D. storionis Herm. Length 2 cm.: on the gills of sturgeons; Vine- 
yard and Long Island Sounds. 

Family 9. LERNiEIDAE. 

Body very different in form at different periods; during the breeding 
period the animals swim about freely, and the body consists of a large 
cephalothorax, a thorax bearing 4 pairs of biramose legs, and an elongate 
abdomen; after fertilization the female changes into an unsegmented, 
worm-like creature with minute legs and projections at the forward end 
representing the antennae, and with a pair of egg sacs projecting from 
the hinder end; the front end is imbedded in the body of the fish on 
which it lives: about 50 species. 

1. LBliy«CA L. The pairs of legs of the swimming individuals close 
together; body of egg-bearing female twisted S-shape, with a pair of 
egg sacs. 

L. branchialis L. Length extended, 4 cm.; egg sacs convoluted: on 
the gills of the cod and other fishes. 

2. LSRH&BVIOVB Lesson. Legs of the swimming forms much re- 
duced and close together; body of adult female elongated, with long 
egg sacs. 

L. radiata Les. (Fig. 553). Length 4 cm.: on the menhaden; 




Female without segmentation and with paired blunt projections rep- 
resenting the appendages, with long egg sacs; male very small, seg^ 
mented, with 2 pairs of legs, and attach themselves to the body of the 
female: about 40 species. 

OnoHDBAOAiTTHTrs Delaroche. Second an- 
tennae form short, stout hooks: about 20 species, 
parasitic on the gills of marine fish. 

0. comntna (O. F. MuUer) (Fig. 554). Body 
of female elongate, 6 mm. long; length of male 
•3 mm. : on the gills of the Pleuronectidae. 


Fig. 558 

Fig. 604 

Fig. 553 — LemetBtiioua 
radiata (VerriU). Fig. 
654 — OhondraoanihuB 
oomutus (Bronn). 

Body consists of a head and a thorax; an- 
tennae small; first two pairs of legs long and 
forming the organs of attachment; other legs 
wanting; male minute and attached to the body 
of the female; female with 2 thick egg sacs: 
about 60 species. 

Lexvibopoda Blainville. Head somewhat smaller than the thorax, 
which is slender and not segmented : about 9 species ; in fresh and salt water. 

L. f ontinalis S. I. Smith. Length of female 4 mm. : on brook trout 

in Maine. 

Suborder 2. BRANCHIUBA. 

Parasitic copepods with a flattened body consisting of a disc-like 
eephalothorax, on the dorsal surface of which is a pair of large com- 
pound eyes, with a thorax of 3 free segments, and an unsegmented, 
2-lobed abdomen; antennae small; mouth parts consisting of a pro- 
boscis containing 2 serrate mandibles and 1 pair of slender maxillae; in 
front of the mouth is usually a poisonous sting projecting from a sheath, 
into which it can be withdrawn ; a large sucker usually present on each 
side of the proboscis and just behind it a pair of short uniramose append- 
ages, the suckers and the appendages representing the 2 branches of the 
seeond maxillae; 4 pairs of large biramose legs; no egg sacs, the eggs 
being deposited on stones and other objects; the animals leave their 
hosts occasionally and swim about freely : 1 family and about 37 species. 

With the characters of the suborder: 1 American genus. 

* See "North Am. Parasitic Copepods of tbe Family Lemceopodidae," etc., by 
C B. Wilson, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., Vol. 47, p. 565, 1915. 

t See "North Am. Parasitic Copepods of the Family Argnlldae/' etc, by C. B, 
Wflson, Proc U. B. Nat Mns., VoU 25, p. 635, 1903. 


AbovLITB 0. F. Miiller. Suckers and sting present: 27 speeies, 
parasites on marine and fresh-water flsb, usually in the branchial oavil^; 
13 American species. 

A. laticanda 8. I. Smith. Carapace elliptical, considerabl; longer 
than wide and not reaching the abdomen, which is broadly elliptical; 
length 6 mm. i on the eel, floimder, and other marine fishes ; common. 

A. catoBtomi Dana ft Herrick. Carapace ronnd, wider than long, 
and reaching the abdomen, which is round and wider than long; tei^^ 
12 mm.; color light green: on fresh-water fish, especially the sucker 
(New England). 

A. fnndnll Kroyer. Carapace wider than long and not reaching the 
abdomen, which is very long, being 3 times as long as wide; length 5 
mm.: on Fundvlw along the Atlantic coast 

A. versicolor C. B. Wilson (Fig. 565). Length 6 mm.; width 4.S 
mm.; color brilliantly variegated: in gill cavity of pickerel. 

Obdbr 3. OSTBAOODA.* 

Body without segmentation and laterally compressed, and entirely 
enclosed in a bivalved carapace. The two sides of the earapaee can 
be closed by a retractor muscle; when 
th^ open, the appendages are thrust ont 
and propel Qie animal throu^ the water. 
Seven pairs of appendages are present 
(Fig, 656,B). The two pairs of antennae 
are used for both locomotion and orienta- 
tion, the second pair being either biramose 
or nniramose. The mandibles have each a 
large 3 or 4- jointed palp; two pairs of 
maxillae are present, of which the second 
pair are usually leg-like. Two pairs of 
"•• ■""^wSH^K."""*^'^ '«g3 f-Ufw, the second pair sometimes 
being bent back and apparently of use 
only in keepmg dirt out of the shell The abdomen b short and may end 
in a projection with two terminal claws called the funea. The internal 

* "A Honograpb ol tbe Marine and FroliwBter Oatracoda," bj Q. 8. Bradj, and 
A. H. Narmau, Traai. Ro;al Dublin 8oc. Vols. 4 and C, 1889 and 1899. "SjnopilB of 
Freabwater OatracDda," b; C. H. Turner, Am. Nat., Vol. 3S. p. 8TT, ISOS. "Rep. on 
tbe V'reshwater Ostracoda of tbe II. 8.," etc., br R. W. Sbarpe, Proc V. B. Nat. Una., 
Vol. 26, p. 960, 1903. "Marine Ostraroda of Vioejard Soand and Adjacent Watera," 
br J. A. CnabiDan, Proc. Boat. 8oc Nat. Hlit, Vol. S2, p. 369. 1906. "Tbe Oetracoda 
ot tbe Han XHego Beglon, It, Littoral Forma," by C. Indar, Untv. CaL Pnb.. Vol. S, p. 
136, 1907. "Die SUinraaaerfanna Dentacblanila," Bqft tl„ UU> "Qq^cQda," t^ 
0, V. HOIIer, Das Tterreicb, iei2. 


organs are distingaished by their compactness. A heart is usually absent. 
A single median eye or a pair of eyes close together is usually present, 
but the Cypridinidae have an additional pair of large compound eyes. 
Ostracods are unisexual animalsy most of which lay eggs which they either 
attach to water plants, as in the case of Cypris, or, as in Cypridina, carry 
between the shells until they hatch. Cypris and certain other genera are par- 
thenogenetic, in certain species no males having yet been discovered. The 
Cypridae and Cytheridae are bom as nauplii, in which the bivalved shell 
is already present; the other ostracods are bom later than the naupUus 
stage. The Ostracoda live on or near the bottom of both salt and fresh 
water, where they crawl or swim actively about and feed principally on 
small animals. Entocyfhere is parasitic on the crayfish. The order con- 
tains 2 suborders and more than 1,400 species, of which the great majority 
are marine, the Cypridae being the only family which lives almost exclu- 
sively in fresh water. 

Key to the suborders of Ostracoda: 

Hi Second antennae apparently uniramose 1. Podooopa 

Oa Second antennae biramose, one branch large, the other minute ; marine. 

2. Mtodogopa 

Suborder 1. PODOCOPA.^ 

Second antennae apparently uniramose and bearing sharp bristles, 
which are of use in swimming or walking; heart absent; shell without 
antennal sinus: 2 families; mostly in fresh water. 

Key to the families of Podocopa: 

Oi The 2 pairs of thoracic feet dissimilar, second pair bent back .... 1. Cypridae 
Ot The 2 pairs of thoracic feet and the second maxillae all locomotory and 

similar 2. Cytheridae 

Family 1. CYPRIDAE. 

Shell thin ; first antennae 8-jointed, but appearing 6 or 7-jointed, and 
with long bristles; second antennae apparently uniramose, the exopodite 
being a minute plate with 3 bristles, and leg-shaped and 3 to 6-jointed, 
with several long natatory bristles on the second and also the last 
joint; usually a single eye present; manibular palp 4-jointed; first max- 
illa with a 2-jointed palp ; second maxilla small, with a short palp, which 
is prehensile in the male; first pair of legs locomotory, the second bent 
back and not locomotory; abdomen with a furca; genital organs large, 
extending into the space between the shells: about 350 species, mostly 
in fresh water. 

• See "Contribtitlons,'* etc., by B. W. Sharpe, BnU. lU. St. Lab., VoL 4, 1897. 


Key to the genera of Cypridae here described : 
a, SecoKd antcDoae with natatory brtatles. 
hi ADimala in fresh water. 
Ox Second foot tertninatea with 1 long straight and 1 short curred briatle. 

d, Caudal furca lone, each side with 2 tenniDal bristles 1. CTPBia 

d. Caudal furca rudimentaiy 2. Ctpbidopsis 

«, Second foot tennitiatea with 2 straight briatlea 3. CrPaia 

B, Aoimala marine 6. Polf ti>ctpsis 

Hi Second antennae withont natatorr bristles ; animals cannot swim. 

4. Camdoka 

1. Otpbu 0. P. Miiller. Eye ain^e, median; second antennae 

&-jointed, the 5 natatory bristles extending to the tip of the terminal 

t « 

FtK. 664 — Cvprla virtna (SOuw. F. Dent.). A, left shell j. B, dlaaram sboiHnr 
orgSDH. 1, ej'e; 2, arat antenna ; 3, secand aatenna ; 4, mandble ; G, llrst maiUla ; 
S, ■eeoDi] maxilla; T, first leg i S, second leg; 9, liver; 10, abdomen ; 11, ovarj; 18, 
sdub; 13, Intestine. 

bristles; first maxilla with a large and second maxilla with a small 
branchial plate; parthenogenetic, the malea being unknown: about S 
AmerieBD species. 

0. vinna (Jurise) (Fig. 556). Length 1.69 mm.; height .95 mm.; 
breadth .9 nun.; shell higliest jnat back of the eye and covered with short 

hairs; dorsal side bluish-black; lateral sides greenish with yellowish 
areas extending diagonally downwards from the region of the eye : cosmo- 

0. fiucata Jnrine (Fig. 557). Length 1.5 mm.; he^bt .9 mm.; 
breadth .7 mm. ; shell renif orm and greenish-brown in color with pellneid 
spots and a bluish-blach patch on either dde : cosmopolitan. 


2. OYmiDOPSXS Brady. Eye single, median; second antennae 
5-jomted, the natatory bristles extending beyond the terminal bristles; 
caudal forca rudimentary; males unknown: 11 species, 3 American. 

0. Tidna 0. F. Miiller (Fig. 558). Length .6 mm.; height .34 mm.; 
width .4 mm. ; color yellowish-green with 3 transverse bands on the back 
and sides: common everywhere in fresh water; a scavenger. 

3. 0YP2IA Zenker. Body compressed; eye single, median; second 
antennae 5-jointed, the 5 natatory bristles very long, extending far 
beyond the terminal bristles; furca normal, stout: 11 species, 7 

0. exscnlpta Fischer (Fig. 559). Length .58 mm.; height .38 mm.; 
width 26 mm.; shell thin, somewhat transparent and covered with a 
meshwork of longitudinal lines; furca bent: common in shallow ponds 
and slowly flowing, shallow streams; Europe. 

4. Oavdova Baird. Second antennae of female 
5-jointed and lacking the natatory bristles; furca 
strong: on the bottom, in the mud and sand, not 
being able to swim; 25 species, 9 American. Fig. 560 

0. acuminata Fischer (Fig. 560) . Length 1 mm. ; ^stoS?! v!15^!^ 
height .44 mm.; width .36 mm.; shell pointed 
behind, white or brown in color; the shorter bristle of the last seg- 
ment of second foot 3 or 4 times as long as the last segment: often 

common; Europe. 

5. PovTOCTPBis Sars. First antennae 7- jointed 
with bristles longest on the last joint and decreasing 
in length proximally; second antennae with 4 slender 
Fig. 561 — PonUh claws on last joint and a group of 5 bristles on the 
^'^(Cnshman). antepenultimate: several species; marine. 

P. edwardsi Cushman (Fig. 561). Shell somewhat 
triangular with rounded ends, hirsute; first antennae with 4 bristles from 
basal joint; length .85 mm.; height .47 mm.: Eel Pond, Woods Hole, in 

Family 2. CYTHEBIDAE. 

Shell usually calcareous and hard ; eyes paired but more or less con- 
fluent, sometimes wanting; first antennae 5 to 7- jointed, with bristles; 
second antennae leg-like, 4 or 5-jointed, with 2 terminal claws; with a 
basal segment bearing a long fiagellum which contains a duct from a 
poison gland; mandible with palp; first maxilla normal, second maxilla 
leg-like and similar to the 2 pairs of legs; furca rudimentary; animals 
cannot swim: about 700 species and 30 genera, almost exclusively in 
salt water; 8 American marine and 2 fresh-water genera. 


Key to the genera of Cytheridae here described: 

Oi Animalfl marine. 

&i Dorsal and ventral margms of shell not parallel 1. LozoODRoaA 

bt Margins of shell nearly parallel. 

Ot Surface of shell rough 2. Gtthereis 

Ct Surface of shell smooth 3. Pbeudoctthebetta 

a. Fresh-water animals. 

&i Animals free-swimming 4. LiMincTTHEBB 

&a Animals parasitic 6. Bntootthsbc 

1. LoxooovOHA Sars. Shell with a notch at the dorso-posterior 
angle; ends and ventral margin extended into a flattened rim; first 
antennae 6-jointed, with a group of slender setae on the last joint; sec- 
ond antennae 4-jointed: 2 American species; marine. 

L. impressa (Baird) (Fig. 562). Length .82 mm.; height .51 mm.: 
Vineyard Sound; very common in shallow water, among eel grass, 
hydroidsy etc. 

2. Ctthsbszs Sars. Shell strongly calcareous; first antennae 5 or 
6- jointed ; second antennae 4-jointedy with a short flagellum in the female ; 
first pair of feet differing on the two sides of the body in the male : 10 
American species; marine. 

C. arenicola Cushnuin (Fig. 563). Shell qaadrangnlar, the dorsal 
and ventral margins being almost parallel, 1 mm. long; .5 mm. high; sur- 
face with irregular patches, usually each with a single hair: conmion on 
sandy bottoms in Vineyard Sound. 

Fig. 662 Fig. 563 Fig. 564 

Fig. 562 — Lomoconoha imprwsa (Cushman). Fig. 563 — Ojfthereia aretUoola (Cnsh- 
man). Fig. 564 — tPgeudocyiheretta edioardH (Cushman). 

8. PsETJSOCTTKEBSTTA Cushman. Inner border of shell irregalar; 
flagellum of second antennae 3- jointed; first foot of male with a seta on 
the hinder border; left and right first feet of male very different: 1 

P. edwardsi Cushman (Fig. 564). Dorsal and ventral margins of 
sheU nearly parallel, with rounded hairy ends; length 1.2 mm.; width 
.61 mm. : Vineyard Sound in rather deep water, the commonest ostracod 
of the region. 

4. LnonoTTEEBS Brady. First antennae 5-jointed with short bris- 
tles on the outer edge; second antennae 4-jointed; mandible with large 
branchial plate: 2 American species, both in Illinois. 



L. roticolato Shaipe (Fig. 665). Length .68 mm.; height .35 mm.; 
breadth J25 mm.; color whitish; shell with conspicuous polygonal 

6. EvTOOTTSSBX* Marshall. First antennae 
6- jointed, with long jointed bristles; ^cond 
antennae 4- jointed; mandible with branchial plate: 
1 species. 

E. cambaria Marsh. Body oval, .6 muL long; 
shell thin and smooth: parasitic on gills of 
Cambarua in Wisconsin. 


FiS. B6S — Limnicvthere 

reticulata — inside 

of left shell 


Second antennae biramoee, one branch being large and many- jointed 
and usually with natatory bristles, the other minute; front margin of 
shell with a deep notch in front for the protrusion of the second an- 
tennae: 5 families, marine* 

Key to the families of Myodocopa here described : 

Os Eyes present 1. CTPsronnDAK 

Os Eyes absent 2. Haloctpbidas 


Shell with a deep notch in front (antennal sinus); 3 eyes present; 
first antennae stout, 5 to 8-jointed, bearing the large sense organ ; second 
antennae with outer branch usually 9-jointed; inner branch in male 

3- jointed; mandibular foot 5-jointed, terminating in 
a claw: 2 American genera. 

Saxszslla Norman. Shell of female without 
notch; first antennae 5-jointed, with sense organ on 
third joint in male: 2 American species. 

8. sostericola Cushman (Fig. 566). Shell 1.3 
mm. long and .86 mm. high in the male and 1.1 mm. 
long and 1 mm. high in the female, obliquely truncate 
behind : on eel grass and hydroids at Woods Hole. 

Fig. 566 

BarMella gosterieola 


1, antennal slnaa. 


Shell very thin and fiezible with notch (antennal sinus) in front, 
above which is a rostrum ; median tentacles present between first antennae ; 
eyes absent: 3 American genera, all on the Pacific coast. 

1. Halootfbis Dana. Rostrum very short, notch small ; shell short 
and high: 1 American species. 

^ See "Bntocytbere cambaria, a Parasite Ostracod/* by W. S. Marshall, Trans. 

Wis. Acad. Sd., Vol. 14, pt. 1, p. 117. 

t See "Ostracoda of the San Diego Region, I. Halocypridae," by C. Jnday, Uniy. 
Cat. Pub., Vol. 3, p. IS, 1906. 


H. pelagica Claus (Fig. 567). Shell 1.4 mm. long and 1.1 nmL 

high ; first antennae strongly curved : Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

. _ 2. OovOHCBOZA Dana. Shell elon- 

gate with well-developed rostrum and 
notch: 7 American species. 

C. magna Claus. Shell subquad- 
rangular, higher behind than in front, 
2.6 mm. long and half as high; dorsal 
margin with a depression near the mid- 
dle: widely distributed in the Atlantic 
^fXr^ir'iX^oVttf and Pacific Oceans. 

Order 4. OIBBIPSDIA.* 

Body usually of large size and enclosed in a calcareous shell ; animals 
marine and sessile as adults, living either attached to rocks, timbers, or 
seaweed, or as parasites on or in the bodies of crabs, mollusks, or other 
marine animals. A cement gland in the penultimate joint of each anterior 
antenna furnishes a secretion by means of which the barnacles are attached ; 
the parasitic Bhizocephala fasten themselves to their hosts by means of 
long root-like projections of the head. The body, like that of the 
Ostracoda, is entirely enclosed in a carapace which arises on the back of 
the head and thorax and falls in a right and left fold over the body, form- 
ing the characteristic shell. The appendages are a pair of mandibles, two 
pairs of maxillae, and six pairs of biramose and plumose thoracic append- 
ages or legs. It is these legs which project from the shell and give the 
animal its characteristic appearance. In some of the parasitic cirripeds the 
number of pairs of thoracic legs is less than 6 and in the Bhizocephala 
both they and the mouth parts are altogether wanting. The abdomen is 
rudimentary. The digestive tract in the barnacles passes straight to the 
anus at the hinder end of the abdomen; in the Bhizocephala no digestive 
tract is present, the nutriment being absorbed through root-like projections 
of the stalk which entwine the viscera of the crab on which the parasite 
is living. 

With a few exceptions all cirripeds are hermaphroditic, a condition 
which is undoubtedly correlated with their sessile habit of life. In a 
few genera of barnacles {Ibla, Scalpellum) complementary males also 
occur, which live in or near the genital openings of the hermaphroditic 
individuals. Scalpellum omatum, Ihla cumminffi, and all the species of 
the genera Cryptophialus and Alcippe, which burrow in the shell of 

^ See **A Monograph of tbe Subclass Clrrlpedla," by Charles Darwfn, 1861-1854. 
'*The Barnacles (Clrrlpedla) Contained In the Collections of the U. S. National 
Museum," by H. A. Pilsbry. Bull. 60, U. S. Nat Mus., 1907. 


snailsy lare unisexual, the male being a minute animal, consisting of little 
but genital organs, which lives a parasitic life on the body of the female. 
Cirripeds are bom as nauplii and pass through a later larval stage pos- 
sessing a bivalve shell, a pair of compound and a simple eye, called the 
eypris stage, during which they attach themselves. 

History,— The thick, calcareous shells of barnacles have always made 
them conspicuous objects, and they have been well-known animals for a 
very long time. The medieval zoologists supposed the Lepadidae to be 
the young of bemicle geese, which often appear in large flocks along 
the seashore of Europe, and this belief led them to call the animals goose 
barnacles. It was not until the beginning of the eighteenth century 
that this belief disappeared. The cirripeds were usually classified with 
the mollusks by the earlier zoologists, although Lamarck in 1802 placed 
them among the crustaceans, until J. Y. Thompson in 1830 showed the 
barnacle larva to be a. nauplius and thus definitely proved their cms* 
tacean nature. Cuvier, however, in 1830 still placed them among the 

About 500 species of Cirripedia are known, of which about 15 species 
occur on our Atlantic coast. The order contains 5 suborders. 

Key to the suborders of Cirripedia here described : 

Ot Body enclosed in a calcareous shell ; barnacles 1. Thobacioa 

Os Body without a calcareous shell ; animals parasitic. 

hx Thoracic appendages present ; animals bore into the shells of mollusks 

and cirripeds 2. Abdominalia 

5a Thoracic appendages wanting; parasitic on decapods. . . .3. Rhizogephaul 

Suborder 1. THORACICA. 

Barnacles. Body enclosed in a calcareous shell and attached at the 
dorsal side of the head, the 6 pairs of biramose, tendril-like thoracic legs 
being thrust out as the shell opens to gather in the small animals and 
organic fragments which form the food: about 4 families. 

Key to the families of Thoracica: 

Oa Body attached by a long, thick stalk. 

&x Stalk almost or quite as wide as the rest of the body, and scaly. 

1. MrrsLLinAS 

&i Stalk much narrower than body 2. LEPAnmAB 

a. No stalk present. 

&i On rocks, timbers, etc 3. Balanidab 

b. On whales 4. Cobonulidas 

Family 1. MITELLIDAE. 

Stalk with scales or spines and as wide as the rest of the body, or 
nearly so; shell consists of a large number (18 or more) of pieces; 
mostly hermaphroditic, Scalpellum omatum on the South African coast 

S6S — Dtasram 
itella (rilBbt]'). 

Pis. 070. 


and Ihla cummingi in the Philippines, however, being nnisexoal with eom- 
plementary males, and Sealpelltitn vulgare of the European seas hermaph- 
rodite also with complementary males; Lithotrya 
bores into rocks and moUusk ahella and eoral; 
about 10 species. 

1. MiTSLU Oken (Pollicipet Leach) [Fig. 568). 
Shell consists of from 18 to over 100 pieces, of which 
the carina, the terga, and the scuta are the largest; 
hermaphroditic : 8 species. 

K. poIrmeniB (Sowerby). Shell composed of 
upwards of ISO pieces arranged in several whorls, 
decreasing in size from above downwards; total length 
7 cm.: west coast of America; common. 

2. SoALmxini Leach (Fig. 569). Stalk thick, short, 
and usually scaly; shell composed of 12 to 15 pieces; 
either unisexual or hermaphroditic, with complementary 
males: 140 species; mostly in deep water. 

8. stnuni Sars. Stalk about half as loi^ as body 
and covered with imbricated scales; total length 12 mm.: 
in deep water in the gulf of Maine, and to the northward ; 

Familt 2. LEPADIBAE. 

Stalk much narrower than the rest of the body and without seaks^ 
body flattened and usually covered with a shell consisting of 5 pieMs^ 
a pair of large scuta at the stalk end of the bo^, a. 
pair of smaller terga at the opposite end and a. 
median dorsal carina which lies along the hinge, the- 
shell opening and the legs protruding on the ventral' 
side; Anelasma, which lives parasitically in the skin 
of dogfish in the North Sea, is without a shell;: 
hermaphroditic, without complementary males; about- 
7 genera and 30 species, which attach themselves: 
usually to floating objects. 

1. IiEFAl K Ooose barnacles (Fig. 570)'.. 
Scuta broad and triangular; terga and carina welt 
developed, the latter reaching posteriorly between; 
the former and alt 5 parts of the shell abutting ott 
one another: about 6 species, 5 American, all of which are found on both 

L. taidcnluris Ellis and Solander. Stalk short, not as long as tfa« 
body; plates thin and paper-like; carina bent at right angles; lengtU 

Fig. 570 

Ltpat dfiotl/era 


. scutum : 2, tersDm ; 

CimaPBDlA 361 

of ahell 4 cm.: Gosmopolitan, often very numerous, espeeially in early 
BtuDmer, on tba North American coast, sometimes as far north as the 
Bay of FoDdy, attached to seaweed and other floating objects; Pacific 
eoast north of San Francisco. 

Lk uuwifera L. Stalk about as long as the body; plates radially 
grooved; length of shell 5 cm.: cosmopolitan. 

It. anatifen L. (Fig. 570). Stalk usually as long aa 
or longer than the body; shell bluish-white; plates faintly 
striated; length of shell 5 cm. or less: cosmopolitan; on 
ships' bottoms and floating objects; the commonest species; 
more southerly tiian L. ftucieulane. 

2. OOHOHOSEUU Olfers. Carina and terga small or 
wanting; scuta narrow, the parts of the shell not touching 
one another; stalk long and almost as broad as the body, 
tapering from it to the point of attachment: usually concnoderma 
attached to ships' bottoms, bnt also to other objects; 3 (Pifabr;). 

0, Ttrgatiim (Speugler) (Fig. 571). Length, including stalk, 5 em.; 
color grayish, with 6 dark longitudinal hands: cosmopolitan. 

Pamilt 3. BALANIDAE. 
Rock barnacles. No stalk present; body enclosed in a thick cal- 
careous shell; tbis is made up of a number of pieces which are joined 
together to form a cylinder, in which the animal lies on its back with 
the 6 pairs of thoracic feet uppermost; 2 pairs of hii^ed plates, cor- 
responding to the scuta 
and tei^a of Lepaa, 
close the aperture of the 
• cylinder and, on open- 

I ing, permit the legs to 
be thrust out and sweep 
^ in particles of food : 

incrusted on rocks and 
timber^ etc, often in 
Fla. 6T2— Dtonwm of aoto.« (DanrtD). A, entire great numbers: about 7 
S5*to'ni DTO,*"""" "**"" "" ■'""■ *=^P''"f"'" genera and 75 species. 

Balahvi L. (Fig. 
572). Cylindrical shell composed of 6 thick pieces joined by thinner ones; 
basis of the shell either membranous or calcareous: about 46 species, of 
which 8 occur on the Atlantic coast. 

B. baJaaoldes (Ij.). The common barnacle. Base of shell mem- 
branous; tergum with a spur; cylindrical shell of variable shape and 


with longitudinal ridges; length up to 5 cm.: North Atlantic coast, 
extremely common between tide lines. 

B. ebnmeiu Gould. Ivory barnacle. Shell low and broad in form 
and with a smooth^ white exterior; base of shell calcareous: common 
from Massachusetts Bay to the West Indies, chiefly below low-water 
mark; often in brackish and even fresh water. 

B. crenatns Brugui^re. Shell white, up to 34 mm. high and 19 mm. 
wide; base calcareous and very thin: Atlantic coast, on stones and 
shells in deeper water, also on ships. 

B. tintiniiabulum (L.). Shell often ribbed longitudinally, reddish 
or bluish in color with a calcareous base; up to 6 cm. in diameter and 
in length: cosmopolitan, in the warmer seas, often brought to our coast 
on the bottoms of vessels; is eaten in many countries. 


Similar to the preceding family but differing in that the terga and 
scuta, although freely movable, are not hinged with one another; base 
of shell membranous: on Cetcicea; 4 genera and 7 species. 

CoBOWLA Lamarck. Shell formed of 6 principal pieces and wider 
than high; terga and scuta much smaller than the opening: 3 species, 
on whales. 

0. diadema L. Shell crown-shaped, scuta present, terga very small 
or wanting: off the New England coast. 


Body segmented, surrounded by a voluminous mantle but without 

a shell, and with only 3 pairs of feet on the hinder part of the thorax; 

unisexual; the animal bores into the shells of mollusks and cirripeda: 2 



Stalk weak and with a large chitinous disc of attachment; legs 
uniramose; mantle opens on the side; males minute, without legs, 
attached to the females: 1 genus. 

Aloippe Hancock. With the above-mentioned characters : 1 species. 

A. lampas Hancock. Length 6 mm.; bores in dead Naiica shells 
which are inhabited by hermit crabs: Woods Hole. 

Suborder 3. RHIZOCEPHALA. 

Body without segmentation, appendages, or shell and sac-shaped, with 
a stalk composed of branched thread-like projections which extend into 
the body of the host; without intestine; hermaphroditic, with comple- 


mentary males: 2 families with about 6 genera and 35 species. The best- 
known genera are Sacculina Thompson, with about 6 spedes, which live 
on decapod crabs, forming a thick sac between the abdomen and thorax, 
and Peltogaster Rathke, with about 7 species, which live on hermit crabs. 
They occur in the North Atlantic off the European coast 

Subclass 2. MALACOSTRACA^ 

Crayfish, lobsters, and crabs, and the other higher and larger crusta- 
ceans. In all, excepting the Phylloearida, the body is made up of 20 
somites, of which 5 form the head, 8 the thorax, and 7 the abdomen. The 
head is invariably fused with one or more thoracic somites, and together 
with these, in the Phylloearida and Thoracoatraca, is covered by a shield- 
like carapace (Fig. 625,5). The number of pairs of appendages is 
typically 19, of which 5 are cephalic, 8 are thoracic, and 6 are abdominal : 
the last abdominal somite, which is called the telson, bears no appendages. 
The cephalic appendages are the first and second pairs of antennae, one 
pair of mandibles, and two pairs of maxillae. The terminal portion of 
the antenna is called the flagellum (Fig. 5764I): in many cases more 
than one may be present, one of which may be a smaller or so-called 
secondary flagellum. The basal portion of the antenna is called the 
peduncle (Fig. 576,2). Hie exopodite of the second antenna is broad 
and flat in many forms and is called the antennal scale (Fig. 615, 3). 

From one to five of the anterior pairs of 
thoracic appendages are specially modified to assist 
in eating and are called maxillipeds, while the 
posterior pairs are called periopods and are used 
principally for locomotion (Fig. 576,5). The 
thoracic appendages are often prehensile and used 
for grasping, in which case the distal segments may 
be modified in one of three ways : (1) the terminal 
segment may form with the next one a forceps-like 

pinching claw or chela as in the crayfish or crab, p^g. 573 ^Diamms of 

when the appendage is spoken of as chelate (Fig. rsubcheiat^ciaV^^^ 
573, B); (2) the terminal segment may simply J^Ui^i!'''^^^ ^^^ 
bend back on the next one as in the Amphipoda, 

when the appendage is spoken of as subchelate (Fig. 573, A); (3) the 
terminal segment may be sharp and spine-like, as in the parasitic isopods. 
The abdominal appendages are called pleopods or swimmerets (Fig. 

^ See "Natural History of Bconomic Crastaceans,** etc., by R. Ratbbun, Ball, of 
U. S. Flah Com. for 1889, p. 763. "Hlgber Crastacea of New York City," by P. P. 
Panlmeier, Bull. 91 of N. Y. St. Mas., 1905. "Die SttsswaBserfi^ana Deatschlanda," 
Heft 11, 1910. 


579, 4) and have a variety of f onctions, being looomotoi7 and respiratory 
and often aerving for the attachment of the e^s or the joang. The 
appendages are all primarily binunoee except the anterior antennae, 
althoagh in the adult animal either the ezopodite or Ihe endopodite may 
be absent and the appendages thus become uniramose. The eyes are either 
pedunculate or not. The snbclass contwns 3 divisioDS and over 11,200 

Key to tbe diTi^onn of Mdlaeoatraca: 
Oi Abdomen compoaed of 8 BegmeotB : large carapace present. .1. Pbyuhcaxba. 
0, Abdomen of 7 aegmenbl or lees. 

b. Carapace absent ; thorax aBuall; with 7 free segments 2. AaTHBosTKACa 

b. Carapace present coTering a part or atl of the thorax. . .3. Thobacostraca 


Primitive Malacoatraca with a thorax bearing 8 pairs of leaf-like 
gills, a long abdomen composed of 8 s^ments bearing 6 pairs of 

appendages and with a large carap '-~ — "•- "■— ' " 

and a portion of the abdomen; eye 
species, all marine. 

Nebalu Leacb. Caudal 
fork (furca) with lateral spines: 
4 species. 

V. bipes (Fabricius) (Fig. 
674). Body slender, compressed, 
10 mm. long; genital opening on 

the last thoracic segment in the p^ B74-ffrtalto Mp<. (Pactart). 

male and on the antepenultimate 

a^ment in the female; eggs carried by the female between the thoracic 
feet: North Atlantic, in shallow water, among seaweeds; Europe. 

Division 2. ASTHBOSTRAOA. 
UalacoBtracana of small but not minute size in which the Gist 
thoracic somite (in a few cases tbe second also) is united with tbe head, 
tbe remaining 7 being free and appearing as distinct segments; no 
carapace present; abdominal somites more or less coalesced, 6 free seg- 
ments usually appearing, although the number is very often smaller; 
appendages well developed, cousbting, when all are present, of 2 pairs 
of antennae, 1 pair of mandibles, 2 pairs of maxillae, 1 pair of maxilli- 
peds (belonging to the first thoracic segment which is fused witb the 
head), 7 pairs of periopoda and 6 of pleopods; eyes in most eases ses- 

■ Ree "The Order Pbyllocarlda," etc., by A. S. PacliBn), T*eltth Ann. Rep. D. 8. 
OeoL Bnr. for reu 1878, pt. 1, 1868, p. 432. "Tbe Craitaeean NebaUa," bj A. S. 
Pmckard, Am. Nat., Vol. 16, p. 861. 


sile; the eggs are carried on the ventral surface of the thorax in a 
brood pouch formed by flat projections . of the thoracic legs and the 
young animals are like the parents in form, there being no metamor- 
phosis: 2 orders. 

Key to the orders of Arthrostraoa: 

Oi Usually laterally compreBsed; yery often jumping animals. . . .1. Amfhipoda 
a^ Usually doraoventrally flattened ; many terrestrial and many parasitic. 


Order 1. AMPHIPODA.* 

Body elongated and usually laterally compressed; first 2 pairs of 
periopodsy which are called gnathopods (Fig. 577, 3 and 4), usually" 
larger than the others and subchelate, being used for grasping the food ; 
gills on the periopods; hinder 3 pairs of pleopods usually adapted for 
jumping: about 45 families and 2,300 species, which are almost exclu- 
sively marine, many species dwelling on the seabeach, burrowing in the 
sand or living under stones or decaying vegetation; food consisting 
mostly of living or dead animals of all kinds, also of decaying vegetable 
matter; a number of species are parasitic; 3 suborders. 

Key to the suborders of Amphipoda: 

Ot Seven free thoracic segments. 

6i Head very large, with very large eyes 1. Htpebiidea 

bf Head and eyes not of unusual size 2. Gammabidea 

Os Six free thoracic segments ; abdomen very rudimentary 3. Capbkllidea 

Suborder 1. HYPEBIIDEA. 

Head and eyes both very large; maxilliped without a palp; 7 pairs 
of thoracic legs present: parasitic or living on or in pelagic animals, 
especially medusae; 4 families. 

Key to the families of Hyperiidea here described : 

Ot Usually found in medusae 1. Htfebiidae 

Oa In the tests of Salpa or Pyrosoma 2. Phbonimidae 

Familt 1. HYPEBIIDAE. 

Head large and almost entirely occupied by the enormous eyes; 
5 abdominal segments; mandibular palp present: usually found in large 
medusae; about 8 genera. 

Hypxhia Latreille. Gnathopods feeble: several species in AureUa, 
Cyanea, and other medusae; 2 species on the Atlantic coast. 

H. galba (Montagu). Periopods with very few setae; length 15 
mm. : in AureUa; coast of New England. 

* See "Synopsis of tbe Amphipoda/' by S. J. Holmes, Am. Nat., Vol. 37, p. 267, 
1908. "Tbe Amphipoda 1. Gammarldea," by T. R. R. Stebblng, Das Tierreich, 1906. 
"Tbe Amphipods of Southern New England,** by 8. J. Holmes, Ball, of U. S. Fish. Com., 
▼ol. 24, p. 457, 1904. "The Freshwater Amphipoda of North America,'* by Ada L. 
Wackel, Proc U. 8. Nat Mas., VoL 32, p. 26, 1907. 


H. mednrariun (O. F. Miiller) (Fig. 575). Gnathopods covered 

with setae on the sides; length 12 mm.: found in Cyanea and other 

jellyfish; coast of New England, north of Cape 



Head very long dorsoventrally, on the sides 

and top of which are the large eyes ; no mandibular 

Flff. 676 — Bvperia me- palp present; second antennae rudimentary in the 
duBoirum (Leunis). . , ^ , ^ 

female: about 7 genera. 

PHBOimiA Latreille. Fifth pair of periopods with large chelae; 
last thoracic segment elongated: 1 species. 

P. sedentaria (Forskal). Length 3 cm.: cosmopolitan; each indi- 
vidual living in the transparent test of Salpa or Pyrosoma. 


Seven free thoracic segments and pairs of thoracic legs; maxilli- 

ped with a 2 to 4-jointed palp : about 40 families and over 1,000 species. 

Key to the families of Gammaridea here described : 

Oi Three last abdominal somites normal and not fused together. 
&i Body compressed and not flattened. 
Oi Last iMiir of pleopods do not end in a hook. 
<fi First antennae usually shorter than second, 
et First antennae without secondary flagellum. 
fi First antennae much shorter than the second. 

ffx Two eyes present 1. Obchestiidax 

fft Four eyes present 3. Amfeuscidab 

ft First antennae but little shorter than second 4. Calliopiidak 

e. First antennae with 2 flagella, posterior periopods very broad. 


d^ First antennae nsually longer than second, or of nearly the same length. 
€i Secondary flagellum present; both pairs of gnathopods usually of 

• same sisse 5. GAMMAamAB 

et Secondary flagellum usually absent; second pair of gnathopods 

larger than the first 6. PHonnAS 

0^ Last pair of pleopods end in a hook 7. Aicphithoidab 

b. Body flattened, with small abdomen 8. CoBOPHnnAB 

Oa Last 8 abdominal somites fused with caudal stylets 9. Chblubidab 


The beach fleas. First antennae much shorter than the second; 
mandible without palp; body laterally compressed; second gnathopod 
much larger than the first: about 13 genera and 100 species, which live 
largely on the seashore and are more or less adapted to a terrestrial life. 

Key to the genera of Orcheatiidae here described : 

Oi First antennae shorter than peduncle (long basal segments) of second. 

5| Dark-colored animals found on the seabeach 1. Obchsbtia 

6i Whitish animals which burrow in the sand 2. Talorchestia 

Og First antennae longer than peduncle of second 3, Htalbixa 



1. OaOHsnu Leach. Du'k-colored amphipods in which the first 
antennae are shorter than the baaal portion (peduncle) of the second, 
and the first gnathopod is snbehelate in both sexes: 25 species. 

0. icilii B. I. Smith (Fi^. 67S). First antennae not reaching the 
tip of the pennltimate joint of pednnele of second antenna; length 14 

Fig. S7fr—Oroh««Ha oyl«» (VerrlU). 
Dele : 3, flnt Kiiatbopod ; 4, secood ed* 
, abdomen; 8, thorax. Flj. 577— OrvJlW 
■ Id Pis- 616. 

1. Oaflvlluni ot second aDtenna: 2, p«d- 
tbopod: B, perlopada; 6, Jnmplnc leg*; 
Ua paliMlm (Paulmeler). EiplBDatioua 

mm.; color brownish: AtUntic coast, under masses of decaying sea- 
weed on the shore, aa far south as Florida; when disturbed it hops and 
runs with great rapidity; Europe. 

0. paltutris* S. I. Smith (Fig. 577). First antennae reaching 
beyond tip of pennltimate joint of pednnele of the second antennae; 
length 18 mm. ; color brownish : Cape Cod to New Jersey ; on the shore of 
salt marshes; Europe. 

2. Talososzstu Dana. Whitish, lai^ am- 
phipods in which the first antennae are shorter than 
the foasal portion (peduncle) of the second and the 
first gnatfaopods are snbehelate in the male and not 
in the female: 20 species. 

T. longicomlBt (Say) (Fig. 578). Eyes large; 
second gnathopods of male very large ; first antennae 
jost reaebing to the tip of the penultimate joint of 
the second antennae; length 26 mm.; color whitish, 
bnt sometimes brown: Cape Cod to New Jersey, 
common on sand beaches, burrowing in the sand 
in the daytime. 

3. Htalklla 8. L Smith (AltorcheBtea Dana). Small amphipods 
in which die first antennae are longer than the basal portion (peduncle) 
of the seeond: 2 species. 

. * See "The 8«1t-Hanh Amphlpod. Oreheitia palnatrli," b; U. B. Bmallwood, 
CoM Spring Harbor MoDogTapba, III. IBOO. 

t See "Tbe Beach Plea ; 'Alorcbeitla longicornli," by M. E. Bmallwood, CoU 
String HaAor Hvposrapb*, I, IMS. 

Pig. 679— ratorcft«- 
Utt longicomit (Paul- 

□pod of tacne. 


H. dentafa (Say) (Fig. 579). Hinder dorsal mai^ of the first 
and second abdominal segments produced to form spines; length 6 
mm.: in fresh- water ponds in 
the eastern states, where it is 
^ one of the two common fresh- 
water species of amphipods, 
(>ammarv» fanatut heing the 

First antennae but Uttle 
shorter than the second and 
with a secondary flagellum; 
mandible with a palp; posterior periopods very broad and modified for 
digging: about 8 genera and 22 species. 

Haosiouob St. Huller. Characters as above; small rostrum 
present: 1 species. 

H. arenaiins (Slabber) (Fig. 580). Length 18 mm.; color whiti^: 
Georgia to Cape Cod; on the seabeach near 
hi^-water mark, where it burrows with 
great rapidity; Europe. 


First antennae some distance in front of 
and at least half as long as the second; 4 ns.B80--ffBM(*rt«ofwi«ri« 
eyes usually present; last 2 segments of 

abdomen fused together: a burrowing family with about 3 genera and 
40 species. 

A mp el ib ca Krdyer. Telson divided by a median cleft; 4 eyes 
present; first antennae about half as long as the second: about 25 species. 

A. macrocsphala Lilljeboi^. Postero-lateral margin of third ab- 
dominal segment elong&l«d; head usually as long as the fiiat 3 thoracic 
segments; length 15 mm.; color white: Vineyard Sound and DOrtb- 
wards, living in tubes in the mud; Europe. 

A. convreua Holmes. Head considerably shorter than the first 3 
thoracic segments; body very compressed; length 6 mm.: common from 
Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras. 

First and second antennae of nearly the same length; periopods 
rather strongly built, the last 3 pairs increasing Huccesaivety in length: 
about 15 genera and 30 species. 


Ouxionvs LUljeboTg. Both pairs of gnathopods lai^ and of 
eqaal size; terminid abdominal Begment slender and not split; 2 species, 

0. IsTiiiBcnliu (Kroyer) (Fig. 581). First and second antennae of 
nearly the same length; eyee large; length 16 mm.; color light green: 
Cape Hatteras to Greenland, in tide pools 

and among seaweed; Europe; North Pacific. 

Faiolt B. 0AHMABIDA£. 

Both poire of antennae long, the first 
antennae usually longer than the second and 

with a secondary flagellum which is a amaU "'' '^Ll'p^SSli'erSf^''***" 
side branch of it; mandible with a palp; 

both pairs of gnathopods usually of the same size; terminal pleopods 
eztenditig beyond the others: over 50 genera and 250 species, largely in 
fresh and brackish waters. 

Key to the genera of Gammaridae here described : 
«, Last 3 abdominal HegmeDts with small bunches of hairs along hinder margin. 

bi First 3 abdominal segments not extended behind 1. Gamuabob 

A, First 3 sbdominal segments each extended behind as an acute tooth. 


Oi No such bnnchea of hairs on these segments S. Elasuopus 

1. GAJauxim Fabricius. Telson deeply cleft; last 3 abdominal seg* 
ments with bnnches of small hairs: over 30 species; in salt and tiesh 
water; 6 freeh-water species in the United States. 

Fig. SS2 Fig. BS8 

Sic. B82 — Oammanu totmtia (Panlmeler). Fig. 583 — OaaimanM /ootatM (Panlmeier). 

O. locnsta (L.) (Fig. 582). First antennae longer than the second; 
secondary flagellum with about 8 joints; length 20 mm.; color greenish: 
Arctic Ocean to New Jersey, being very common under stones and in 
aeaweed along the seashore; Europe. 

O. annnlatiu S. I. Smith. First antennae shorter than the second; 
length 15 mm. ; no lateral hairs on the fourth abdominal s^ment : Long 
Island Sound to Bay of Fundy, 


Q. fasciatni Say (Fig. 583). First snd second antennae of about 
the same leu^h; length 15 nun.; color whitish: common in fresh-wat«r 
ponds and streams, it and Hyalella dentata being the common freah-wattf 
amphipods in the eastern states. 

2. CAUKOOAlOCABira Stebbing. Telson deeply cleft; last 3 abdom- 
inal segments with bunches of small hairs and first 3 each with a dorsal 
backwards projecting spine: about 9 qiecies. 

0. mDCTonatiu (Say) (Fig. 684). Antennae of the sam« length; 
length 15 mm.; color greenish: Cape Cod to Florida, common among 
tigae and in brackish water. 

FlK. S84 Els. BSB 

Fit. BB*~Cariiiogammarut miteronatut (Paalmeler). gif, BS.*! — glatamput Ivvto 

S. Elasmopitb Costa. First antennae twice as long as the second; 
first 3 abdominal segments very large, last 3 small and bent beneath 
them: about 9 species. 

R l«Tls (S. I. Smith) (Fig. 585). Last 3 pairs of abdominal ap- 
pendages short and thick; length 10 mm.; color brownish; first gnathopods 
small, second large: Cape Cod to New Jersey, nnder rocks and among 
seaweeds near low-tide mark. 

Faiclt 8. PHOTroAE. 

First antennae with or without a small secondary flagellnm and longer 
than the second; mandible with a long palp; second gnathopods larger 
than the first : 10 genera and about 40 species. 

LxPTOOKXlBTrB Zaddach (PtUochetnu Stimpson). Terminal pleopods 
biramose; both pairs of gnathopods large and chelate; first antennae with 
a minute secondary flagellum: 6 species. 

L. piagiiu Stim. Body thick, and variegated in color; length J3 
mm.: New Jersey to Labrador; eomnon pn muddy bottoms. 



T^ist flnteimae with or without eecondary flagellum and about the 
same length as the second; gnathopods la:^) the second being larger 
than the first; last pair of ah- 
dominal appendages end in 
books: about 6 genera and 30 

AltPRlTHoif Leach. First 
antennae without secondary flagel- 
Imn; head without rostrum; man- 
dible with palp: 17 species. iDg. SS6 — Amptutliot vaMo (Pmalmeler). 

A. vallda S. I. Smith (Fig. 
586). Antennae of abont equal length and less than half as long as 
body : New Jersey and Long Island Soond nnder - rocks and among 

A. longimana Smith. First antennae as long as the body; gnathopods 
stout and elongate; length 9 mm.: 
common; Cape Cod to New Jersey, 
among eel-grass. 


Body depressed and abdomen 
small; first antennae with or without 
secondary flagellnm ; second antennae 
very large: about U genera and 45 
species; tube-dwelling. 

1. OoaoFBinx Latreille. Mandibular palp two- 
jointed; no secondary flagellnm; second antennae enor- 
moosly developed in the male; gnathopods feeble: 12 

0. cylindilcnm (Say) (Fig. 587). Length 5 mm.; 
color light, sometimes with spots: Maine to New 
Jersey, living free or in tubes in the mnd or in 
sponges, etc. 

2. Umioola Say. Body depressed; first antennae 
with secondary flagellnm and a little longer than the 

second; telson lamellar, rounded: 8 species. Fig. CSS 

U. Irrorata Say (Fig. 5S8). Color red, mottled (P&aimel«r). 

with white; length 15 mm.; body broad; rostmm dis- 
tinct; Labrador to New Jersey; common on sandy or rocky bottoms, 
living in tabes, often not of its own constmction. 



Familt 9. OHELUBIDAE. 

Body cylindrical; first antennae short, with secondary flagelliim; 
second antennae longer than the first and with blade-like flagellum; 4 
abdominal segments; 3 pairs of caudal stylets present, the last pair 
being nearly as long as the rest of the body, but shorter in the female: 
1 genus. 

Cheltt&a Philippi. With the characters above given: 1 species. 

C. terebrans Pliil. Length 6 mm.: New England coast, boring in 
submerged timbers, and often doing great damage; Europe. 

Suborder 3. CAPRELLIDEA. 

But 6 free thoracic segments ; abdomen very rudimentary ; body very 
elongate : 2 families and about 65 species. 


Body slender and cylindrical; first antennae longer than the second; 
gills confined to third and fourth free thoracic segments, on which 

the legs may be wanting: 2 genera, which live among 
seaweeds and on hydroids, holding on by the 3 pairs of 
long posterior thoracic legs, with about 50 species. 

1. Oapbella Lamarck. Five pairs thoracic legs; 
mandible without a palp; gills and no legs on the second 
and third free thoracic segments; abdomen reduced to a 
small knob bearing a pair of rudimentary legs in the 
male: many species. 

0. geometrica Say (Fig. 589). Head with an ante- 
riorly projecting spine; antennae of nearly the same 
length; length 15 mm.; color variable: Cape Cod to 
Virginia; very conmion. 

2. JEdZVEiXA Broeck. Like Caprella but with a palp 
on the mandible: several species. 

A. longicomis Eroyer (Fig. 590). 
First pair of antennae twice as long 
as the second; body either smooth or 
spiny; length 16 mm.; color variable: 
Labrador to New Jersey; Europe. 



Fig. 589 

Fig. 590 — XgineUa Umffioormit 

Order 2. ISOPODA.* 

Body usually flattened dorsoventrally and with gills on the abdomi- 
nal appendages; the anterior pairs of pleopods usually more or less 

* See "Synopsis of North American Isopoda," by Harriet Richardson, Am. Nat., 
Vol. 34, pp. 207 and 295. "Monograph of the Isopods of North America/* bj 
Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., No. 54, 1905. 


lamellar and funetioning as gills or lungSi while the last pair, which 
are called uropods (Fig. 602) and have a distinct ezopodite and endopo- 
dite, are elongated and function as feelers or as swimming fins: about 
IS families and over 2,300 species, which are small, creeping or swim- 
ming animals, most of them marine, living under stones along the sea- 
shore and among seaweed or parasitic on fish; a few live in fresh water, 
while several very familiar species are terrestrial. 
Key to the families of laopoda here described : 

Oi First pair of legs chelate 1. Tanaidak 

Ob First pair of legs not chelate. 

fri Uropods lateral. 

Ci Uropods with telson forming a caudal fin ; pleopods mostly natatory. 

di Exopodite of uropod arches over base of telson 2. Anthubxdai 

1^ Exopodite of uropod does not thus arch. 

€^ Abdomen composed of 6 segments. 

/t Both branches of uropod well developed. 

ffi Not parasitic ; body more or less cylindrical ; eyes usually small. 

^ ^ 3. CiBOLAinDAn 

fft Parasitic on fish. 

i^ Body broad and flattened ; first 3 pairs of legs prehensile. .4. ^oidae 

h^ Eyes large ; legs all prehensile 5. Ctmothoidae 

/t The 2 branches of uropod not of same length, the exopodite being 

minute ; animal bores in wood 6. LiMNORnoAE 

€t Abdomen composed of 2 segments 7. SPHABOiaoAB 

Ot Uropods arch over the other pleopods, covering them 8. Idotheidab 

h^ Uropods terminal. * 

C| Animals aquatic. 

dx First antennae much smaller than the second, but not minute. 

«! Animals not parasitic. 

fi Fresh-water forms 9. Asvujdas 

/, Marine forms 10. Janibidak 

6t Animals parasitic on decapods 15. Boptbioab 

d. First antennae minute and not easily seen 13. Liotdidas 

Ot Animals terrestrial (occasionally aquatic). 

di Cannot roll itsdf into a ball (except CyUsticuB convestug), 

6| End segment of abdomen pointed or angular 11. ONiscmAB 

Ct End segment truncate or indented ... 14. TsiCHONiscmAl 

di Can roll itself into a ball 12. ABMADiixmmAB 

Family 1. TANAIDAE. 
Body more or less cylindrical, with 6 free thoracic 
segments; first pair of legs chelate; abdominal append- 
ages, when present, natatory ; gills on the thoracic append- 
ages: about 16 American species; marine. 

1. Tavais Audouin and Edwards. Only 3 pair of 

•^ ^ Fig. 591 

pleopods present; uropods uniramose and short: 5 Amer- TanaUcavoUni 
: . ' (Harger). 

lean species. 

T. cayolini Milne-Edwards (Fig. 591). Body slender, abdomen with 

5 segments; uropods 3-jointed; length 4 mm.; width 1 mm.: Greenland 

to Long Island Sound ; in shallow water on piles and among seaweed. 



Fig. 592 




2. LXPTOOKSLA Dana. Male with large, female with small chelae; 
5 paiiB of pleopods present; uropods biramose; eyes present: 5 American 

L. savignyi (Kroyer) (Fig. 592). Chela of male elongated; ezopo- 
dite of uropods composed of 1, endopodite of 6 s^^ments; 
length 2 mm.; color white: New Jersey to Cape Cod; 
among seaweed and at the surface; Europe. 

Faicilt 2. ANTHUBIDAE. 

Body cylindrical and elongate, with 7 free thoracic 
segments; abdomen relatively short, with its anterior 
somites often fused together; uropods lateral, large, and 
expanded, the outer branch (ezopodite) arching over the 
telson: about 15 species, 9 American. 

Otatkitxa Norman and Stebbing. First 5 abdominal 
segments fused together so as to resemble an eighth 
thoracic ; maxillipeds 3- jointed : 1 American species. 

0. carinata (Kroyer) (Fig. 593). Both pairs of 
antennae short and thick and with few hairs; length 18 
mm.; breadth 2 mm.; color brownish or yellowish: New 
Jersey to Greenland ; on sand and mud bottoms in shallow 
water and among seaweed; Europe. 

Familt 3. CntOLANIDAE. 
Body semicylindrical and broad; abdomen composed Fig. 693 

•^ "^ Cvathura 

of 6 segments; uropods lateral, forming with the telson a carinata 

/ o (Harger). 

caudal swinmiing fin: 23 American species. 

OiBOXJUTA Leach. First 3 paii*s of legs prehensile, last 4 pairs 
ambulatory; first and second pair similar to each other: 
14 American species. 

0. conchanun (Stimpson) (Fig. 594). Length 23 mm.; 
breadth 8 mm.; telson triangular; base of uropods is 
extended posteriorly beneath the mai^in of the telson 
two-thirds of its length: South Carolina to Nova Scotia 
on muddy and sandy bottoms in shallow water, feeding 
on the blue crab and other animals. 

Fig. 594 




Family 4. .SGIDAE. 

Body broad and more or less flattened ; head short and 
broad, usually with 2 very large eyes on its upper surface; first 3 pairs 
of legs prehensile; uropods lateral and forming a caudal fin with the 
telson : parasitic on the skin of fish ; 30 American genera. 



iEoA Leach. Body elliptioal in outline ; basal segments of first anten- 
nae expanded and lying entirely in front of the head : 14 American species. 

A. psora (L.). Salve bug (Fig. 595). Length 16 mm.; breadth 10 
nun. : parasitic on the skate, cod, halibut, and other fishes; 
nsed as a salve by fishermen; Long Island Sound to 
Greenland; Gulf of Mexico; Europe. 

Faiolt 5. CTIiOTHOIDAE. 

Head triangular, with laiige eyes, and extending over 
the base of the short antennae; all 7 pairs of legs pre- 
hensile, terminating in hooks: parasitic on fishes; over 
100 species, 27 American. 

LrvovsOA Leach. Body elliptical, more or less 
asymmetrical; first pair of antennae widely separated at the base: 5 
American species. 

L. OYalis (Say). Length 21 mm.; width 13 mm.: 
parasitic on the gills and in the mouth of the bluefish and 
occasionally of other fishes along the Atlantic coast south 
of Cax>e Cod, and in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Fig. 595 
^ga p9ora 




Body fiattened and with parallel sides; can roll itself 
into a ball; antennae short; eyes lateral; uropods lateral; 
legs ambulatory: 1 genus. 

LmKO&ZA Leach. With characters of family : 1 species. 
L. lignonm (Rathke). Gribble (Fig. 596). Length 3 mm.; width 
1^ mm. : Florida to Labrador ; Europe ; Pacific* coast ; makes burrows 
about 12 mm. deep in submerged timbers, causing 
g^at damage to docks, etc.; very common. 


Body short, oval, and convex, and in many species 
can be rolled into a ball; but 1 abdominal segment 
besides the large telson; inner branch of uropod 
immovable: 30 American species. 

Sphjbboka Latreille. Uropods large, lateral, the 
2 branches being of equal length, the outer margin of 
the exopodite being denticulate; legs ambulatory: 3 
American species. 

S. qnadridentatum Say (Fig. 597). Body can be rolled into a ball; 
length 8 mm.; width 4 mm.; color dark and variable: Florida to Cape 
Cod; under stones between tide lines. 

Fig. 597 





Family 8. IDOTHEIDAE. 
Bod; more or less broad and flattened ; often elongate; abdominal aeg- 
ments partially or completely fused; uropoda lateral, arching over and eoV' 
ering the other pleopods under the abdomen : about 90 species, 40 Americaii. 
Key to the genera of Idotheidae here described: 

C, Side of head cleft and extending beyond eyes 2. CnmiNnKA 

d. Side of head not extended in dorsal view. 
B, Second antennae with a long flagellum ; abdomen of aereral aefinents. 

1. Idothka 
h. Second antennae without a long flagellnm ; abdomen a single legment. 

c. Second antennae not much longer than head 3. Bdotka 

o. Second antennae verj much longer than head 4. BaiCHSOSKixa. 

1. Idotsea Fabricius. Second antennae with a long flagellum and mueli 
larger than the first; legs all alike; abdomen composed 
of 3 complete and 1 partial segment: 8 American species. 
I. baltica (Pallas) (/. manna L.; I. irrorata Say) 
(Fig. 598). Length 20 mm.; width 7 mm.; color often 
green, but very variable; abdomen ending in three projec- 
tions: Nova Scotia to North Carolina; cosmopolitan; oa 
seaweed, in sand or at the surface; common. 

I. phosphorea Earger. Length 21 mm.; width 7 mm.; 
088 color variable; abdomen tapering to a point; coast of 

J*>'g™ baiuea New England, among rocks and seaweed. 

L metallica Bosc (/. robitata Eroyer). Length 18 
mm,; width 8 mm.; abdomen truncate: entire Atlantic coast; coamo- 
politan; often on floating seaweed. 

2. OsiKLDOTXA Harger. Second antennae usually with a short fla- 
gellum, sides of head cleft at the eye and extending beyond it; flrst 3 
pairs of legs prehensile, last 4 pairs ambulatory; abdomen composed of 
4 segments : 2 species. 

0. c»ca (Say) (Fig. 590). Body ovate, with a long, pointed telson; 
length 8 mm.; width 4 mm.; antennae of nearly equal length; eyes small, 
dorsally placed: Florida to Nova Scotia; at the surface or in the sand. 


3. EooTSA Gu^rin. Second antennae of 4 to 6 segments and short ; 
abdomen composed of a single segment; legs prehensile: 3 species. 

£. triloba (Say) (Fig. 600). Length 7 nmi.; width 3 mm.: New 
Jersey to Maine; under stones and decaying algae, in muddy places 
along the shore. 

4. Ebiohsovslla Benedict. First antennae short; second antennae 
long and composed of 6 segments; abdomen composed of a single seg- 
ment; legs ambulatory: 3 American species. 

£. fUiformifl (Say) (Fig. 601). Length 8 mm.; width 3 nmi.: At- 
lantic coast, south to Cape Cod ; in sand and among algae in shallow water. 

Familt 9. ASELLIDAE. 

Body flattened, with 7 free thoracic segments, and with the ab- 
dominal segments forming a single, shield-like plate; abdominal append- 
ages exclusively branchial and numbering 4 or 5 pairs; uropods terminal 
and biramose: principally fresh-water animals; 17 American species. 

Key to the genera of Asellidae here described: 

Os Eyes present. 

hx Last 6 pairs of legs uniungaiculate. •••• 1. Asellus 

hi Last 6 pairs of legs biunguiculate 2. Mancasellus 

Og Eyes absent ; cave-dwellers 3. Gacidotba 

1. AasiLlTB Geoffrey. Abdomen about as broad as long; legs uniun- 
gxdeulate; mandible with a palp: 7 American species; in fresh water. 

A. oommunis Say (Fig. 602). Length 15 mm.; breadth 5 mm.; first 
antennae short, second long; first pair of legs prehensile and subchelate, 
the others ambulatory, the last 3 being longer than the others: eastern 

United States; the conmionest 

fresh-water isopod, occurring ^^CflBHiSBBB91Sr''''*><wf 
generally among vegetation. ^^ ^^^ \^^i 

2. Mavoasellits Harger. c 
Abdomen about as broad as 
lone; mandible without a palp; ^^^r 602--Diagrani of AseUuBcommuMB, 

Avugy uM»uvtAM«v *TAvuvu» a F«'F9 showing the internal organs (McMurricb). 

last 6 pairs of legs biun- J» second antenna; 2, first antenna ; 3, 
«»•»» w ^MAJ-o V* x^go i/*« brain; 4, stomach; 6, mandible; 6. maxll- 

guiculate: 6 species; in fresh ttn^.'io' i?pod?^nf kifs. *"^*'** ». mtes- 

M. macronms Garman. Length 12 mm.; breadth 5 mm.; first pair 
of legs subchelate, the others ambulatory ; side of the head cleft near the 
eye: central United States east of the Mississippi, often in caves. 

3. Ojboidotea Packard. Body elongate and narrow; eyes wanting; 
abdomen much longer than broad: 4 species; in caves and similar places. 

0. stygia Pack. Length 10 nun.; width 2 mm.; first pair of legs 
prehensile, the hand being armed with 2 long and 3 short teeth: central 
United States; in caves and deep wells. 


Familt 10. JANIBIDAE. 

Body flattened and similar to the Aaellidae, with the side of the head 
usnally expanded under the eye; first pair of abdominal appendages in 

the female form a single large opercular plate, and 
in the male together with the second pair form 
a compound operculum: 20 American species; 

1. JjE&A Leach. First pair of antennae veiy 
small; nropods very small: 2 American species. 
J. marina (Fabricius) (Fig. 603). Body 
oval, 5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, and very variable 
in color, usually being mottled gray; legs ambu- 
latory and triunguiculate : coast of New England; 
^^* ^CBtSmt) ******* Europe ; common between tide lines under stones 

and seaweeds. 
2. JAvntA Leach. First pair of antennae and uropods well devel- 
oped; side of head not expanded, or but slightly so: 5 American species. 

J. alta (Stimpson) (Fig. 604). Length 7 nun.; 
width 2 mm.; legs biunguiculate : Atlantic coast from 
Nova Scotia to Virginia, from low-water mark to 500 

Family 11. ONI8CIDAE. 

The sow bugs. Terrestrial isopods with an 
elliptical body, which is more or less flattened and 
cannot be rolled into a ball (except Cylisticus con- 
vexus) ; first antennae minute; second antennae long; Fig, 904 — Jamim 
thorax with 7 and abdomen with 6 free segments; 
legs ambulatory; 5 pairs of pleopods are respiratory plates, the second 
pair in the male terminating in a pair of long slender stylets; uropods 
long and terminal: common under logs, etc., and in other dark, damp 
places on the land; 200 species, 30 American. 

Key to the genera of Oniscidae here described : 

o, Antennae ending with 3 short segments forming the flagellnm. 

bi Abdomen not abruptly narrower than thorax 1. Onisgub 

hf Abdomen abruptly narrower than thorax 2. PHiLOSOia 

0, Antennae ending with a flagellum of 2 short segments. 
fti Abdomen not abruptly narrower than thorax. 

0i Body convex, can be rolled into a ball 8. Gtubticus 

0^ Body flattened, cannot be rolled into a ball 4. Pobcbxijo 

hg Abdomen abruptly narrower than the thorax 5. Mbtqpoivobthus 

1. OMiBOrre L. Body broad, flattened, with a granulated or tuber- 
culated surface; antennae ending with 3 short segments; side of head 
extended beneath the eyes: 1 species. 



0. anlliu L. (Fig. 605). Length 16 nun.; width 8 mm.; color deep 
slate, spotted with white, and white along the lateral edges : eastern and 
central etatea; Europe; common oniler bark of fallen 
trees, logs, stones, etc. 

2. PmLOBOU Latreille. Second antennae ends 
with 3 ^ort segments; side of head not extended 
under the eyee ; abdomen abrnptly narrower than the 
thorax: 7 American species. 

P. TitUto Say (Fig. 606). Length 8 mm.; width 
4 nun.; color usually dark brown with 2 darker 
median stripes: along the seashore from New Jersey 
to Cape Cod, nnder stones and hoards above high tide. 

S. OtUSTIOITS Schnitzler. Body rather elongate, _ „, „ , 
smooth, very convex, and able to be rolled into a atauiu (Paulmeler). 
ball; head with lateral lobes; second antennae long, 

ending with 2 short segments; nropods long: 1 Amer- 
ican species. 

0. convexns (DeQeer) (Fig. 607). Let^h 12 mm.; 
width 5 mm.; color brown or dark gray, spotted with 
white: eastern and central states; Europe; under logs 
and stones in rather dry places. 

i. PoBOKLLio Latreille. Body oval, flattened; head 
with lateral lobes; second antennae long, ending with 2 
short segments; nropods long; respiratory plates of 
either the first 2 or all 5 pairs of pleopods provided 
with tracheae: 6 American species. 
P. rathkel Brandt. Body granulate, 10 mm. long and 5 mm. wide, 
yellowbh-brown in color with numerous black folotehes and two lateral 

FI»eOT FlK.608 Fig.eoe 

Fig. 60T — OyUttlcut DonreTHa (pHulmeler). FXg, 608 — PorceUlo tcaier (Padliqder). 
Fig. eOB — MetopoimrthHM pnilnonM (paulioeler). 

and usually a median light stripe: eastern and tsentral states; Europe; 
common under boards, stones, etc. 


P. scftbtt Lat. (Fig. 608). Body covered with miniito tubercles, 12 
mm. long, 7 mm. wide, of unifonn black color, without spots or blotches: 
entire America; eoemopolitan; under bark, logs, etc. 

P. IsTil Lat. Body smooth or minutely granulate, 15 mm. long, 8 
mm. wide, dark gray in eolor with 2 wavy median lighter bands: entire 
America; cosmopolitan. 

5. UsTOFOXOSTKini Budde-Lnnd. Body oval, flattened, withont lat- 
eral lobes; second antennae long, ending in 2 short segments; abdomen 
abruptly narrower than thorax; uropods long: 4 American species. 

H. pminoBUS (Brandt) (Fig. 609). Length 9 mm.; width 4 nun.; 
eolor reddish-brown in the hinder and lateral portions, and lighter in 
the other portions: entire America; cosmopolitan; under logB, ete. 


Body convex and able to be rolled into a ball; first antennae minute; 
second antennae short; oropods short and not extending beyond the 
terminal segment: terrestrial; 6 genera 
and 23 American species. 

AuusrLLisiiTic Brandt. Pill bugs. 
With the characters of the family; ezopo- 
dite of uropod large and lamellar; ter- 
minal segment triangular: 2 species. 

A. TTiUare (LatreiUe) (Fig. 610). 
Length 16 mm.; width 8 mm.; color black 
or dark gray with rows of indistinct spots; entire America; cosmo- 
politan: under stones, etc., in damp places. 


Body elliptical or elongate; first antennae minnte; second antennae 
long, with numerous small terminal segments; buccal 
mass prominent; uropods long: marine; 2 genera and 
12 American species. 

LiQTSA Rafinesque. The two branches of the 
uropods of about equal length and styliform: 
American species. 

L. exotica (Kouz) (Fig. 611). Body eloi^te, 48 
mm. long (with uropods), 14 mm. wide: Florida to fIk.811 

North Carolina; California; cosmopolitan; among ^iBthliSKn^r 
rocks and on piles and docks; common. 

L. oceanlca (L.). Body oval, 22 mm. long (with nropods), 8 mm. 
wide, and with a granotate surface: New England; Europe. 

leoonn antennae 


Fahily u. tbichonibgedae. 

Body elliptical, elongate; first antennae minnte; second antennae end- 
ing with 3 or 6 small Begments; abdomeo not pointed behind, bnt truncate 
or indented; the 2 branches of each nropod of abont the same length: 4 
American species; terrestrial or in fresh water. 

TsiOHOKiBOiTi Brandt. Head rounded in front; eyes small, composed 
«ach of 3 ocelli; second antennae long; abdomen abruptly narrower than 
thonuc: 2 specie. 

T. pnaillns Br. (Fig. 612). Length 3 mm.; width 1 
mm.; body smooth: entire North America; Europe; 
under mosa, in the woods. 

Family 15. BOPTEIDAE. 
Parasites of decapods; male and female animab 
dissimilar, the female being asymmetrical and broad, and 
sometimes much deformed, the male more slender and 
symmetrical; antennae rudimentary; legs prehensile: 35 
species, 29 American. 

1. PmOB0»raim Qiard and Bonnier. Segments of y^^i^ 
abdomen distinct in female, but fused, except at the iHicEardlion) 
edges, in the male; 5 pairs of abdominal appendages; 

nropods wanting: parasites in the gill chamber of decapods; 5 American 

P. pandaUcob (Packard). Body (of female) 5 mm. long, white in 
color with black markii^; the female lies against the body of the host, 
the ventral side of the thorax having the brood pouch with the eggs, 
the much smaller male is usually found clinging to the female: entire 
Atlantic coast, on Palamonetes, prodncmg lai^ tumors under the 

2. PxBTXim Rathke. Body of female very asymmetrical, one side 
being greatly swollen; 5 abdominal segments; the legs of the longer aide 
of the body wanting, except on the first thoracic segment, on the shorter 
aide very small; antennae and uropods rudimentary; abdomen of male 
composed of a single triangular segment, without appendages: parasitio 
OD the abdomen of decapods ; 1 species. 

P. abdomlnalis (Eroyer). Body of female 9 mm. long, 7 mm. wide; 
of male 3 mm. long and 1 mm. wide : circnmpolar, extending to Vineyard 
and Pi^et Sounds ; on the abdomen of Pandatua and other prawns. 

3. BoTTKon>»l Stimpson. Body of female somewhat asymmetrical, 
with 6 abdominal segments and 7 pairs of legs, without abdominal ap- 
pendages; abdomen of male forming a sii^^le piece without appendages; 
antennae rudimentary: 1 species. 


B. hippoljtes Kroyer. Body of female 8 mm. long and 7 mm. wide; 
of male 3 mm. long and 1 mm. wide: circumpolar, extending to Boston 
and to Paget Sound; on the gills of Pandcdus and other prawns. 

Division 3. TH0BACO8TBA0A.* 

Malacostraca often of large size in which 3 or more of the thoraeie 
somites are fused with the head, and the cephalothoraz thus formed is 
covered with a carapace; projecting forwards from the anterior end of 
the carapace in most species is the spike-like rostrum; eyes at the end of 
movable stalks or peduncles (except in the CunMcea) ; the sixth pair of 
pleopods (uropods) together with the last body segment (telson) forms, 
except in the case of the crabs, a swimming fin, by striking which vigor- 
ously beneath the body the animal propels itself rapidly backwards; 
the eggs and sometimes the you^g usually carried beneath the abdomen 
attached to the pleopods, the young in most forms passing through a 
metamorphosis before attaining the form of the parents: 4 orders. 

Key to the orders of Thoracoatraca: 

Ot Carapace does not cover the entire thorax. 

&x Thoracic appendages all biramose 1. Schizofoda 

5^ Thoracic appendages not all biramose. , , 
e^ Abdomen large and wider than the small cephalothorax . . .2. Stomatofoda^ 

Ca Abdomen narrow 3. Gumacba 

Us Carapace covers the entire thorax 4. Dsgapoda 


Body elongate and usually more or less transparent and with a thin 
carapace which covers nearly all of the thorax; the 8 thoracic feet may 
all support gills and are biramose, the anterior 2 pairs being slightly 
modified to form maxillipeds; eggs carried beneath the thorax as in the 
Arthrostraca; young bom in some species as nauplii: 3 families and 
about 300 species, mostly marine; 11 American species. 

Family MYSIDAE. 

No gills present; first 2 pairs of thoracic appendages (maxillipeds) 
shorter than the following 6; abdominal appendages often rudimentary 
in female; the endopodites of the uropods bear each an auditory sac; 
2 to 7 pairs of marsupial plates beneath the thorax within which the 
young develop: 21 genera and 90 species, mostly marine. 

1. Mysis Latreille. Body laterally compressed; fourth pair of ab- 
dominal appendages in male are long stilets; antennal scal^ long: often 
in swarms in the North Atlantic; 23 species, 4 American, 1 in fresh 

• See 'Tbe Stalk-eyed Cmstaceans of the Atlantic Coast,'* etc., by 8. I. Smith, 
Tnuis. Conn. Acad., VoL 5, p. 27, 

8T0MA.T0P0DA 383 

K. itendapla 8. I. Smith (Fig. 613). Body i^lindrieal; carapace 
with a short, blunt rostram, and with its lower anterior margin extended 
to form a sharp tooth ; body bends between the flnt and second abdoitt- 
inal segments ; length, male, 
23 mm., female, 30 mm.; 
color whit«, with black stel- 
late spots: coast of New 
England and eoathwards, 
often common in eel grass. 

H. rellcta Lovfin (Fig. 614). Body slender, 18 u 

in Lakes Superior and Michigan; Europe and 
Asia, in laige fresh-water lakes. 

S. HXIBBOHTBIS S. I. Smith. First pair of thoracic 
l^;s larger than the others 
and ending each with a 
claw; antennal scale very 
fonall; abdominal append- 
ages mdimentary in both 
Dent). •*, , J, , 

„ _, , -, jf second male and female: one 

; 3, ■eeond anteDiu. 


E. formosa Smith. Length of male 6 mm., of female 8.5 mm.; 
females rose-colored; malea colorless: coast of New 
England, in eel grass or often in dead mollusk shells, 
in swarms. 

Body terge, with a small flat carapace which does 
not cover the posterior thoracic somites, with a broad 
elongated abdomen bearing gills on the appendages; 5 
pairs of maxillipeds, the second pair being much larger 
than the rest and subchelate, and 3 pairs of periopods; 
heart long and tnbtilar; liver, testes, and ovaries extend- 
ing the length of the thorax and abdomen, the testes 
being n pair of delicate tubes and the ovaries a broad 
median band: 10 genera and about 90 species, all 

marine; often nsed for food. of secood anteniu; ; 

^^ 1 -^ ■ 4^ second maillll- 

Sotmu Fabrieius. PHve posterior thoracic ged : fSjperiopodi ; 
samites not covered by tbe carapace, of which the first 
is very small and the second has a lateral spur on each side and the last 
3 bear the periopods : 21 species. 

FU- 610 — Saiinta 

mps<a (PBnl- 

leler). 1, flntan- 



S. empusa Say (Fig. 615). First antennae with 3 flagella; second 
shorter and with a very large flat scale (exopodite); length up to 25 
cm.; color greenish-gray: Florida to Cape Cod, in shallow barrows in 
the mad, between tide lines and in shallow water, each barrow asaally 
having 2 or 3 openings a few feet apart; often very common. 

Obder 3. OUMAOEA. 

Body small, with a small carapace which does not cover the hinder 
4 or 5 thoracic somites, and with a long slender abdomen; first anten- 
nae short; second antennae short in the female and long in the male; 
mandibles without palp; 2 pairs of maxillipeds and 6 pairs of periopods 
present, 2 to 5 pairs of the latter being biramose (small exopodite pres- 
ent) ; the pleopods, with the exception of the uropods, wanting in the 
female, while in the male 2 to 5 pleopods may be present; a sin^e pair 
of gills on the first pair of maxillipeds; eyes close together and sessile or 
wanting ; the large eggs are earned by the female in a brood poach ander 
the foremost free thoracic segments and the hinder part of the can^ 
pace; the yoang animals are like the parents in appearance, but are 
vdthout the last pair of thoracic and all the abdominal 1^8 when bom: 
9 families and aboat 300 species, all marine and living mostly in the sand 

and mud. 


With the characters given above: 8 American genera. 

DiABTTLiB Say. Seven abdominal segments present, the telson 
being well develop)ed and long and pointed; a single eye or none; the 
3 anterior pairs of periopods in the female 
and the 5 in the male biramose: numerous 
species, several American. 

D. qnadrispinoBa G. O. Sars (Fig. 
616). Length 10 mm.; body fiesh color or l^- Ol6-i>i«tjlij^^«adri.piiioa. 

brownish; a short spine projects from the 

carapace on each side a little behind the large triangular rostrum: Nova 

Scotia to New Jersey in 2 to 200 fathoms; often veiy common. 

Order 4. DECAPODA. 

Shrimps, crayfish, lobsters, and crabs. Thoracostracans in Y^di 
the carapace covers the entire thorax, the cephalothorax being cylindrical 
in the Macrura and broad and more or less flattened in the Brachyura; 
gills on the thorax, extending either from the legs (podobranchs), the 
joints (arthrobranchs), or the body wall (pleurobranchs) and situated 
in the gill chamber on each side of the body (Fig. 623) ; abdomen well 


developed in the f onner group and small and bent under the cephalo- 

thorax in the latter; 3 pairs of maxillipeds and 5 pairs of periopods 

present; first pair of periopods (cbelipeds) usually much larger than the 

others and chelate, forming the pinching claws (chelae) ; other periopods 

also often chelate ; eggs and sometimes the young carried on the pleopods : 

about 6,000 species, mostly marine; the crayfish, certain crabs, and a few 

others being fresh-water or terrestrial animals; 2 suborders. 

Key to the suborders of Decapoda: 

Hi Body more or less cylindrical and elongate; antennae long; tail fin 

usually present 1. Macbuba. 

o, Gephalothorax short and broadt with the abdomen bent under it ; crabs. 

2. Braohtura 

Body more or less cylindrical and elongate with a well-developed 
abdomen, at the hinder end of which is usuaUy a swimming 'fin formed 
of the sixth pair of pleopods (uropods) and the telson; antennae well 
developed and usually long, the first antenna having 2 or more flagella, 
the second usually with an antennal scale; the young are bom as nauplii 
in Peneus and Lucifer, but in most other forms in a more advanced larval 
stage : about 10 American families grouped in 4 tribes. 

Key to the tribes of Macrura: 

Hi Last pair of thoracic feet normal ; swimming fin present. 
hx Slirimps and prawns; body rather small and transparent; antennal 

scale large (Fig. 617) 1. Cabidea 

^3 Burrowing marine animals of moderate sise; antennal scale usually 

absent 2. Thalassinidea 

5, Crayfish and lobsters ; body of moderate or large size, with small anten- 
nal scale, or none 3. Astacidea 

Os Last pair of thoracic feet reduced and projecting upwards ; no swimming 

fin ; hermit crabs, etc 4. Anomuba 

Tbibb L OABIDEA-t (Macbuba natantia.) 

Shrimps and prawns. Small forms with a compressed and more or 
less transparent body; carapace smooth, without sutures and with a long 
rostrum; antennal scale large; thoracic legs usually long and delicate: 
about 17 families and several hundred species. 

Key to the families of Caridea here described : 

Ox First 3 pairs of periopods not all chelate. 
hi Second pair of periopods only chelate ; first pair very stout and sub- 

chelate .1. Cbangonidak 

&a First 2 pairs of periopods usually chelate ; first antennae with 3 fiagella. 


0i First 3 pairs of periopods chelate 3. Peneidab 

* See "Embryology and Metamorphosis of the Macroura," by W. K. Brooks and 
F. H. Herrick, Mem. Nat. Acad. Scl., Vol. 5, 1892. 

t See **Synop8i8 of the Caridea of North America," by J. 8. Kingsley, Am. Nat, 
Vol. 83, p. 709, 1899. 



Shrimps. Second antennae long, with a large antennal scale; first pair 
of periopods much stouter than the others and subehelate; second pair of 
periopods small and chelate; mandibles slender, not bifid or expanded at 
the tip and without a palp: marine; about 10 American genera. 

Obahoov Fabricius. Cephalothorax 
somewhat depressed; rostrum short; first 
antennae with 2 flagella : 15 species, about 8 

0. vulgaris Fabr. The edible shrimp 
(Fig. 617). Length 5 cm.; color light, with 
dark markings: Labrador to South Caro- 
lina; Europe; Pacific coast; common at the 
bottom of sandy bays, in shallow water, often 
buried in the sand. 
(ilJfcs^^^if'fljSraSS 0. boreas (Phipps). Three median dor- 

flcale;^ ^^se^nd'anienna?'^^ s^l spines on cephalothorax : Atlantic coast as 

far south as Cape Cod; North Pacific coast. 

0. frandsconun Stimpson. The California shrimp. Length 7 cm.; 
posterior margin of fifth abdominal segment with a spine on each side; 
movable finger of cheliped long and parallel with the hand: oonunon at 
Ban Francisco. 

Faicilt 2. PALiEMONIDAE. 

Prawns and shrimps. Second antennae long, with a large antennal 
scale ; first antennae with 3 fiagella ; third maxillipeds foot-like ; mandibles 
with a bifid tip; rostrum long and usually serrate: mostly marine; about 
12 American genera. 

Key to the genera of PdUemonidae here described : 

Oi Right and left claws of the first pair of periopods of the same siie. 
5i First pair of periopods shorter but Dot thicker than the second. 
Ci First 2 pairs of periopods chelate. 

d, Mandibular palp absent 1. Paljemonetss 

d. Mandibular palp present 2. Pauemoii 

Ca First pair of periopods not chelate 3. Pandalus 

5t First pair of periopods thicker than the second ; abdomen bent down at 
the third segment. 

Ci Mandibular palp present 4. Hippqlttb 

Ca Mandibular palp absent 5. Vibbius 

Ot Bight and left claws of the first pair of periopods of different sice. .6. Alphsub 

1. PALJBicoirETEB Heller. Mandibles without palp; first 2 pairs of 
periopods chelate, the first pair being smaller than the second: about 6 
species, 3 American, in salt, brackish, and fresh water. 



P. vnlfftria (Say). ConunoD prawn (Fig. 618)., Roetnun long, 
straight and serrate; length 45 mm.; body translncent, with brovnish 
spots: Hassachnsetts to Florida; common on rock weed, and eel grasis 
on mnddy bottoms, often where the water ia brackieh or fresb. 

F. palndou (Oibbee). 
Length 35 mm. ; rostrum serrate 
below as well as above : in 
fresh-water lakes and streams 
in eastern North America (Lake 
Erie, etc.). 

2. Palbvok 

Fabricius. Lika ^ ^ 

' _y^ Fig. «18— PoI«m«m(Mt*Iiwl« (Terrlll). 

Pauemonetes hot / 

with a 3-jointed mandibulary palp (Fig. 619) : about 70 species, 3 
American; in salt and fresh water. 

P. ohlonla S. I. Smith. Length 6 cm.; carapace about a qnarter the 
length of the body, with a lateral spine on each side: Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Rivers; often used for food. 

3. Pahdalitb Leacb. Deep-water prawns. First 
and second pairs of periopods slender, the first 
not chelate, the second chelate : 10 American 


P. montagni Leach. Length 10 cm.; body with 

"atPaVmmon transverse red stripes; appendages thickly spotted 

'''(^fhT'^ with red: Chesapeake Bay to Greenland; Enrope; in 

10 to 100 fathoms. 

4. HiPPOLTTx Leach. First 2 pairs of periopods chelate, the first 

pair E^orter and thicker than the second; abdomen sharply bent down 

at third segment; mandibular palp present: nnmerons species, about 

30 American. 

H. pnsiola KrSyer. Length 25 n 
pale gray or flesh color, brightly spotted 
with red, nsually with a mid-dorsal 
white stripe, and sometimes 
with transverse bands of red 
and white: often common on 
rocky bottoms in shallow water from Vineyard Sound to Greenland; 

6. ViEBnm Stimpson. Similar to Bippolj/te but without a man- 
dibnlar palp: many species, 2 American. 

T. SOstaricoU S. I. Smith (Fig. 620). Rostrum straight and aa 
long as the carapace, the latter heiag smooth and with 3 spines on am- 


terior part; abdomen sharply bent at the third segment; length 15 to 26 
mm. ; color translucent, usually greenish and spotted with red : Vineyard 
Sound and southwards, common in eel grass. 

6. Alpesvb Fabricins. First pair of periopods larger than the 
others and chelate, the right and left claws of the first pair being thick 

and of very unequal size; rostrum small 
or absent; abdomen not sharply bent; 
eye stalks short and hidden: about 
one hundred species, twelve American, 
living principally along our southern 

A. miniu Say. Rostrum present; 
hinder feet with spines beneath; length 
Fig. e>2i-^M^h^ heterooMUB 4 cm.: Atlantic coast from New Jersey 

to Florida; southern Calif omian coast. 

A. heterochelis Say (Fig. 621). Large claw with a constriction at 

its middle; rostrum spiniform; length 5 cm.: Virginia to Florida; 


Family 3. PENEIDAE. 

Southern shrimps and prawns. First 3 pairs of periopods chelate, 
the third pair being the largest; rostrum long; second antennae long, with 
a large scale; abdomen compressed and not bent sharply: about 2 
American genera, marine, inhabiting chiefly the tropics and the deep sea. 

Pevetts Latreille. Rostrum serrate; eye stalks jointed; the young 
bom as nauplii : 3 American species. 

P. setifenu (L.). A lateral groove on each side of the forward half 
of the carapace ; flagella of first antennae very short ; length up to 16 em. : 
common in shallow water along the coast from Virginia southwards, 
where it is an article of food, the larger individuals being known in the 
market as prawns and the smaller as shrimps. 

P. brasiliensis Latreille. Like P. setifems, but with the lateral 
grooves extending the length of the carapace: Atlantic coast north 
to Cape Cod, occurring with P. setiferus. 


Animals of moderate size, with a cylindrical or flattened and trans- 
lucent body and a large abdomen; carapace with 2 longitudinal sutures; 
antennal scale usually wanting; flrst pair of periopods form pinching 
claws of unequal size: marine, burrowing animals; 3 families and about 
75 species. 

• See "Synopsis, of Astacold and Tbalasslnoid Crnstacea/' by J. B. Sngtley, Am. 
Nat, Vol. 83, p. 810, 1899. 


With the characters given above: about 7 American genera. 

1. Oallumabsa Leaoh. Cuticula soft and smooth; first 2 pairs of 
periopods chelate, the first pair being large and very unequal in size) eye 
stalks flattened; third pair of mazillipeds flattened: about 20 species, 6 

0. stimpsonl S. L Smith. Length 6 em.; 
small oheliped about halt as long aa the large 
one; carapace smooth and glossy: from Long 
Island Sound Bouthwards, in burrows in the 
mud between tide lines and in shallow water. 

2. Okbu Leach. Cuticula soft and smooth; Fis. 622— o«Ma adinu 
forward portion of cephalothoraz compressed, 

with a triangular, hairy rostrum; second pair of periopods not chelate; 
third pair of mazillipeds pediform: 10 species, 2 American. 

Or. attnla Say (Fig. 622). Length 10 cm.: Long Island Sound to 
South Carolina, living in burrows in the mud between tide lines and in 
ebollow water. 

Tkibi 3. ASIAOIDBA. 

Lobsters and crayflsb (8^. 023). Body of moderate or large size 
and with a thick shell; first antennae with 2 flagella, second either with a 
scale or with none and much loi^r than the flrst; no longitudinal 
sutures, but usually a transverse cervical suture in the carapace: 4 
families and about 150 species. 

Key to the families of Astaddea here described : 
«i AnteDnal ■cnle and chellped pretent 

b, AuimalB marine 1. Nkphbopsidaz 

1^ Animals in Ireth water S. Abtacidak 

Of Antcnnal scale and ch»liped absent 3. F.u.initiiidae 


Lobsters. Body of lai^ size; rostrum dentate along the lateral 
mai^ns; first 3 pairs of periopods cbelate, the first pair very large, 
forming the pinching claws: 3 genera. 

HOKAavs Milne-Edwards. Sostrum with 3 teeth on each side; sec- 
ond antennae with a small scale; eyes round: 2 species. 

H. unerlcanns* M.-Ed. American lobster. Length up to 60 cm.; 
greatest weight 13 kg. or over 28 pounds; length of the average adult 
lobster 25 cm. ; average weight less than a kg. or about one and three- 
quarters or two poimds; color usually dork green with darker spots and 

■ Bee "Tbe American Labater." etc., b; P. H. Herrick, Bnll. U. 9. Flab. Com. for 
189ff. "Natiml Hlstarj of tbe Amertcao Lobater," by same, Boll. Bureau Fliib„ Vol. 


j-ellowish nnderneath: Atlantic coast from Labrador to North Carolioa, 
in shallow vater in sammer and io deeper water in winter. Lobsters are 
caught mostly oS the coast of Canada and the New England states and 
an oar most important 
food crustacean. The an- 
nual catch faas amounted 
to over 100,000,000 in 
some years but is now 
much less. 

Pamilt 2. ASTACIDAB." 
Crayfish. Body not so 
large as in previous fam* 
ily; rostrum without lat- 
eral teeth: several genera 
and over 100 species; in 
fresh water. 

Key to the genera of 
Aatacidae here described: 

7 C 8 

FIf. 623 — A, diagram of a Fravflib abowloE 
■mngemeDt af Internal organs (Ucuurricb) ; B, 
dlagcam of crosi aectlon of the cepbalotliorai 
■bowing gill cbamber ; C, Interior of gill cbamber 
«f Attaout, tbe outer wall baring been remoied 
(SUsaw. P. Deut.). 1. pleurobrancb ; 2, upper 
artbobrancb ; 3, lower artbrobranch ; 4. Dodo- 
branch ; S. gill cbamber ; 6, plenrobrancb 


o. Pacific slope craTfish. 


a, Atlantic atope and 
MissiBSippi valley 
crarfi«b.2. CuiBAjiOB 

1. AiTAOvs Fabricius. 

:'y.?"pVr'opX''li). rao"h;''Yl?'^oina?t?''l2; A pair of gUls (pleUTO- 

»er : la, heart: 14, gonad; IR, dorul artery; > •_■, _ ., ■ . .i 

], Intestine; li anils; IS, ventral arler; ; it, branchs) on the last tho- 

DGiTC cbord ; ' 20, kldnej.' 

somite (Fig. 623, 
1 the Pacific slope, the 

C, 6), and IS pairs in all : about 15 species, 5 o 
remainder in Europe and Asia. 

A. nigiwceni Stimpson. Chelae naked on outer face; mai^ins of 
rostmm denticulate; length 10 em.; color da.A greenish: San Francisco 
to Alaska, near the coast; used for food. 

2. OAKBABUft Ericbson. Common American crayfish (Fig. 623). 

• See ■'Honocrapb of the North American Aataddae," by H. A. Hsgen. Hem. Urn. 
Comp. Zool., V»I. 3. ISTO. "The CraTSah," by T. B. Huiler, 1881. "A BerUoD of 
the Aataddae." b; W. Faion, Hem. Mua. Comp. Zool., Vol. 10, 18SS. "ObaervatloDa 
on the AaUddae." etc., bj W. Fsion, Proc. IJ. 8. Nat. Hub., Vol. 20, p. 643, 1898. 
"Synopaia of the Astaddae of North America," b; W. P. liar, Am. Nat. VoL 33, p. 
957, 1SS9. "Tbe Tonng of tbe Crarhsh Astacus and Cambarua," bj B. A. Andrewa, 
SmlthaoDlan Contrlbntlona to Knowledge. Vol, 35. p. 1, 190T. 

t See "Ecological Catalogue of tbe Crayflshea Belonging to the Oenna Cambaros," 
by J. Arthur Karris, Kanaaa Univ. Set. Bull.. Vol. 2, p. CI, 1903. "The CrawOibM 
of the State of PennaylTanla," by A. E. Ortmann. Memoirs of tbe Carnegie Museum, 
Vol 2, p. 343. IBOO. "Breeding HablU of the Ciayllih," by B. A. Andrewa. Am. Nat, 
Vol. 3S, p. 16C, 1B04. 



Fig. 624 — ^The anterior abdominal appendage 
(male) in Cambarua (Ortmann). A, (7. pro- 
pinquua; B, C7. limotus; C, O, hartoni; D, 
O. diogenea. 

No gills on the last thoracic somite and 17 pairs in all; first pair of 

swimmerets bifid and often hooked at the apex in the male: about 70 

species, all in North America 

and east of the Rocky Moun* 

tains. The animals live in 

streams, lakes, and swamps, 

resting under stones or in 

burrows or among aquatic 

vegetation near the surface; 

a few species are terrestrial, 

living in burrows. Crayfishes 

are omnivorous feeders, eat- 
ing decaying animal and plant substances, but also living animals and 

plants. Spawning occurs in the springtime and pairing in the fall in the 

case of C, diogenea and C, limosua 
and others, but C. bartoni and others 
probably pair and spawn the year 
round. The eggs are carried by the 
mother attached to her abdominal 
legs until they hatch; the young ani- 
mals when bom have the form of the 
parents and live for a while with the 
mother, holding on to her abdominal 
legs with their claws. Crayfishes are 
used for food in New York and other 
large cities. 

0. bartoni* (Fabricius) (Fig. 624, 
C). First pair of abdominal append- 
ages of the male terminated with 2 
strongly recurved tips; length 8 cm.; 
the eastern specimens have a short 
quadrangular rostrum ; in the western 
specimens the rostrum tends to be 
elongate; body with few or no hairs; 
carapace depressed: North America, 
almost to the Mississippi, but espe- 
cially along the Atlantic slope, usu- 
ally in clear, small streams, but also 

occasionally in muddy ones where it may burrow; one of our most 

widely distributed and conmionest crayfish. 

^ See "Notes on the Habits of Certain Crayfish," by C. C. Abbott, Am. Nat, VoL 
7. p. 80. 1873. 

Fig. 625 — Camharus peUuoidus 
(Klngsley). 1, first antenna; 2, 
second antenna ; 8, antennal scale ; 
4, periopods; 6, carapace: 6, abdo- 
men ; 7, uropod ; 8, telson ; 9, rostrnm. 


0. Umosiui (Rafinesque) {C. affinis Say) (Fig. 624, B). First pair of 
abdominal appendages of the male terminated with 2 short, straight, diver- 
gent tips; length 10 cm.; body hairy all over; sides of carapace spiny; 
rostrum broad with parallel sides: eastern North America, not west 
of the Alleghenies; common in the larger rivers, usually does not 
burrow; the crayfish which is most commonly sent to the New York 

0. peUnddiis (Tellkampf) (Fig. 625). First pair of abdominal 
appendages davate, the outer part being truncate and toothed; eyes 
atrophied; length 9 cm.: in caves in Indiana and Kentucky. 

0. diogenes Girard (Fig. 624, D). First pair of abdominal appen- 
dages in mole terminate with 2 strongly recurved tips; rostrum rather 
slender; length 8 cm.: widely distributed and often common in the entire 
country east of the Rocky Mountains ; preeminently a burrowing species, 
being found in swamps and meadows often far from a stream; the bur- 
rows are from 1 to 3 feet deep, with an enlargement at the bottom filled 
with water; often with a chimney to the height of several inches over 
the top. 

0. virilis Hagen. First pair of abdominal api>endages in male acute, 
tapering, divergent; length 8 cm.: common in central states, in large 
rivers and lakes. 

0. propinqnus Girard (Fig. 624, A). First pair of abdominal appen- 
dages in male terminating in 2 elongate straight convergent tips ; length 
7 cm. ; rostrum with a median ridge : common throughout the central part 
of the country, especially in large rivers and lakes. 

Faicilt 3. PALINUBIDAE. 

Spiny lobsters. Body of large size; antennal scale absent; none of 
the periopods chelate: several genera. 

PAOTLntxrs Gray. Rostrum absent ; flagella of antennae long : several 

P. argna (Latreille). Florida crayfish. First pair of antennae with 
a very long basal joint; body 20 to 40 cm. long; color violet, red, and 
brown: conmion on coral reefs off the Florida coast; an important article 
of food. 

Tbibs 4. ANOMURA. 

Last pair of thoracic legs reduced in size and extend backwards and 

upwards ; a swimming fin usually not developed : 2 families, both marine. 

Key to the families of Anomura: 

Oi Animals barrow in the sand 1. Hippidae 

Ot Animals live in snail shells ; hermit crabs 2. PAQuamAS 


Cephalothorax cyllDdrical, with the abdomen bent under it; telson 
triangnlar and elon^te; firet pair of periopods not chelate: 3 genera and 
about 20 Epeeiea, which burrow in the sand. 

HlFTA FabrieioB. Second antennae long and fringU, with long bain 
on its binder surface; eye stalk veiy long: 2 species, 1 American, 

E. talpoida Say. The sand bug (Fig. 626). 
Length 25 mm.; color whitish tinged with purple on 
the back: Cape Cod to Florida; Pacific coast; very 
common on sand bottoms and beaches, in wbich it 
burrows with great rajadity. 

Hermit crabs. Cephalothorax flattened, and with 
a hard shell; abdomen usually asymmetrical, elon- 
gate, and soft; eye stalks long; first pair of periopods 
large and chelate, last pair reduced in size and extend- 
ing backwards and upwards, abdominal appendages rudimentary or 
wanting, the last pair used to hold the animal in the snail shell in which 
it lives. Allied to the hermit crabs is one of the most remarkable terrestrial 
decopod crustaceans, Birgua laUo, the palm crab of the Pacific. It lives in 
holes in the ground and seldom goes into the water, but breathes air, the gill 
diamberd being converted by the presence of a network of blood capil- 
laries into luQgB, while the gills are 
very small. Its food consists of cocoa- 
nuts, which, however, it does not climb 
the trees to get, as it is popularly 
snpposed to do. The family contains 
about 20 genera. 

FASlTXn FabrieiuB. First pair of 
antennae short, second pair long; right 
elaw usually the larger: the animal 
lives in the empty shell of some marine 
snail which it carries about with it, and 
as it increases in size changes for a 
laiger one; the shell is frequently more or less covered with colonies of 
a hydroid, Eydractinia echinata, with which it lives in comraensalism, 
the hydroid enlarging the shell by building up its free edge and thus 
saving the crab the necessity of changing its abode; over 100 species, 
P. longicupus Say. Small hermit crab. Chelae smooth and elon- 
gate : very common from Maine to South Carolina, usually inhabiting the 
shells of small snails in rock pools and shallow water along the beach. 


P. polUcaris Say (Fig. 627). I*rge or warty hermit crab. Chelae 
covered with tubercles, and very wide and Btout, and nsed by the animal 
to close the opening of the shell: Maine to Florida, nanally inhabiting 
the shells of Fulgur, Natica, or other large snails in deeper water along 
the shores. 

SnaoansR 2. BRACHYURA. 

Crabs. Cephalothorax short and broad, with the small abdomen 
bent under it; abdomen of the male very narrow, with mdimentary t^s 
and fitting into a groove of the ventral surface of the ceplialothoraz ; 
abdomen of the female broad, with 4 pairs of weli'developed biramose 
legs to which the ^gs are attached; antennae very short and often foot- 
like; third pair of maxillipeds flat and plate-like and covering the other 
mouth parts; the 5 pairs of periopods well developed, the flr«t pair form- 
ing the large pinchmg claws; the abdominal legs much reduced, from 1 to 
4 pairs being present; no 
uropods present; young nsu- 
ally bom in the zocea stage 
and pass through the mega- 
lopa stage before reaching 
maturity (Fig. 628). 

The crabs are the high- 
est crDstaeeans. They occur 
mostly in the sea, living on 
or near the bottom, from tide 
'' lines to very great depths. 
Some, however, like the blue 
crab, swim very veil and rapidly and are frequently seen near the 
surface. Some species, like the fiddler crabs and the sand crabs, live 
near the high-water line or above it and have become to a greater or 
less degree terrestrial animals. They run about rapidly over the sand, 
in which they dig deep burrows, and their gills and gilt chamber are 
especially adapted to the absorption and retention of moisture from 
the damp sand. Stilt other crabs, as those belonging to the Gecard- 
nidae, the land crabs which are often distinguixhed by their lat^ 
size, are found habitually far from the water, to which they return period- 
ically to deposit their ^^s. Cardisoma guanh«mi, the common land crab 
of the West Indies and Bermuda, occasionally makes its appearance in 
Texas. The crabs of the family Thelphusidae live exclusively in fresh 
water, the best-known representative being Thelphuta fluviatUia, the cmu- 
mon fresh-water crab of southern Europe. The suborder contains 4 


Key to the divisions of Brachyura here described : 

Oi Carapace more or less triangular, being narrow in front. . . .1. Oxtbhtngha 
Os Carapace more or less circular, elliptical or rectangular, with a wide- 
arched or straight front margin. 

ht Carapace elliptical, with an arched front 2. Ctclomstopa 

6, Carapace rectangular, with a straight front margin 3. Catoicetdpa 


Carapace usually narrow and triangular in front and broad and 

rounded behind; 9 pairs of gills; first antennae longitudinally folded: 

3 families. 

Family MAIIDAE. 

Carapace narrow in fronts rounded and broad in the middle, taper- 
ing anteriorly to the prominent rostrum, which may be bifurcate: about 
34 American genera, all marine and littoral and occurring principally in 
southern waters; some of the species have the habit of concealing them- 
selves by placing on their backs with their pincers, algae, sponges, etc., 
which often grow there. 

1. LzBZSiA Leach. Spider crabs. Eyes can be retracted into orbits, 
which conceal them; rostrum bifurcate; body covered with a dense 
growth of chitinous hairs which give it a furry appearance; it may also 
have growing on it hydroids, algae, worm 

tubes, etc., which tend to conceal it : 6 species. 

L. emarginataf Leach (Fig. 629). Cara- 
pace evenly rounded behind and with 
spines on the back, 9 of these being median 
in position; legs long, the chelipeds in the 
male being very long; length of carapace 7 
cm.; breadth 6 cm.: Atlantic coast from 
Maine to Florida, very common on mud ^'' ®^£[tiIboii)?**^"^ 
flats and oyster beds. 

L. dnbia Milne-Edwards. Like the above, but with fewer spines on 
the back, 6 of which are median: Cape Cod to Florida; less common than 
L. emarginata. 

2. Hta8 Leach. Carapace more or less triangular; rostrum bifui*- 
cate, the 2 branches converging, eyes in orbits but not completely con- 
cealed: 3 species. 

H. coarctatiui Leach. Toad crab. liateral edges of carapace dilated 

• See "Catalogue of the Crabs," etc., by Mary J. Rathbnn, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Vol. 15, p. 231, 1892 ; also Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 16, p. 68, 1893. ''Synopsis of 
the OxyrhynchoQs and Oxystomatoos Crabs of North America," by Mary J. Rathbnn, 
Am. Nat., Vol. 34, 1900. 

t See "On the Anatomy of Libinia emarginata,'* by B. A. Andrews, Trans. Conn. 
Acad., Vol. 6, p. 99, 1884. 


anteriorly; length of carapace 8 cm.; width 6.4 cm.: Greenland to Viiv 
ginia; Europe; North Pacific; in 5 to 1,000 fathoms. 

3. Fklia Bell. Carapace triangular, and much longer than broad; 
surfaee Bmooth; eye stalk in an orhit but not completely concealed: 2 
j^merican species. 

P. mntica (Gibbes). Small spider crabs. Claw of male with nearly 
parallel sides and with edges which meet only at the tip: Cape Cod to 
Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, from low-water mark to 15 fathoms. 

Carapace more or less circular or elliptical in form and usually 
broader than long, the front forming a regular arch, and without a 
distinct rostrum; 9 pairs of gitls present: 6 families. 
Key to the families of Cyclometopa here described : 

a. First antennae folded lonsitudinall; or ncarl; so... 1. Cakokidax 

a. First anteDnae folded transvenely or obliquely. 

b, I.aBt pair of lees not flattened for awimmiog 2. Piliiiinidak 

b. Last pair of legs flatteaed for Bwimming 3. Fobtukidae 

Family 1. CANCBIDAR 
Carapace usually broader than long and with very short rostrum 
or none at all; anterior margin arched and serrate; last pair of I^s 
pointed at the end: about 4 genera. 

Oaxobb L. Carapace flattened, and more or less elliptical in shape ; 
the outer maxilUpeds completely cover 
the other mouth parts: 11 American 
qieoies, 2 on the Atlantic coast. 

0. irtoratoj Say. Rock crab (Fig. 

630). Anterior margin of carapace 

with 9 blunt teeth on each side; length 

of carapace 7 cm.; breadth 10 em.; 

color yellowish, thickly spotted with 

small reddish dots: I^brador to South 

(E«thbuii)^ "* Carolina; common among rocks and 

in the sand, in which it may lie bnried, 

from low water to 300 fathoms ; the commonest crab on the New England 

coast, where it is occasionally used for food. 

0. bonalia Stimpson. The northern or Jonah erab. Similar to the 
preceding but larger, with a more convex and much rougher carapace; 
color brick red : Labrador to Connecticut, often common among the rocks 
in exposed places, not living under the rocks or in the sandy or muddy 

■ Bm "BynopeU of the Crt^Ioinetopaiii or Cancroid Crabi of North America," br 
Ifarr 3. Batbbnn, An. Nat, Toi. 31, leoo. 


0. magisler Dana. The edible crab of Galifoniia. Carapace 12 
cm. long and 15 cm. wide, with 9 short spines on each side of the anterior 
margin; color reddish-brown: common below low-water mark on the 
entire Pacific coast, where it is used for food. 

Familt 2. PILUMNIDAE. 

Small dull-colored crabs with the first antennae folded transversely 
or obliquely, with a nearly round cephalothoraz and without swimming 
periopods: about 15 American genera, mostly southern. 

PANOTEim* Milne-Edwards. Mud crabs. Carapace slightly broader 
than long: small, inconspicuous crabs which live on muddy bottoms along 
the shore, often on oyster beds in brackish water, or even in fresh water; 
about 14 American species. 

P. {NeopoHopeus M.-£d.) sayi S. I. Smith (Fig. 631). Carapace 
somewhat convex, with a dentate anterior border; male abdomen with 
the terminal segment triangular and somewhat broader than long; 

Fig. eSl Fig. 632 ng. 638 

Fig. 631 — Panopeus savi (Paulmeler). A, dorsal aspect; B, male abdomen. 
Fig. 632 — Panopeus deprtMus — male abdomen (Paulmeier). Fig. 683 — Panopetu 
berbsti — tbe large claw (Benedict). 

length of carapace 17 mm.; breadth 22 mm.; color dark and dull: Massa- 
chusetts to Florida; common. 

P. {Eutypanopeus M.-Ed.) deprassiu Smith (Fig. 632). Like 
F. sayi but with a flatter carapace and with a terminal abdominal seg- 
ment in the male which forms an equilateral triangle, with arched sides; 
length of carapace 14 mm. ; breadth 19 mm. : Cape Cod to Florida. 

P. herbsti M.-£d. (Fig. 633). Carapace with a dentate anterior 
border and with a tubercle just beneath the first tooth ; the larger claw 
with a stout tubercle at the base of the movable segment; terminal 
abdominal segment in male rounded; leng^ of carapace 40 mm.; breadth 
60 mm.: Long Island Sound to Florida; near high-water mark. 

Faiolt 3. POBTUNIDAE. 

Swimming crabs. Carapace broader than long and with a well- 
defined serrate, anterior margin; the last pair of periopods broad and 

* See "The Genus Panopeus," by James IL Benedict and Mary J. Ratbbnn, Proc. 
U. 8. Nat. Mvs., Vol. 14, p. 355, 1891. 


flattened at the end, and except in Cardnides Mcenaa not pointed, forming 
effective paddies: 7 American apeciee. 

1. OALLDnom* Stimpeon. Carapace about tviee as broad as long, 
the anterior margin forming a serrated areh, at each end of which is « 
long, sharp spine: about 4 species on the coast of the southern states. 

0. Mpldu Rathbnn {C. hatta- 
tMS Say). Blue or edible crab 
(Fig. 634). Length of carapace 7 
cm.} breadth 13 cm.; color dark 
green ; feet blue : Cape Cod to Lou- 
isiana, common on mnddy bottoms 
in shallow, brackish or even freah 
water, often swimming among sea- 
weed or near the surface; next to 
riE. 634— OalHncDtMiapMM <R«UiiniD>. the lobster onr most important 
food crustacean. 

2. Otazjfu Bathban (Platyonichus Latreille). Carapace not very 
broad, being almost round, with & acute teeth on each side of the 
anterior margin; 1 species. 

O. ocelUtos (Herbst). Lady crab (Pig. 635). Length of carapace 
6 em. ; breadth 6 cm. ; eolor light with red spots : Cape Cod to the Golf 
of Mexico, on sand beaches; is used for food in the South. 

> ( Rathbnn). 

3. Oabouidu Rathbun {Carcinut Leach), Carapace slightly 
broader than long; chelipeds rather short; last pair of thoracic feet flat- 
tened but with pointed tips: 1 species. 

0. DUBllM (L.). Oreen crab (Fig. 636). Carapace with 5 large, 
acute teeth on the forward margin on each side; length 4 cm.; breadth 
5 cm.; eolor green, mottled with yellow: Cape God to New Jersey; 
Europe, where it is used for food; among the rooks in shallow water; 
breeding season in spring. 



Carapace more or less reetangular, with a wide, straight ante- 
rior margin and a straight but narrower hinder margin; no rostrum pres- 
ent: 4 families, including the land and strand crabs, which are among 
the most active and intelligent crabs. 

Key to the families of Caiametopa here described: 

Oi Carapace soft and membranous; in oyster or mussel shells. 1. Pinnothkbidas 
Os Carapace hard and firm 2. Octfodidae 


Carapace nearly circular and more or less membranous; eye stalks 
very small: small crabs, the females of which live in the mantle cavity 
of certain pelecypods or in annelid tubes, the males being 
free-swimming; 1 genus. 

PmroTHXBBS LatreiUe. With the characters of the 
family: several species. 

P. ostreum Say. Oyster crab. Surface of body pi55£^5^c« 
smooth and shiny; length and breadth of carapace about TSlrimT 
5 mm.: in the mantle cavity of the oyster. 

P. macnlatUB Say. Mussel crab (Fig. 637). Surface hairy; length 
and breadth about 8 mm. : in the mantle cavity of Myiilua eduUa and other 
bivalves, from Cape Cod to South Carolina. 


Familt 2. OCYPODIDAE. 

Carapace broad anteriorly and more or less quadrangular; eye stalks 
long, each lying in an elongated groove-like orbit: 6 American genera. 

1. OoYPODSf Fabrieius. Carapace square in shape, with distinct 
lateral margins; chelipeds small, somewhat unequal; other periopods flat, 
with pointed tips ; eye stalks stout : 1 American species. 

0. alblcanst Bosc {0. arenaria Say). Sand crab. Length of carapace 
30 mm.; breadth 35 mm.; chelipeds of nearly the same size in both sexes; 
claw with serrated margins : New Jersey to Florida and southwards, living 
in deep burrows above high-water mark; a very active crab which has 
become a terrestrial animal. 

2. U0A§ Leach (GeUuimus Latreille). Fiddler crabs. Chelipeds of 
male of very unequal size, one, usually the right, being enormously devel« 

* See "The Catometopons or Orapaold Crsbs of North America," by Mary J. 
Batbbun, Am. Nat, Vol. 84, p. 583, 1900. 

t Bee "Cardnologlcal Notes, No. Ill, Bevlalon of the Geniis Ocypoda," by J. 8. 
Klngsley, Proc Acad. Nat. Sd., Phil., for 1880, p. 179. 

tSee "Habits, Reactions, and Assodations In Ooypoda arenaria," by R. P. 
Cowles, Monograph No. 103, Carn. Inst, of Wash., 1908. 

f Bee "Cardnologlcal Notes, No. 11, Revision of the Gelaslmi," by J. 8. Klnssley, 
Free. Acad. Nat. Set, Phila., for 1880, p. 180. 


oped and carried across the front of the body; eye stalks very long and 
slender; color light brown, mottled with purple and dark brown: small, 
active crabs, living in barrows, often a foot or two deep, in salt marshes 
and on mud and sand flats; they are frequently seen in large droves, and 
have the habit of slowly waving the large daw back and forth, probably 

a threatening attitude; numerous species; cos- 
mopolitan; about 7 American species. 

U. pngnaz (S. I. Smith). Inner surface of 
laige claw with an oblique ridge, beneath which 
are granules; length of carapace 15 mm.; width 

*"•' (p'fSlSterr**^ ^ "™'' ^*P* ^^ ^ Florida; common in salt 


U. minaz (Le Conte) (Fig. 638). Legs with red patches at the 
articulations; large claws with an oblique ridge on the inner surface; 
length of carapace 25 mm.; width 38 mm.: Gape Cod to Florida; the 
largest of the fiddlers, common in salt marshes, usuaUy farther from 
the sea than the other species, being frequently where the water is 

XJ. pugilator (Bosc). Length of carapace 15 mm.; width 21 mm.; 
inner surface of large claw without oblique ridge: Cape Cod to Florida, 
on sandy or muddy beaches near high-water mark. 


Arthropods without antennae, in which the body is usually made 
up of two divisions, the cephalothoraz and the abdomen, the former rep- 
resenting the fused head and thorax and bearing six pairs of appendages, 
and the latter being in most cases without appendages. The class con- 
tains 2 subclasses. 

K^ to the subclasses of Arachnoidea: 

Oi Marine arachnoids of large sise, with appendages bearing gills on the 

abdomen, and a long spike-like telson 1. Xifhobuba 

Oi Mostly terrestrial arachnoids without abdominal appendages. .2. ABACHifiDyk 

Subclass 1. XIPHOSURA.* 

King or horseshoe crabs. Large crab-like arachnoids, in which the 
body consists of a cephalothoraz, an abdomen, and a long spike-like td- 
son or tail The cephalothoraz is horseshoe-shaped and unsegmented 
and with an arched dorsal surface, in the center of the ventral surface 
of which is the mouth. Six pairs of elongate appendages surround the 
mouth, the anterior five of which are chelate, the sizth pair terminating 

* See "Xiphoenra/' Camb. Nat. Hist. YoL 4, p. 259, 1900. 

XIPH08UBA 401 

with a number of movable projeetions called the pushers, because they 
are used by the animal in pushing itself through the sand and mud. The 
first pair lie in front of the mouth, and are called the mandibles or 
chelicerae: they are much smaller than the others, but have the same 
shape. The basal joints of the remaining five pairs of legs are spiny 
and assist in chewing the food. The abdomen bears six pairs of appen- 
dages, none of which are leg-like. The first pair are called the operculum 
and form together a broad plate which falls over and covers the remain- 
ing five pairs; these are also plate-like and bear on their hinder surfaces 
numerous thin gills. The males are smaller than the females and differ 
from them in the structure of the second pair of appendages, the claw of 
which is a thickened structure, of use in holding on to the shell of the 
female while pairing. The paired genital openings are at the base of the 
operculum. The telson may be as long as the rest of the body. 

The dorsal surface of the cephalothoraz bears two large lateral com- 
posite eyes and a pair of small median ones. The dorsal surface of the 
abdomen is flattened and bears a row qi movable spines on each lateral 
edge. The internal anatomy is essentially arachnid in character.* 

The king crab lives in shallow water along the shore, where it bur- 
rows in the sand and mud and eats worms and other small animals. It 
comes to sandy beaches in the early summer to breed, and lays its eggs 
in depressions it makes in the sand. The embryo as it emerges from the 
egg has a resemblance to a trilobite and lacks the spine-like telson and 
the abdominal appendages. The animals, although of large size, have 
little economic importance. They are, however, sometimes fed to chick- 
ens and pigs. 

History,— The American Limulua was first made known in 1590 by 
Thomas Harriot in his description of the animals and plants of Virginia. 
The Asiatic species became known during the 17th century, the dried shells 
having frequently been brought to Europe as curiosities. Until quite 
recently zoologists have placed Limultis among the crustaceans. Latreille, 
however, in 1808 called attention to its peculiar structure and created for 
it the separate order Xiphosura, and Straus-Diirckheim in 1829 empha- 
sized its resemblance to arachnids. This idea, however, gained ground 
very slowly, although Huxley and von Beneden both spoke in favor of 
it, and it was not until after Lankester's demonstration in 1881 that 
Limulua was finally accepted as an arachnid.! Another question of rela- 
tionship with which Limulua has to do is whether the primitive arachnid 

* See '"The Embryology of Llmulus," by J. S. Klngsley, Jour. Morph., Vol. 7, p. 
85, and Vol. 8, p. 195, 1892-3. "Studies on Llmulus/' by W. Patten and W. A. Reden- 
baugb, Jour. Morph., Vol. 16, p. 1 and p. 91, 1900. 

t See "Limulus an Aracbnid,** by B. R. Lankester, Quart. Jour. Mic. Sci., ToL 
21, 1881. 


group from which it sprang is allied to the vertebrates and thus ma; be the 
ancestor of this important class, as is maintained b^ Patten and others.* 

The snbelase cont&ins the single genna lAmultu. A few yeais ago, 
however, a new claasiBcation was proposed subdividing this genus into 
three, vdiicb were grouped in two subfamilies: this classification has not 
been generally adopted. 

LmLVt O. F. Hiiller. With the characters mentioned: 5 speeiea, 
of which 4 inhabit the eastern coast of Asia and its isUnds. 

3, oephalotbora 

' telsoa; 6, u 

ath ; 8 legs ; 

10, operculDm; : 

L. polTphemiu (L.) (Fig. 639). Length ap to 50 cm.; color daifc 
brown: eastern coast of North America from Nova Scotia to Florida; 


With rare exceptions air-breathing, terrestrial animals, without 
antennae and with a body consisting of a cephalothoraz and an abdomen. 

External StTUctvre.— The cephalothoraz bears six pairs of appen- 
dages, the mandibles or chelicerae, the pedipatps, and the four pairs of 
walking legs. The abdomen is without locomotory appendages. The boun- 
dary between these two body divisions is usually distinct, but in the mites it 
is obliterated. In the spiders as well as the mites segmentation ha» 
mostly disappeared and the body is short and compact. In contrast to 
these forma are the scorpions, in which the body is long and vermiform, 
with distinct segmentatioa. In the Solpugida the bead is distinct from the 
thorax and bears the first three pairs of appendages. The mandibles 

• Bee "The BroIntloD of the Yertebratw and Thetr KId," by W. Patten, IMi 


are short and end, on each side, either in a sharp, piercing claw, as in 
spiders, or in a pincer-like claw, as in scorpions. The pedipalps are usually 
sensory in function, but are prehensile organs in scorpions and many other 
arachnids, and in the male spider have a copulatory function. The four 
remaining pairs of appendages are locomotory and are usually long and 
slender. The abdomen in the embryo has often rudimentary appendages, 
the hinder three pairs of which in the spider become the spinnerets. 

The cuticula of arachnids is often covered with cuticular hairs or 
scales, which have often an important tactile function. The special 
sense organs are not well developed. Eyes are generally present, but 
they are ocelli and not the composite eyes so characteristic of other 

Intem<il Structure (Fig. 654).— The digestive tract is often of com- 
plex structure. Long diverticula may extend from the stomach towards 
or into the legs, and a network of diverticula in the form of the so-called 
liver usually occupies la large part of the abdomen; one or more pairs of 
Malpigfaian or kidney tubules enter the rectum. 

The respiratory organs are wanting in some mites and other minute 
arachnids, but are usually present in the form of lungs and tracheae. The 
lung is a ventral sac, usually near the anterior end of the abdomen and 
opening to the outside through a pore called a spiracle, which contains 
numerous leaf-like plates like the leaves of a book, in which the blood 
circulates. The tracheae are air tubes reinforced on their inner surface 
by a cuticular lining usually in the form of a spiral thread to keep them 
from collapsing, which extend from spiracles throughout the body. 
Scorpions and some of the larger spiders have only lungs; most spiders 
have both lungs and tracheae ; and mites and many other arachnids have 
only tracheae. 

Circulatory oi^ns are wanting in many arachnids which lack a 
special respiratory apparatus, but in most of them a tubular heart with 
lateral valvular openings is present in the abdomen, from the ends of 
which arteries extend into the surrounding organs. The Tardigrade are 
hermaphroditic, but with this exception all arachnids are unisexual. The 
paired gonads lie in the ventral portion of the abdomen and open to the 
outside by paired ducts or by a single duct in the first or second abdomi- 
nal somite. The sexes may often be distinguished by their external 
characters, the male being smaller than the female and often provided 
with special copulatory organs. 

Most arachnids are oviparous, but the scorpions and a few others 
hear their young alive. The young usually resemble the parents in 
appearance, but in a few cases, as in the lAnguatulida and the mites, 
they go through a metamorphosis. The great majority of arachnids are 



predacious or parasitic animals, but a certain number of them, including 
many mites, feed on plants. All of the LinguatuUda and about half of 
the species of mites are parasitic. Most arachnids are terrestrial but 
the Tardigrada, Pygnogonida and two families of the Acarina are 

M%8iory.—Th& name Arachnida originated with Lamarck in 1801, 
who at that time separated these animals from the Insecta aptera of Lin- 
neus and his immediate followers. The subclass contains about 20,000 
species grouped in 11 orders. 

Key to the orders of Arachnida: 

Oi Abdomen distinctly segmented. 
^ -Anhsftte Aot pamttic. 
Ox Long segmented poetabdomen or segmented caudal filament (except the 
Tarantulidae) present. 

di PoBtabdomen with caudal sting present 1. Soobfioioda V^ 

dt Caudal filament (except the Tarantulidae). 
e^ Animals minute; caudal filament with segmental bristles. .2. PALFiGaAUi 
et Animals larger; caudal filament, when present, smooth.... 8. Pedipalfi ^ 

Ct No postabdomen or caudal filament. 
di Head distinct from thorax, bearing first 3 pairs of 

appendages 4. Solfugida 

dt Head not distinct. 
Ci Pedipalps chelate and very long. 

5. PsEunoscosPioniDA '^ 
€, Pedipalps not chelate ; legs very long and slender. 

6. Phalakguda '^ 
ht Animals worm-like and internal parasites in 

lerfebrates 9. Linguatuiida 

Ot Abdomen not segmented. 
6r A nimals UDuell y terreSlHaL 
Ci Cephalothorax distinctly separated from abdomen. 

7. Arakeae W 
Ct Cephalothorax and abdomen not distinct. . . .8. Acarina - 
6, Aninals aquatic. 

Ci Ai imals microscopic 10. Tabdigrabi 

c, Ai Imals marine and not microscopic : legs very 

Ibng and slender 11. Ptcnogonida 

Pig. 640— Dia- 
gram of the dor- 
sal aspect of Cen- 
truru8 (Banks). 
1, cephalothorax: 
2,pre-abdomen ;3, 
postabdomen ; 4, 
mandibles; 6, 
pedipalps ; 6, lat- 
erai eyes; 7, 


median eyes ; 8, 
spine; 9, sting. 

(Fig. 640.) Elongated arachnids with a short, un- 
segmented cephalothorax and a long abdomen consisting 
of 13 segments, of which the anterior 7 form the pre- 
abdomen and are about of the same diameter as the 
cephalothorax, and the posterior 6 form the much narrower, tail-like post- 
abdomen, at the end of which is a poisonous sting; 3 to 6 pairs of eyes 
usually present; mandibles short and chelate; pedipalps very long and 

• See "Scorplones und Pedlpalpl," by K. Kraepelin, Das Tlerrelch, 1899. "Synop- 
sis of the North American Scorpions, Solpuglds, and Pedipalpl," by Nathan BankJi» 
Am. Nat, Vol. 84, p. 421, 1900. 


chelate; on the ventral surface the second abdominal segment bears a pair 
of long comb-shaped appendages caUed the pectines, which probably aid in 
the act of pairing, following which are 4 pairs of spiracles, each of which 
opens into a lung sac ; genital opening just in front of the ^pectines on 
the first abdominal segment and protected by small paired plates, which 
form the sternum; the young are bom alive and are carried about for 
a while by the mother: over 300 species, about 25 occurring in our south- 
em and western states, ranging as far north as Nebraska; they are 
nocturnal animals and feed on insects and spiders which they often 
kill with the sting. 

Key to the families of Scorpionida here described: 

Gi Sternum broad, pentagonal ; usually no spine under the sting. 

hx At base of terminal segment of last pair of legs at least 1 spur on inner 

and 1 on outer side 1. Vejovidab 

5, But 1 spur present, on outer side 2. Scobpionidab 

a» Sternum long, triangular; usually a spine under the sting. . .3. Centbubidab 

Family 1. VEJOVIDAE. 

Three eyes on each side; terminal joint of legs with an inner and 
outer spur at base; no spine under the sting: 8 genera and IS species. 

1. Vejoyib Koch. Median lamella of each comb divided into at 
least 8 small pieces; lower margin of the movable finger of mandible 
without spines: 6 American species. 

V. borena (Oirard). Hand strongly keeled; color yellowish or 
greenish: Nebraska and westerly to Nevada and Idaho. 

V. mezicanns Koch. Hand less distinctly keeled; color brown, not 
spotted; legs reddish; length 8 cm.; number of teeth of comb 15 to 22: 

V. carolinus Koch. Color reddish-brown; legs yellow; length 34 
mm. ; number of teeth of comb 13 or 14 : southern Atlantic states and into 
Kansas and Texas; California. 

2. Hadbxtbub Thorell. Large, hairy scorpions with a large, dark 
spur near the tip of the lower margin of the movable finger of the man- 
dible: 2 species. 

H. hirsutus (Wood). Color yellowish-red; length 7 cm.; number of 
teeth of comb 25 to 40; legs compressed: California and Arizona. 


Sternum pentagonal in shape; but 1 spur at the base of the last 
tarsal joint, which is on the outer side; usually no spur under the sting: 
15 genera and about 88 species. 

DiPLOOsmrBUB Peters. With a hump under the sting : 6 species, all 



D. white! (Gervais). Color yellow or brown; terminal joint of foot 
with a row of about 7 spines running up from the claw; teeth of eomb 
12 to 18; length 5 cm.: Texas to California. 


Sternum small and triangular, the sharp end in front; a spur on the 
under side of the unmovable finger of the mandible : 4 genera and about 
50 species, many American. 

Cevtbttbub Ehrenberg (Fig. 640). The oblique rows of teeth on 
the finger of the pedipalp have on each side a parallel row of minute 
teeth; under the sting may be a spine: 15 American species. 

C. caroliniaaus (Beauvois). Color yellowish, with small spots, often 
joined into 2 longitudinal stripes; length 7 cm.; teeth of comb, 19 to 25: 
southern states. 


Minute arachnids with a segmented abdomen, from the hinder end 

of which a long segmented caudal filament 
with segmental bristles projects; mandible 
long and chelate; pedipalps and the 4 pairs 
of legs rather long and slender; no eyes; 
cephalothorax of 3, abdomen of 11 segments : 
1 genus with a few species, which have 
been found in Italy, Siam, Parag^iay, and 

KcEHENiA Grassi. With the characters 
above mentioned: 2 American species. 

K. wheelerif Riicker (Fig. G41). Length 
with filament up to 2.5 mm.; color white; 

3 pairs of eversible lung sacs on segments 

4 to 6: under stones in moist places near 
Fig. 641 — Kcsnenia wheeJeri . . ,« 

(Wheeler). Austin, Texas. 


Cephalothorax separated by a constriction from the abdomen, which 
is 11 or 12-jointed; last 3 pairs of legs used for walking; in the first 

* See "Palpigradl und SoUfugae/* by K. Kraepelln, Das Tlerrelch, 1901. 

t See "A Singular Arachnid," etc., by W. M. Wheeler, Am. Nat.. Vol. 34, p. 837. 
1900. "The Texas Koenenla." by Augusta RQcker, Am. Nat. Vol. 35, p. 615, 1901. 
"A New Kcrnenla from Texas,** by satce, Q. J. M. S.. Vol. 47, p. 401. 1903. 

t See "On the Pedipalpi of North America,'* by H. C. Wood, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sd., 
Phila., Vol. 5, p. 357, 18G3. "Scorpiones und Pedipalpi,'* by K. Kraepelin, Das Tler- 
relch, 1S09. "Synopsis of North America Pedipalpi." by N. Banks, Am. Nat., Vol. 34, 
p. 421. 1900. 


pair the terminal portion very mucli elongated and forming a long, 
many- jointed tactile flagellum; pedipalpB thick and strong and, like the 
mandibles, either chelate or not; 2 pairs of book lungs on the third and 
fourth abdominal segments; 8 eyes usually present, 2 large ones in front 
and 3 small ones on each side; genital pores peired and on the first 
abdominal segment: predacious tropical animals, 5 species of which are 
found along the southern border of this country; 3 families and about 
GO species. 

Key to the families of Pedipalpi here described : 


Whip scorpions. Body elongate; pedipalps chelate; abdomen 12- 
jointed, the last 3 segments smaller than the others and bearing a long, 
jointed terminal filament and also often om- 
matoids, white ocellus-like spots : 10 genera and 
about 40 species. 

MuTiooPBOOTiTB Pocock. Two ommatoids 
present: 17 species. 

H. gUut«U> (Lucas). Vinegar roan (EHg. 

642). Length (with tail) 13 cm.; color dark 

brown; tail with reddish hairs; animal has a 

strong odor of vinegar: Florida to Arizona, often 

common in dry sandy places; they are nocturnal 

Pig. at2—M<uUgoproo- animals which are much feared, although they 
till gigantmit 
(ComBtock). are not poisonous. 


Body broad, cephalothroax being broader than 
the abdomen and joined with it by a slender waist; 
pedipalp ends with a claw; abdomen 11-jointed and 
without a terminal filament: 10 genera and about 
18 species. 

Tarantula Fabricins. Foot with a single claw; 
front margin of celphalothorax either with short 
teeth or smooth: 4 species, all American. Tanu^iaKMM 

T. whitei (Gervais) (Fig. 643). Front margin 
of cephalothoraz denticulate; inner margin of pedipalp with long 
Bpinea; color brown with a yellow mai^n; length 20 mm.: Texas to 


Obdeb 4. 80LPU0IDA.* (SouruOAx.) 

Head region separated troiD the thorax and bearing very large 
ohelate mandibles, the l^-like pedipalps, and the first pair of legs, as well 
as a pair of eyes; thorax consists of 3 distinct segments, each bearing a 
pair of legs ; abdomen 10- jointed ; respiration by tracheae, the first pair 
of spiracles being on the thorax, the other 3 pairs being on the abdomen ; 
genital pore in first abdominal segment : usually nocturnal animals which 
live in sandy deserts in the warmer parts of the earth; 3 families with 
sbont 165 species, a few of which are found in this country, obiefly in 
the southwest ; they are much feared, althou^ not poisonous. 

Second and third pair of abdominal spiracles not covered with 
denticulate plates: 21 genera and about 145 species. 

XUnOBATXS Banks {Daiama Simon). 
Anterior mai^^ of head truncate; fourth 
pair of 1^9 without a terminal claw; dorsal 
finger of mandible without teeth or spur: 
about IS species, all in Ameriea. 

E. palllpea (Bay). The movable atsg- 
taeat of the mandibles in the male with 1 
large and sometimes 1 very small tooth; 
the inner side of the pedipalp of male 
hairy and without bristles; length 13 mm.; 
color light yellow: southern states west 
of Mississippi, north into Kansas and 

E. fonnidabilifl (Simon) (Fig. 644). 
Movable segment of the mandible slender and with 1 large and 2 small 
teeth: California and Arizona. 

Small arachnids with an 11- jointed abdomen, with chelate mandibles, 
the movable finger of which bears along its inner margin the comb- 

• S«c -The Solpostdse ot America," bj J. D. Piitn»ni, Proe. D«»Miport Acad. 
N«t 8d., Vol. a, p. 1, 1882. "Synoint* of thp North Ameriran Solpoglda," bj N. 
BukB. Am. NBt.. Vol. 34, p. 438, 1800. "Palplgradi nod Solltogae," by K. Kraepelln. 
Du Tierrekh. IMl. ^^ 

t See "Notei on North Ameriean CherDeUdae," by N. Banki, Cand, Bntom., VoL 
as, 1893. "Notes oa the Paeudoncorplonldae," by N. BankB, Jour. W. Y. Bntom. Soe, 
Vol. 3, 1895. "Hablti and DtitrlbntlnnB of the PBeudoacorplonldae. prlDdpally 
Cbelanopa oblongni, Say," by E. W. Berger. Ohio Nat., Vol. 6, p. 407. IBOB. "A List 
ot the Nortb American Paeudoacorploolda," br K. B. CooUdse, Piydi^ VoL U, pk 


shaped serrula (Fig. 645, B), and vith long scorpion-like pedipalps; legs 
long, S-jointe*], and ending with 2 claws; eyea present or not; reepiralion 
by traclieae, 2 pain of spiracles being present on the second and third 
abdominal segments ; genital pore in the second abdominal segment, in the 
fwnale eurroonded b; oement glaods, the seereticai of which serree to f aatai 
the eggs to the body of the mother; nlk glands open to the ontside near the 
tip of the movable finger of the mandible; the animals spin nests, in 
which they spend tbe winter or can retire daring a moult ; no poison glands 
present: under the bark of trees, among moss or dead leaves, or in 
hooses, on old books, or furniture, where they eat mites and small insects; 
oeeasionally they attach themselves for pnrposee of migration to insects; 
tfaey run rapidly forwards, backwards, or sideways; 3 familiea with 100 

Key to the families of Ptevdoseorpiottida here described: 
•i Cephalotborax witb a transrcrBe luture ; two ejee or none niually 

•■ No toch Buture; four eyes usually present 2. Obisudai 


Spinneret on mandible long and tabular; serrula attached along its 
whole length ; 2 eyes or none present : 5 genera. 

1. OstUTSa. GeofFroy. Cephslothoraz triangular, rounded In front 
and divided by transverse sutures iuto 3 parts; 2 eyes present; man- 
dibles small: several species. 

0. caacrofdes (L.). Book scorpion (Fig. 646). Length 3 mm.; color 
reddish-brown; dorsal abdominal plates divided by a median line; basal 

B, I 

ilanopt oblonffiu (B«iec). 

portion of pineer thick, terminal finger curved: often found in houses 
on old books, furniture, or clothing; cosmopolitan. 

0. biaerlatnm Banks. Body 2.2 mm. long, pale yellowish in color, 
with 2 rows of dark spots on the abdomen; pedipalps very slender; no 
lai^ granules on cephalothoraz : Florida; Ohio; Jamaica. 


0. mnricatiiB Say. Body 2.5 mm. long and reddish-brown in color; 
hand of pedipalp very mach darker than the rest: eastern states, among 
dead leaves. 

2. CsEULVOPS Nicolet (Chemes Menge). Similar to CheUfer bat 
without eyes: about 19 American species. 

0. oUongns (Say) (Fig. 646). Body 3.5 nmi. long, elongate and 
elliptical in shape, being widest in the middle, reddish-brown in color, 
being darker on the eephalothorax; a double row of large dark spots 
on the abdomen, from each of which a number of long bristles spring: 
widely distributed over the eastern and central states; under stones 
near low-water mark at Woods Uole. 

0. tristis Banks. Body 2 mm. long, pale reddish-yellow in color 
with soft parts and legs white; abdomen elliptical, the dark spots on 
the dorsal plates being much nearer the median than the lateral line: 
the seashore of Long Island. 

0. sanbomi Hagen. Body 2 mm. long, very broad, and reddish- 
brown in color; pedipalps short and heavy with davate hairs: eastern 
states, under bark. 

Family 2. OBISIIDAE. 

Spinneret a small knob; serrula attached only at the base; 4 eyes 
usually present: 4 genera. 

1. OBZSixnc Leach. Cephalothoraz rectangular and not narrower in 
front; pedipalps short and stout; 4 eyes present; fingers curved: 6 
species in America. 

0. muscomm Leach. Body 2.5 mm. long, brownish in color: in moss. 

2. Chthohiitb Koch. Cephalothorax rectangular and wider in 
front; mandibles large; fingers straight: about 5 American species. 

C. pennsylvanicuB Hagen. Length 1.9 mm.; color brownish, with 
scattered silvery spots on the abdomen; legs white; pedipalps longer 
than the body; 4 eyes, not close together: eastern United States. 


Harvestmen or daddy longlegs. Body short, ovoid in shape, with 
an unsegmented cephalothorax which is joined with the 9-jointed ab- 
domen without any constriction; mandibles chelate; pedipalps long and 
leg-like, each ending with a claw; legs usually very long and slender, the 
basal portion of the anterior pairs possessing chewing plates; the body 

* See "On the Pbalangeae of the United States/* by H. C. Wood, Commun. Essex 
Inst, Vol. 6, p. 10, 1868. "A DescrlptlTe Catalogue of tbe Harvest Spiders (Phal- 
angUdae) of Oblo/' by C. M. Weed, Proc. V, 8. Nat. Mus.. Vol. 16, p. 543, 18d3. 
*'8ynopslB of Nortb American Pbalanglda/' by N. Banks, Am. Nat., VoL 36^ p. 088^ 



of the male somewhat smaller and with longer legs than the female; 
a pair of simple eyes present, one being on each side of a tuhercle rising 
in the middle of the cepbalothorax ; genital opening between the last 
pair of legs in a forward prolongation of the ventral plate of the first 
abdommal s^ment from which also extends a long protmsible penis or 
ovipositor (Fig. 648,2); a pair of stink glands on the abdomen, which 
often become active when the animal is handled; respiration by tracheae, 
nsnally a single pair of spiracles bein^ present on the first abdominal 
s^;ment; eggs laid in the ground or in other moist places in the summer 
or aatnmn and the young, which are like the adults in appearanee, usu- 
ally hatch the following spring : 
about 60 species in America, 
grouped in 7 families; animals more 
or less nocturnal, probably feeding 
principally on small insects, spiders, 
and mites, hut also occasionally on 6- 
decaying substances; they do not 
spin a web or build a nest. 

Key to the families of Fhalan- 
giida here described: 

o. Last B«tiDeDt of pedipalp with ^ H 

a terminal claw and longer 

tban tbe precmlinR one. 

1. Phalanoiidai: 
o. No snch daw and tho last ««:- riphaldthoraV; "7, i^nlt.l pore ; 1^ 

meat inach snorter tbau tbe ward prolonsatlon oZ abdamen 

precedlngone.2. Nbuastomatidae "plKcle; 10. anus. 

Family 1. PHALANOIIDAE. (Pra. 647.) 

Body ovoid with a leathery integument; pedipalp ending with a 
claw; legs long and slender, with a simple teminal 
1 claw on each : about 15 American genera. 

Key to the ji^enera of Phaltmgiidae here de- 
scribed : 

a, Rje tubercle ot enormous sise 1. Caddo 

e. Eye tubeKle of normal xiie 2. I^roBUNDu 

6, Eye tubercle smnntb. 

b. Eye tubercle apinoae 3. PaAijtNOiuu 

1. Oasso Banks. Eye tubercle of enormous 
size; 3 long spines on femur of pedipalp: one 
0. BgUla Banks (Fig. 648). Body 3 mm. long, brown in color, with 
2 pale stripes above : among dead leaves and moss. 


2. Liosmnnt Kocli. Anterior and lateral bordera of cepbalothorax 
not spinose; eye tubercle rather eniall and smooth; legs usually verj- 
loQg and slender: 16 American species. 

L. Tittetnai (Bay) (Fig. 649). Body reddiab- 
brown, with a distinct mid-dorsal stripe; pedipalps 
and legs brown or black ; length about 9 mm. ; of pedi- 
palps, 5 nun. long; length of legs, first, 42 mm., second, 
90 mm., third, 43 mm., fourth, 
61 mm.: eastern and central 
America; common in fields 
and woods. 

L. poUtnm Weed (Fig. 
650). Body reddish-brown; 
pedipalps lij^ht browD, legs 
black ; eye tubercle rather 
prominent, with a row of small black projections over each eye; length 
about 5 mm.; pedipalps 2.8 mm. long; length of l«^, first, 25 mm., 
neond, 51 mm., third, 26 mm., fourth, 36 mm. : eastern and central states, 
in fields and woods; common. 

L. granda (Say). Body blackish and tuberculate, 9 to 12 mm. long; 
pedipalps 6 mm. long; length of l^s, first, 20 mm., second, 35 nun., third, 
21 mm., fourth, 28 mm.: eastern and central states. 

Fig. Mt—Uabtmum vttlat%m (Weed). 

A FU.e6D A, PI,. 8 

I — CtotMtuM poHtMM (Weed 
»■•, u. Blue Tlew o( tile eye tubercle. ri». 
A. doFMl (tpect after tbe removal ot the legs ; 

Xh Tentiiconim (Wood) (Fig. 651). Body elongate; legs and body 
cinnamon or yellowish-brown; length 7 to 10 mm.; length of legs, pedi- 
palps, 5 mm., first, 33 mm., second, 64 mm., third, 33 nun., fourth, 4.S 
mm. : eastern and central states ; common. 

S. PsALUtetm L. Anterior and lateral borders of cepbalothorax 
■ptnose; eye tubercle with 2 series of spines: 2 species in America. 



P. diwnam Wood (F^. 652). Bod; gray, sometimes brownisb, 
nsnall; with a wide lenticular mid-dorsal marking, and about 8 mm. 
long; pedipalps 4 mm. long; leugtb of legs, first, 20 
mm., second, 52 mm., tbird, 29 mm., fonrth, 36 mm. : 
northern America, on walls, etc, rarely in the open 


Pedipalps long and prominent, with last joint 
mncb sborter than the preceding one and without ft 
elaw: 3 genera. 

PsLEOiuoBa* Packard. Mandibles directed 
downwards and not forwards; fourth joint of pedi< 
palp much thickened; body somewhat compressed and 
not spiny: 3 species. 

F. caTicoInifl Pack. Body 4 mm. long and 2 mm. 

wide; eyes lai^ and prominent; eye tnberele veiy 

low; a series of large 

transverse dark spotB 


of mandible 

with about 24 setae: i 

places; eastern and cei 

FlK- eOS— Pftnhni- 

7Weed). 4, darsal 
Ripect arter the re- 
mavftl of tbe legs; 
B, eye tobtccle. 

L caves and similar 
tral states. 

Order 7. AKAHBAE." (Auhbida.) 

Spiders (Fig. 653). Cepfaalotborax 
and abdomen mostly 
nnsegmented and uni- 
ted by a slender waist. 
Tbe body is often cov- 
ered with hairs or 
scales, and gray or 
dark in color when thp 
animal lives on or near 
the ground, but is 
often brightly colored 
when it lives on flowers, shrubs, or trees. Of the six pairs of appen- 
dages the mandibles or chelicerae are the most anterior; they are two- 

■ S»e "Catalogue of the Described Araiwae of Temperate North AmertM." by Dr. 
deorge Man, Proc. tl. 8. Nat. Mns., Vol. 12, ISSS. "AmerlcaD Bpldera." etc., by 
Heory C. UcCook, I8SS-1893. "tllstoH'e Naturelle des Aralgii«e^" by B. Blmon, Parts, 
1887-1904, 2iid Ed. "The Common Spldera of the UolCed Statea," by Jamea H, 

I of tbe ventral aspect of a 

(EmertoD) ; C, palpal organ of 

malt! (Wurburtonl , 1, pedipalp ; 2, mandible ; », max- 
Ilia; 4. Inbliim: C, Ires i S, sternnm ; T, eplxynuni ; 8, 
long splncle; 9, trocbeftl spiracle; 10, spinnerets; 11, 


jointed, the terminal joint being a sharp claW| near the end of which is the 
opening of a poison gland. The mandibles are usually directed downwards 
80 that the spider must strike when its prey is beneath it. The second 
pair of appendages are the pedipalps or palpi, which are leg-like in form 
and composed of six segments; the large and flattened basal segments 
of these are called the maxillae or endites and extend forwards, forming 
the principal jaws of the animals, being used to chew or squeeze the 

In the male the end of the pedipalp is enlarged and bears the 
more or less complicated palpal organ by which sperm is conveyed to 
the female in the act of pairing (Fig. 653, C). The four pairs of long 
walking legs are seven-jointed. The tarsus or terminal joint of each leg 
bears a pair of claws, the inner edge of each of which is toothed ; in many 
spiders a third smaller claw is also present and in others a thick brush of 
hairs. Between the maxillae is a plate called the labium or lip, and 
between the base of the legs is the sternum. The abdomen bears at 
its hinder end, just in front of the anus, usually 3 pairs of spinnerets, 
which are modified legs (Fig. 655). At the end of each spinneret are 
minute tubes which are the ends of the ducts of the silk glands; the 
fluid silk coming out of these tubes unites to form a single strand, and 
hardens on exposure to the air. In a few families a plate called the 
cribellum lies in front of the spinnerets from which spinning tubes also 
project; such spiders have a row or comb of stiff hairs on each of the 
hind legs called the calamistrum (Fig. 655) by means of which a band of 
silk may be spun. All the spinning tubes do not exude the same kind 
of silk, but a variety of kinds is produced which are used for various 
purposes, as for making the different parts of the web, nests, cocoons, etc 

Spiders are not well provided with special sense organs. The long 
legs and the hairs usually covering the body are tactile organs, and in 
most spiders eight simple eyes are present on the front portion of the 
cephalothorax usually in two rows, enabling the spider to see a i^ort 
distance (Fig. 653, B). 

The respiratory organs of spiders consist of two pairs of lungs in 
the Tetrapneumones, which are situated in the forward part of the abdo- 
men and open to the outside by slit-like spiracles on the ventral surface; 
in the Dipneumones one pair of lungs is present and a pair of tracheae, 
the latter opening in most cases through a single spiracle in front of 
the spinnerets. Each of the lung spiracles is covered with an int^^u- 

Kmerton, 1902. "Families and Genera of the Aranelda/* by Nathan Banks, Am. Nat, 
Vol. 34, p. 293, 1905. **Fanna of New England. A List of the Aranelda/' by Bllsa- 
beth B. Bryant, Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, Occ. Papers, No. 7, 1908. "Catalogne of Neartlc 
Spiders," by N. Banks, Bull. No. 22, U. 8. Nat Mas., 1910. **Tbe Spider Book/* by 
J. H. Comstock, 1912. 


insntal fold, and between them is the genit&l pore which, in the 
female, ia covered by a plate, often complex in structure, called the 

The arrangement of the internal organs of spiders will be seen in 
the accompanying diagram (Fig. 654). 

Spiders prey principally upon insects, but will usually kill and 
devour any animal smaller than themselves, including their own kind. 
The female not infrequently eats the smaller male when he approaches 
her at pairing time. Spiders may be divided, as to their method of 
taking their prey, into 2 groups: (1), the hunting spiders, which run 
on the ground or on plants and spring upon their prey, usually from a 
concealed retreat, and (2), cobweb spiders, which make webs to catch 
flying insects. The hunting spiders often make nests of silk; the cob- 
web spiders usually live in their webs or in nests near them. 

Tb« webs are of 4 kinds: (1), the very irregularly woven web of 

the house spider Theridion tepidariorum and other Theridiidae (Fig. 664) ; 

(2), the more or less 

irregular web of the 

lAttyphiidae and some 

other spiders, the most '^ 

important part of which f' 

consists of a large, flat ' 

or curved sheet held "^^^^ 

down by threads in all >-is|^ 

directions (Fig. 665); Fta. 6B4— latwniS anstomT of « iplder {"Sblpleji. .^" 

,n\ .LI- > L a .•^; es^ti'^ polwin Eland; 3. maftti ; 4.:Hraln: 5, ■* 

.<. J I 'J £ASM|IP*'8. >llk glandii 9. anns : 10, ^Iblsrats ; 11. otairi **^>. 
the Agelenuue/^amBi- 12, klduc; tubule ; -13, .Inteat&c ; liTbeart: dK, UT«t X 

. a 1 L 1 J ducts, tbc ItTcr, •havtas.Jieen removed! l(t( ^cklof 
ing of a flat sheet and atoDiat^u -.,-. "^ f T^ -• 

a funnel leading to a . -»**^ "' < ■ , '^^^ 

retreat; (4) the round webs of the gpcf rida^j e^ p « rp d of th«ea^^ 
radiating from a common center, witli cross th^d^t -ff'C' ^^ •' 

Spiders lay spherical eggs iriiich the female ~wffl^ wito silk into 
a, spherical or oblong mass caUcd the cocoon; this the spider often 
carries about for awhile in the mandibles or attached to the spinnerets, 
and fastens in the web or to grass or other objects, or hides in her nest 
Bome spiders conatruct burrows in the ground in which they deposit 
their cocoons. Spiders live usually less than a year. Great numbers, the 
adults of which die in the autumn on the approach of cold weather, pass 
the winter in the form of eggs, while others lie tftrpid among leaves on the 
ground and in other protected places. Spiders are bom with the form 
of the parent, but often differ from them at first very much in appear- 
ance; they are also sexually dimorphic, the males being smaller than 


the females, possessiBg the palpal organ, and often being differently 

Over 10,000 species are known, of which 1,300 belong in this country. 
The order contains 2 suborders and about 26 families. 

Key to the suborders of Araneae: 

Oi Two pairs of lungs; usually 2 pairs of spinnerets; claw of mandible 

vertical in position 1. Tbtbapneumohbs 

Ha One pair of lungs ; 3 pairs of spinnerets ; claw of mandible horisontal in 

position, working from the side, medially 2. Dipneumonis 


Often large spiders with 2 pairs of lungs and 2 or 3 pairs of spin- 
nerets; mandibles usually project more or less forwards, the claw of 
which projects downwards instead of transversely; with 8 eyes set 
closely together: tropical or subtropical spiders including the bird 
spiders and trap-door spiders; 3 families. 


Pedipalp arises near or at the tip of the maxilla, which is not dis^ 
tinct; the 4 lung spiracles covered by broad and often glistening folds: 
40 American species. 

Paohtloxebub* Ausserer. Trap-door spiders. Cephalothorax al- 
most as broad as long; abdomen ovoid; spinnerets 4; eyes close together, 
on low prominences, the lateral eyes being the largest; the extremities of 
the 2 hinder pairs of legs much thickened: 8 American species, in the 
southern states. 

P. andonini (Lucas). Length 20 mm.; the anterior lateral eyes 
the largest; third joint of the third pair of legs very short and crooked; 
color glossy brown: North Carolina; the animal lives in a cylindrical 
burrow in the ground lined with silk, the opening of which can be closed 
by a circular door which works with a hinge. 


Spiders with 1 pair of lungs; tracheae also present which open to 
the outside usually by a single spiracle; 3 pairs of spinnerets; mandibles 
directed downwards, the claws projecting from the side towards the 
median line: over 30 families. 

• See "A New Trap-Door Spider/' by G. F. Atkinson, Am. Nat., Vol. 20, p. 583, 



Key to the families of Dipneumones here described: 

Hi With cribellnm and calamistrum (Fig. 655). 

5s Eyes all dark-colored (diurnal) ; web usually regular 1. Ulobobidab 

&a Anterior median eyes dark, the other light-colored (nocturnal) ; web 

Oi Lateral eyes near together 2. Dicttnidas 

0^ All the eyes close together on an eminence 3. Filistatzdae 

Oa Without cribellum and calamistrum. ^ 

bi Two terminal claws on the feet. 

Cx Six eyes ; 4 spiracles ; ground spiders 4. Dtsdbbidas 

Ca Bight eyes present. 
di Eyes usually in 2 rows. 
ei First 2 pairs of legs not noticeably longer than the others. 

fi Fore spinnerets widely separated ; ground spiders 5. Dsassidab 

ft Fore spinnerets contiguous ; ground spiders 11. Clubionidas 

e^ First 2 pairs of legs much longer than the others ; crab spiders. 

10. Thomisidab 
d^ Eyes in 3 rows, the middle row being much smaller than the others. 

5, Three terminal claws on the last 3 pairs of feet. ^^- -A.ttidab 

Ci Legs very long, being over 4 times the length of the body 6. Phoixjidax 

Ct Legs not so long. 
di Eyes in 2 rows. 
6| Hinder part of spinnerets not very long. 

fi A comb of serrate bristles on the hind foot ; abdomen often globose. 
A No such comb. '^' Theridhdae 

ffi Basal segment of mandible with row of teeth on its outer surface ; 

small spiders with irregular webs 8. Lintphiidab 

fft No such mandibular teeth; usually large spiders with regular 

radial webs 9. Efeibiikab 

fft A semicircular notch at base of leg on penultimate segment. 


6i Hinder pair of spinnerets / 

very long and 2 jointed. 


d. Eyes in 3 rows. ..14. Ltcosidae /_^ ^^-n=i,-i-n. , ,. 
Family 1. XTLOBOItlDAE. U nt'V^^^^zr^ — :^7^^'' 

A cribellum and usually a cala- * ' 'VSiftiyiJlSC^^ 

mistrum (Fig. 655) present; lateral 3' jtSs^^^^*'^ 

eyes farther apart than the 2 pairs . ^'^'MNMu^I 

of median eyes; web usually round / 4 B 

and regular, with radiating spokes Fig. 655— A. part of fourth leg of 

• --^j V— — i.1 -J J AmauroMus; B, ventral view of hinder 

jomea by cross tlireaas and com- end of same, l, calamistrum ; 2, cribel- 

•.^«<^ ;» ««^ ^p ir*^«.« u^^A^ ^4» »;ii,.. ^^°^* 3» anterior spinnerets; 4, middle 
posea m part oi loose bands ox silK : spinnerets ; 5. posterior spinnerets ; 6, 

3 genera, and 6 American species. "'*»• <^^^^^'^^ Natural History.) 
1. Ulobobttb Latreille. Cephalothoraz ovate, rounded behind; eyes 

all of about the same size: 4 American species. 

U. plumipes Lucas. Length of female 7 mm. ; cephalothorax low ; first 

pair of legs in the female twice as long as the second, with a bunch of long 

hairs at the end of the middle segment ; color brown, with a median stripe 



on the cephalothoraz ; male without the calamistrum : common in shady 
woods and bushes, especially in the lower dead branches of pines. 

2. Htptxotss Walckenaer. Cephalothoraz nearly circular, trun- 
cate behind; eyes of the posterior row very much 
larger than those of the anterior: 1 American species. 
H. cavatUB (Hentz) (Fig. 656). Length of 
female 5 mm. ; abdomen ovoid, with 4 pairs of slight 
elevations covered with stiff hairs; color brown; web 
triangular in shape, with but 4 rays which radiate 
from a common strand held taut by the spider, and 
with cross strands : common, espeeiaUy in pine woods. 

Fig, 666 — ^Web of 

Hyptiotea oavatua 


Family 2. DIOTYNIDAE. 

With cribellum and calamistrum in female but 

not in male; lateral eyes near together on each side; 

web irregular, usually a dense network of threads with a hole into whidi 

the spider retreats, found in open places: about 35 American species. 

1. DxCTYVA Sundevall. Small spiders with sternum extending be- 
tween the hind legs; legs without spines; all the eyes of about same 
size ; head high Arched, about half as wide as the thorax 

and distinctly marked off from it: numerous species, 
about 19 in America. 

D. snblata (Hentz) (D, muraria Emerton). Body 
gray in color, with dark median marking on the abdo- 
men, and about 3 mm. long; cribellum large: web on 
walls, fences, weeds, etc., often conspicuous because 
of the dust it collects; common. 

D. foliacea (Hentz) (Z). volupis Keyserling). 
Body about 3 mm. long; cephalothorax brown; abdo- 
men yellow in the middle, and brown or red at the 
sides ; legs pale ; abdomen about as wide as the cephalo- 
thorax: web in bushes; conmion. 

2. AXAUBOBZVB Koch. Sternum not extending between the hind 
legs; cribellum divided into 2 parts; head large and distinctly marked 
off from the thorax; legs with spines: about 7 American species. 

A. benneti (Blackwall) (A. syPoestris Emerton) (Fig. 657). Body 
10 mm. long; cephalothorax dark brown; abdomen gray with median 
yellowish markings; the epigynum has 2 lateral lobes which meet behind: 
web under stones and sticks; common. 

A. feroz (Walckenaer). Like above, but the lateral lobes of the 
epigynum do not meet behind : in houses, especially cellars ; an European 
species introduced into this country. 

657— i 
robluB henneti 
(Emerton). A, dor- 
sal aspect ; B, male 
pedipalp without 
terminal segment. 



With eribellmn and calamistrum; all the eyes close together and 
upon an eminence; mandihles small; web like that of Dictyna: 1 
American species. 

FzusTATA Latreille. With the characters of the family: 2 species. 

F. hlbemalis Hentz. Body 12 nmi. long with legs about twice as 
long, and uniformly dark gray in color: one of the commonest house 
spiders of the southern states. 

Familt 4. DYSDEBIDAE.* 

With only 6 eyes; with a pair of tracheal spir&des immediately 
behind the lung spiracles : the animals build tube-like nests on the ground 
under stones and other objects; 3 American genera and species. 

Dtbdzxa Latreille. Eyes in a ring, close together; mandibles long 
and inclined forward: 1 species. 

D. interrita Hentz (Fig. 658). Length 12 mm.; the 
abdomen but little larger than the cephalothoraz ; color 
orange brown, lighter behind : New England. 

Family 5. DBA8SIDAE.* 

Elongated spiders with 2 claws and a bunch of flat- 
tened hairs on each leg; eyes all of the same size, usually 
in 2 rows; spinnerets widely separated: ground spiders jyyidera 
which build tube or sac-like nests ; about 60 American species. (smeiton). 

1. Dbassits Walckenaer. Eyes in 2 slightly curved 

rows, which diverge mid-dorsally, the posterior row longer than the 
Anterior; mandibles small; maxillae straight: 9 American species. 

D. neglACtOB Keyserling (D, saccatua Emerton). Length 20 mm.; 
color light gray, without markings; abdomen but little longer than the 
eephalothorax : the animal lives under stones and makes a large trans- 
parent bag of silk in which the cocoon is deposited; common. 

2. Ghaphoba Latreille. Eyes in 2 nearly straight rows, the upper 
row longer than the lower; those of the middle pair of the upper row 
being much nearer each other than the lateral eyes : 10 American species. 

G'. glgaatea Keyserling {G. conspersa Tborell). Length 12 mm.; 
color rusty black; eephalothorax and abdomen of about the same size; 
mandibles large, with a wide serrate tooth under the claw : under stones 
and leaves. 

8. SsBaxoLVB Simon. Maxillae arched around the labium; the 2 
rows of eyes nearly strai^t; no dorsal groove: 3 American species. 

* Bee "New England Spiders of the FamlUes Drassldae, Agelenldae, and Dysderl- 
dae,** by J. H. Bmerton, Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. 8, p. 1, 1890. 



8. yariegatUB (Hentz) (Fig. 659). Length 6 mm.; eephalothorrtx 
bright orange in color and smaller than the abdomen, which is black 
with 3 white stripes: on the ground. 


Eyes either 6 or 8 in number; legs very long, with 
3 claws on each of the 3 hinder pairs: 6 American 
, . genera. 

Pholoitb Walckenaer. Three large eyes in a group 
on each side of the head and 2 smaller 
eyes in the middle; abdomen elongate; 
cephalothoraz flat: 2 American species. 
i^iMSs ^' Pludangioides (Fuesslin) (Fig. 

oSmertonf. ^^^' ^^^ ^ ™™' ^^^^'' longest legs 5 

cm. long; color pale brown or gray: ft 

common house spider both in America and in Europe, 

living in cellars, and making a large, flat, irregular web. 

Family 7. THEEIDIIDAE.* 

Usually small, light-colored spiders with a large 
round abdomen ; eyes of about the same size, in 2 rows, ^t>£SS 

with the end eyes near together and the middle eyes phdUmsjoid^t — 

carrying Its 

farther apart; outer margin of mandibles parallel (ex- /r***SSt^ 

cept on Ste<xtoda) ; 3 claws on each leg : web often large, 
more or less irregular in form and loose in texture, and built in the cor- 
ners of rooms, on fences and rocks, and between the branches of low 
trees and bushes, the spider usually staying in the web; about 300 
American species. 

Key to the genera of TheridUdae here described : 

Ox Abdomen smooth and shiny, the hairs being very short 1. Steatoda 

a. Abdomen hairy. 
hj, The paired claws of the legs with a regular series of teeth almost to their 

tip 2. Lathrodectxts 

6, These claws with spreading teeth at their base. 

Ci Abdomen with a high, pointed hump. 3. Abgtbodbb 

C| Abdomen not with a hump. 

di Labium and sternum united 4. Spinthabus 

dt Labium not united with the sternum. 

Ci Anterior row of eyes curved 5. Thsbiduia 

e. Anterior row of eyes straight 6. THEamioir 

1. Steatoda Sundevall. Abdomen oval, smooth, and shiny; side 
eyes contiguous; those of the anterior row much larger than the middle 

* See "New Bngland Spiders of the Family Therldlidae," by J. H. BmertoDt 
Trans. Conn. Acad., VoL 6> p. 1, 1882. 



Stealoia boreaUa 


pur; the 2 mandibles straight and ptarallel to each other: liie web con- 
sists of a flat net held in place by numerous threads; 4 American species. 
S. borealii (Uentz) (Fig. C6l). Body about 6 mm. long and reddish- 
brown in color, the abdomen osnally with a li^t 
stripe running around the front half and one in the 
middle: among stones or in fence comers; common. 
8. LATHBODXcmni Walckenaer. Abdomen round 
and hairy; side eyes widely separated: 2 American 

L. mactans (Fabricius) (Fig. 662). Body 12 
iiim. long and black, with a bright-red, honrglass- 
shaped spot underneath, and one or more red spots 
over the spinnerets and sometimes along the middle 
of the back; abdomen of male ovoid, with a row 
of red and white spots in the middle line and 4 

pairs of red and white stripes on the sides: 
common; web large, with a funnel-shaped retreat 
in the middle. 

S. ASOTBODXS Simon. Abdomen with a 
high pointed hump: about 13 American species. 
A. trlgonnm <Uent!t) (F^. 663). Body yel- 
low, triangular in shape, 3 mm. long and 3 mm. 
high in the female; male with 2 horns in front 
of eyes: common; web between branches or 
leaves, or among the supporting strands of the 
webs of Isi%er spidere. 

4. Spihthabus Hentz. Labium and sternum 
united; abdomen tapering to a blunt point over 
spinnerets; side eyes close together: 1 
American species. 

5. flavidns Hentz. Body 4 nun. long ; 
cephalothorax circular; upper surface of abdo- 
men flat with a white stripe on each side and 
red and black in the middle : found on low 
plants; web unknown. 

6. Thzkibqul Emerton. Anterior row of 
eyes curved; first legs much longer than the 
fourth: 2 American species. 

T. sphemU (Hentz). Body 2.5 mm. long; cephalothorax yellow or 
orange with a median black stripe; abdomen round and wider than long, 
and yellowish-gray in color with a greenish -white spot in the middle 
and a black spot at either side: c 

Fit. 662 — Lathrodaetu* 
MOoliHi* (Comiitock). 


6. Theusiok Walokenaer, Anterior row of eyes etraight or nearly 
so; the 2 middle pairs of eyes of the same size, and equidistant from 
one another: about 40 American species. 

T. tapldlarlomm Eooh (Fig. 664). Body 6 mm. long, varying in color 
From whitish to black ; oephalothoraz usually 
light hrown, the dark individuals with 6 
transverse hlack marks on the abdomen : a 
eoetnopolitan species and one of the common- 
est hoose spiders, being chiefly responsible 
for the webs in the comers; it breeds sev- 
eral times a year and the young and old 
are found at all seasons. 

T. frondenm Hents. Body 3 mm. long, 
and white or bright yellow in color, with 
very variable black markings on the back, 
which may consist of 2 rows of spots or a 
median band: in bnshes; common. 
^, -j)^ T. dlllenns Emerton. Body about 3 

1^;^^ nun. long; abdomen round, reddish-brown, 

with a red median stripe having white 
Fi». mt—Theriiion tepida- edges, which is bright in the female and 
■[S5e?; B,^lito*web.*' *' "* obscure in the male ; sternum orange : web od 
low plants, 5 or 6 inches in diameter. 
T. mnrariiuu Em. Body about 4 mm. long; abdomen round, gray in 
color, with a reddish median stripe, white on the edges; stemom pale, 
with a black edge and a black median stripe : on low bushes. 

Small spiders with an elongate bnt high abdomen; mandibles with 
teetb around the terminal claw; epigynum and male appendages laige and 
complex : web consists of a flat or curved sheet of silk supported above and 
below by great numbers of threads and found either in open woods or near 
the ground in grass and dead leaves, or in eaves or cellars. The smaller 
species have the carious habit of flying in the late autumn. They come to 
the tops of fences and other elevated objects and cause their silk to be 
drawn out and floated aloft by the currents of air, until they are themselves 
lifted up and often blown long distances; about 95 American species. 

Key to the genera of lAnyphiidae here described : 
a, Female with a tertniual claw on the pedipalp. 

fij Hinder pair of median ?;ea not close together I. LlHiPHU 

h. Hinder pair of median eyes close tosetber 2. I.EPHTRTPHAHna 

a. No such terminal claw. 

b. No hard pUte on the abdomen H. Buooine 

bt Abdomen covered by a hard plate 4. CSBATinDXA 

AKiNEAE 428 

1. LlMSnUA Latreille. Legs with loog spiDes along their sides; 
niAzillafl longer than wide; hinder pair of median eyes not near to- 
gether; terminal segment of male pedip«dp very large and complex: 
about 22 American species. 

L. MirglBito Koch (Fig. 665). 
Body 4 mm. long; cephalothorax long 
and high in front; legs long and slen- 
der; color light yellow with median 
brown markings: web a dome 4 or 5 
inches in diameter hung between plants 
or rocks, in the middle of which the 
spider lives; one of the commonest 
K))iders in shady woods. 

L. phrygiaiui Koch. Body 5 mm. 
long; color light yellow with a median 
black stripe which is serrated on both 
matins on the abdomen: web a large 
sheet, common in woods and near 

2. LxPHTHX PUAima Menge. Maxillae longer than wide; legs with 
long spines along their sides; hinder pair of median eyes near together; 
stemom heart-shaped; penultimate joint of the legs with' a single spine: 
4 American species. 

L. nebnlosna (Snndevall) (Fig. 666). Length 4 
mm.; color variable, nsaally light brownish-yellow with 
gray markings: common in cellars and damp places about 
houses, the web being flat. 

S. Bueon* Savigny and Audonin. Pedipalp 
in the female without a claw; body rather narrow: 
very small spiders which live near the ground in grass, 
dead leaves, etc., in small webs; about 30 American 

E. longlpalpii (Sundevall). Body 2 mm. long, dark 

LepMhwham- brown in color; cephalothorax smooth and shiny and 

'(ConwttSo!* sometimes bright orange in color; small pointed teeth 

along the sides of the thorax. 

E. atttmnnalto Emerton. Body 1.2 mm. long, of a light color with 

a bright yellow head. 

4. OSKATivxLLA Emerton. Abdomen covered by a hard plate; 
pedipalp of female without a claw : 21 American species. 

e Brlgoiue of North America," etc., by C. B. Crosbj, 


0. flulc^g (Cambridge). Body 1.5 mm.; abdomen roimd, and 
orange in color; head black around the eyes; the head of the male 
extends forwards, fomung two humps: very common on small bnid:es. 

Fauilt 9. EPEIBIDAE.' 
Boimd-web spiders. Usually lai^ spiders with long legs and an 
abdomen which is rounded or ovoid and often provided with humps; often 
brightly colored; cephalotborax short, low in front with the eyes near 
the front edge and in 3 transverse 
groups, the 2 lateral pairs being dose 
together and separated from the mid- 
dle eyes; 3 terminal claws on eacb 
foot, usually with accessory spines 
also. The web is round and regular, 
with radiating epokes joined by cross 
threads (Fig. 667). The latter form 
2 spirals, an inner spiral that begins 
in the center and winds outwards, 
covering usually less than a qnarter 
of the finished web, and an onter 
spiral that begins at the et^ and 
winds inwards, covering a laige part 

Fig. ((87— An Mb web (Bmerton), of the web. The outer spiral ia 
1 Inner Bplral i 2, outer aplr&l ; 8, 
■trand koIdb to the Dist. formed of a sticky thread which holds 

the insects flying against it. The 
spider usually tears down its web and builds a fresh one every night : 
this may be for the purpose of renewing the sticky thread, which gradu- 
ally hardens. About 120 American species are known. 

Key to the genera of Epeiridae faere described: 
o, Abdomen not elonfiate, uBUBlly round or ovoid, 
b, Hioder row of «;es Btrongly curved ; targe brightly color^ spiders. 1. A^IOPk 
b. Hinder row of eyes not curved or only slightly so. 
c, ThorBi without a deep loasitadinal furrow. 

d. Head aad thorax separated by a deep traneverse cervical groove. 2. Ctcu>sa 
1^ No diBtiuct cervical groove ; thorax usually with a V^ahaped furrow. 
e. Abdomen without splues. 

/, Web entire 3. EPBIRA 

/, Web lacking a large legment 4. Znxi. 

e, Abdomea with promineut Hpinea 5. Acaosoiu 

c. Thorax with a deep loagitudinal furrow 6. Manoosa 

a. Body elongate and light-colored. 

b. Groove between the spiracles curved markedly T. TrrKAonATHA 

b. This groove nearly straight 8. Leucaoob 

■ Se« "New Bogland Spldem of the Family Bpelrldae," by J. H. Emerton. Traoa. 
Coun. Acad., Vol. e, p. 2&6, 1B84. "AmerlcaQ Splden," etc, by H. UeCook, To). 8, ». 
188, 18S8. 


L Absiops Savigny and Andouin. Cephalothorax flat; head very 
small; eyes all alikCf the eeoond row strongly curved, first row straight 
or curved: about 5 Ameriean species. 

A. anraotU Lucas (J. riparia Emerton) (Fig. 668). Body large 
and conspionone, tMing often 25 mTn. long, with long legs; abdomen 
black and 2 bright yellow or orange bands underneath ; cephalothorax 
gray above and yellow underneath: the web is sometimes 2 feet in diam- 
eter and has a zigzag band of silk across the middle; the male has a 
small, irregolar web nearby; in grass and bushes; in open fields, especially 
near water. 

A. trifasdata (Forskal) (A. tranavena Em.). Like the above, but 
a liltle smaller; abdomen white or light yellow, crossed by black lines: 
web often in marshes. 

2. OroLOflA Sfenge. Head and thorax 
of the female separated by a deep trans- 
verse groove: 5 American species. 

0. conlca (Pallas). Abdomen with a 
binnt conical lump at its hinder end; 
length 6 mm.; color gray: the web has a 
band of silk across it in which the spider 
fastens sticks and rabbish, and is pro- 
tected by its resemblance to them. 

8. X^PZIBA Walckenaer (^ran«H> 
Simon). Thorax withoat a transverse 
furrow; the 2 rows of eyes straight or 
nearly so, 4 eyes being median in posi- 
tion and a pair at some distance from 
them on each side: about 57 American 
species. : : 

E. foUat* Koch (E. strix Hentz). Pl«. 689— Xi^w oi«»««(to 

Length 8 mm.; color brown, with a broad 

scalloped stripe on the back of the abdomen; cepbalothoroz with 3 lon- 
gitudinal stripes: common all over the eonntry around houses and on 
bushes and fences, 

E. angulata (Clerck). Length 12 mm.; color dark brown, with a 
yellow stripe on the sternum and yellow spots on the under side of the 
abdomen; anterior end of abdomen with a pair of bumps and a yellow 
spot: common among trees. 

E. caratica Keyserling (E. cinerea Emerton). Length 18 mm.; color 
dirty white with grayish markings; long white hairs scattered over the 
body; abdomen with 2 small humps in front: common about houses and 
bams in New England. 


E. globosa Keys. Length 6 mm.; abdomen round and large, and 
yellowish in color, with 4 large, square, whitish or pinkish spots on the 
anterior and 3 or 4 pairs of black spots on the posterior portion : web 
large, with one segment left open or partly open and with a thread 
running from its center to the large nest; common. 

E. prompta Hentz. Body 6 mm. long and gray in color, with vari- 
able black and yellow markings on the back: common in low bushes. 

E. gigaa Leach (E. insularis Hentz) (Fig. 669). 
Length 16 mm.; abdomen large and ovoid, and 
bright yellow or orange in color with brown or 
purple markings; cephalothorax dull yellow: in 
bushes and low trees; the spider makes a nest 
of leaves in which it stays, holding a thread which 
runs to the center of the web; in all parts of the 

E. domidlionutt Hentz. Length 8 mm.; color 
Fig. M^-^BpeUra gigoB light yellow with brown markings, sometimes with 

red spots on the abdomen; cephalothorax with 3 
faint stripes; sternum bright yellow in the middle: in bushes and on 

E. trifolinm Hentz. Length 20 mm.; abdomen large and round, 
light or dark brown in color, with white spots; legs with conspicuous 
black or reddish rings; cephalothorax white, with 3 black stripes: in 
bushes and tall weeds; the spider has a nest of leaves joined with the 
center of the web by a thread like E, gigas. 

4. ZiLLA Koch. The 2 middle pairs of eyes near the 2 lateral pairs; 
the hinder row of eyes somewhat longer than the 

forward row; abdomen elliptical: about 4 American 

Z. atrica (Koch). Length 7 mm., with a large, 
somewhat flattened abdomen; color gray, with a broad 
scalloped stripe on the abdomen: a segment of the web 

|j«|l- ATA 

is without cross threads, opposite which a thread runs A^9oma 

from the center of the web to the nest; about houses. (CgSSSa}. 

5. AoBOSOlCA Perty (Micraihena Sundevall). Small 

brightly colored spiders with a flattened abdomen which is extended 
backwards and furnished with several pairs of pointed projections: the 
web often has a hole in the center; 4 American species. 

A. spinea Hentz (Fig. 670). Length 5 mm.; abdomen narrow in 
front and with 2 long spreading points behind ; 2 pairs of smaller spines 
also present; color white or yellow with black spots; spines red and 


6. HavSO&A Hentz. Thorax elevated behind and with a deep 
median furrow; second row of eyes stra^ht or enrved backwards: 3 
Ameiican species. 

IL gIbbmroM (Hents). Body 6 mm. long and light yellow or gray 
in color, the abdomen with 2 parallel black lines 
on the hinder half, and a number of small black 
spots: web with about 60 radial spokes and the 
cross spirals very close tt^ether. 

7. TxiBAGHATKA. LfitreiUe. Slender, light- 
colored spiders living in their webs in the long 
^ass in meadows and near water; mandibles 

lai^e, extending forward and divergent: abont 9 

4 American species, 

T. ftXtenBa (L.). Length 6 mm., with abdo- 
men twice as long aa the cephalothoraz ; color 
yellowish-brown or gray. 

8. Lkitoaii&e White. Elonzated spiders with rig. OTl — L«uMtv 
, , , , , , . HortOTBui (Einerton). A, 

the lateral eves near together and nearly equal in veatral view of female; 

B, dorMl view. 

Size; 3 claws on the feet: 2 American species. 

L. hortomm (Hentz) (Fig. G71). Body 6 mm. long; cephalothorax 
and legs briglit green; abdomen silvery white above, with a dark line 
through the middle with red and yellow spots: web large, with a zigzag 
band of silk across the center. 

Fakilt 10. THOHISIDAE.* 

The cmb spiders. Short, flat spiders, usually widened behind, with 
a sidewise gait and a crab-like appearance; the first and second pairs of 
legs much longer than the others and extended at right angles to the 
body; 2 claws on each foot; eyes in two curved rows: about 114 Ameri- 
can species, which are found on walls, flowers, and similar places; they 
do not make a web. 

K^ to the genera of Tbovtisidae here described; 
a, Body and iega crab-like. 
bi I.aterB.1 eyes on tubercleii. 
o, Two eye tubercles on each side. 

d, Hinder eye tubercle the larger 1. TUABUB 

d. Front eye tubercle the larxer S. Xtsticos 

Ct A single eye tubercle on each aide 2. MlsuuiNA 

t) No eye tubercle present. 

e. Labium much looger than wide 4. Philodbouus 

e, Lisblnm not longer than wide 5. Ebo 

a. Body long and slender, not crab-Iihe 6. Tibeu.'UB 

■ See "New KDtI*Dd Sptden of tbe Family nonlatOae," by J. H. Bnerton, 
TraoB. Conn. Arad., VoU 8. p. sng, 1B02. 



Fig. 672 

Tmarus oaudatut 


1. TxA&VB Simon. Front of head tnmcate; hinder row of eyes 

much longer than the forward; lateral eye on each side being raised on 

tuberdesy the hinder tubercle on each side being much larger than the 

forward one; abdomen high and pointed behind: 5 American speeies. 

T. candatiui (Hentz) (Fig. 672). Length 6 mm.; color mottled 

gray; abdomen highest at hinder end, which forms 
a conical knob: on trees and fences; common. 

2. IDsiriEBVA Latreille. Large, brightly colored 

or white spiders living in flowers, the colors of 

which they often mimic; the 2 lateral eyes on each 

side on a single tubercle: about 20 American species. 

]£ Tatia ThorelL Length 12 mm.; color white 

or yellow, sometimes with a crimson spot on each 

side of the abdomen and another between the eyes; 

sides of thorax yellowish : common. 

IL asperata (Hentz). Length 6 mm.; color pale yellow or white, 

with dull red markings on the abdomen and a brown stripe on each side 

of the thorax; scattered stiff hairs present; common. 

3. Xtbtiovb Koch. Each lateral eye on a tu- 
bercle, the forward one being the larger ; median ocular 
area as wide or wider in front than behind : 40 Ameri- 
can species, which live under bark, stones, and leaves. 

X. trignttatns Keyserling. Length 5 mm.; females 
straw-colored or yellow, with black spots on the 
thorax and front of the abdomen and 3 broken trans- 
verse stripes behind ; male with a thorax which is dark 
brown at the sides and lighter in the middle, and an 
abdomen banded with black and white: very common 
in grass and low bushes. 

X. yersieolor (Keyserling) (Fig. 673). Length 7 
mm.; body flattened, mottled black and gray in color: 
common on trees, fences, etc. 

4. PKiLOBBOinni Walckenaer. Abdomen bluntly 
pointed behind and flat; legs long, the second pair 
being the longest; labium much longer than wide: 24 
American species. 

P. vulgaris (Hentz) (Fig. 674). Length 6 mm.; legs very long, 
spreading an inch or more; color mottled gray with a median marking 
on the abdomen: on fences and walls. 

5. Ebo Keyserling. Labium not longer than wide; second pair of 
legs twice as long as any of the others; median eyes larger than the 
lateral ones; hinder row nearly straight: 3 American species. 

Fig. 078 

Fig. 674 

Fig. 673— Xy»- 
tiou9 venioolor 

iBmerton). Fig. 

muB f>«l0ari« 



E. latitiioraz Keys. Length 3 mm.; color gray and white, with 
black spots; body very wide; head narrow in front. 

6. TiBELLxrs Simon. Body long and slender, the legs 
projecting ahead and behind and not sideways; both 
rows of eyes curved: 2 American species. 

T. oUongQB (Walckenaer) (T. duttonU Emerton) (Fig. 
675). Length 12 nun.; width 2 nmt; color gray or yellow, 
with dark longitudinal bands and a pair of black spots 
on the hinder part of the abdomen: very conmion on 
bushes and grass. 

Familt 11. CLUBIONIDAE. 

Light-colored spiders usually without color markings ; 
upper row of eyes longer and the eyes usually larger 
than the under row; mandibles of females swollen at 
the base : the animals live in flat tubular webs in roUed-up 

Fix. 675 

leaves or on plants and under bark and stones; about 95 Tibettus 

American species. (Bin«rton). 

Key to the genera of Cluhionidae here described : 

lit Posterior spinnerets with a very distinct, conical terminal segment. 
&i Labium much longer than wide and extending beyond the middle of the 

maxillae 1. Clubiona 

\ Labium about as long as wide or less so, and not extending beyond the 
middle of the maxillae ; sternum extending between the hind legs. 

2. Phbubolithus 
Oa Posterior spinnerets with a very short and fre- 
quently indistinct terminal segment. 
5i Cervical groove present. 

Ci Legs spiny 3. CASTlAlfEiaA 

0^ Legs not spiny 5. Trachelas 

&i Cervical groove absent 4. Mioasia 

1. Clvbioka Latreille. Hinder legs longer 

than forward; spinnerets distinctly segmented; 

^ . labium longer than wide; mandible long; eyes very 

near the front margin of head : about 20 American 


0. obesa Hentz (C. crassipdlpia Keyserling) 

(Fig. 676). Length 6 mm.; pale in color, without 

markings; mandibles and ends of male pedipalps 

Fig. 676 — CfiuhUHta dark: eyes in each row equidistant, the hinder 
ooeta (Bmerton). • . , , 

row being the longer: common. 

2. PHBimOLZTHirB Koch. Each terminal claw with 6 to 10 spatu- 

late hairs; sternum broad and extending between the hind legs: 8 

American species. 


P. alarins (Hentz) (Fig. 677). Length 3 mm.; cei^alothoraz light 
yellowish, with a black line on each edge; abdomen covered with irides- 
cent scales which change in color from grayish-green to pink: a very active 
spider living among stones on the ground. 

S. OABTUJnOBA Keyserling. Cervical groove pres- 
ent; anterior median eyes not close to the margin of the 
head; l^s spiny: about 18 American species. 

0. descripta (Hentz) (C, crocata Emerton). Length 
8 nmi.; body black, with a bright red spot on the end of 
the abdomen; ends of legs yellow: among stones in dry, 
open places; its egg case is a small parchment-like disc 
attached to a rock. 

4. MXOAMIA Westring. Body covered with scale-like 
hairs; last segment of the hind spinnerets very short, 
frequently indistinct, with an oblique groove; no cervical 
groove: 13 American species. 
piJ2^iithu8 ^ aurata (Hentz). Body resembles an ant in size 

(Bm^on). ^T^^ color; length 6 nmi.; color light brown, varying to 

bright yellow and orange: eastern states. 
5. T&AOKXLAS Koch. Posterior row of eyes curved forward ; legs with- 
out or with few spines, dorsal groove present: about 5 American species. 
T. tranqoilla Hentz (T. ruber Keyserling). Length 8 mm.; cephalo- 
thorax wide; abdomen ovoid; color deep orange brown, the abdomen 
much lighter than the cephalothorax : under stones and leaves. 

Familt 12. AGELENTOAE. 

The funnel-web spiders. Cephalothorax large, and often narrow in 
front and broad behind; cervical groove present; hind spinnerets very 
long and 2-jointed ; mandibles large ; 3 terminal claws on the feet : mostly 
large spiders which make a flat web on the grass and in the comers in 
bams and cellars, in the middle of which is a funnel-shaped tube form- 
ing the spider's retreat; about 50 American species. 

Key to the genera of Agelenidae here described : 

Oi Spinnerets not in a transverse line. 

^1 Both rows of eyes strongly curved backward 1. Agelexva 

5b Both rows of eyes not or but slightly curved backward. 

Ci Anterior median eyes much smaller than the lateral 2. Oobas 

c. Anterior median eyes either equal in size or smaller than the lateral. 

3. Tegkrabia 
Ob Spinnerets in a straight or curved line 4. Hahhu 

1. Agelxva Walckenaer. Both rows of eyes strongly curved back- 
wards so that the anterior median and the posterior lateral are in a 
straight line; terminal segment of the hind spinnerets at least as long 
as the basal segment: about 4 American species. 



A. ]uevi» Walck. Grass spider (Fig. 678). Body 18 mm. long or 
UeB, and yellowish brown, or blaek in color, with gray or dark markings 
and apoU on the abdomen and broad longitudinal stripes on the cephalo- 
ihorax, and covered with fine hairs: the very 
common spider which makes flat webs in the 
grass which are conspicuous when covered by 
dew; also io bouses. 

2, OoBAS Simon. Rows of eyes not curved 
or but slightly so; anterior median eyes much 
lai^r than the lateral: 1 species. 

0. medlciluUs (Hentz) (Fig. 679). Body 
12 mm.' long, li^t yellowish-brown in color and 
oovered with gray hairs; abdomen large and 
oval and marked with gray 
spots of irr^ular shape: in 
woods among rocks and under 
loose bark, the web is not flat, 
hut is nsually curved in sev- 
eral places. 

3. Teozmabu Latreille. Eyes all of the same 
size, both rows cnr\-ed, the forward row but slightly; 
l^s long and slender: about 7 American species. 

T. derhunl (Scopoli). Body 10 mm. long, pale 
in color, with gray stripes and spots; first and fonrth 
pairs of legs the longest: in cellars, bams, etc.; the 
web often forme a thick shelf in the 
comer; very common, having been im- 
ported from Europe, it and TheHdion 
tepidariorum making moat of the comer 
webs in cellars. 
4, Hah>U Koch. Spinnerets extend across the abdo- 
men in a straight or curved line; anterior middle eyes 
smaller than the lateral : about 6 American species. 

H. agllll Keyserling {S. bimaculata Emerton) (Fig. 
680). Lengtb 3 mm.; cephalotborax bright orange brown 
in color and the legs and abdomen pale yellowish with gray markings: 
oommon under stones and leaves or among grass and moss. 

Pamilv 13. PIHATJBIDAB. 
Eyes in 3 rows; cocoon carried in the mandibles of the female; 
cephalothorax broad and flat: ground spiders of large size similar to the 
Lycosidae; about IS American species. 



1. PiBATrsiVA Simon. Anterior row with 4 eyes of same size and 
straight; area of the middle eyes longer than broad: 3 American speeies. 

P. nndata (Walckenaer). Length 13 mm.; color light brownish- 
yellow, with a wide, median, dark band edged with white running 
the length of the body; abdomen long and narrower than the cephalo- 
thorax : common in bushes ; no web is made 
until the young are ready to hatch, when 
the female builds a small web about the 
cocoon in which the young may live. 

2. DoLOMEDSB Latreille. Area of the 
middle eyes as broad or broader than long; anterior 
row of eyes curved forward : 7 American species. 

D. fontanna Emerton {D. tenehrosus Em.) (Fig. 
681). Length 20 mm., with legs spreading 10 cm.; 
color gray; cephalothoraz larger than the abdomen 
and with light bands on the side ; abdomen with dark 
cross lines: common on the ground in low 
bushes near water with habits like P. 

D. sexpnnctatna Hentz. Length 15 
mm.; color dark greenish-gray, with a whitish line 
on each side of the length of the body; abdomen 
larger than the cephalothorax ; sternum with 6 dark 
spots : common under stones near the water on which Fig. 681 

_., Dolomedes fontanm» 

it runs readily. (Emerton). 

Family 14. LYOOSIDAE.^ 

Wolf spiders. Large, active spiders which live on or near the 
ground; eyes .usually in 3 rows; in the front row are 4 small eyes and 
back of these 2 pairs of large eyes; cephalothorax high and prismatic; 
feet with 3 claws, the small one surrounded by hairs : no web built, but 
many species line their retreats with silk; the cocoon is attached to the 
spinnerets and the young spiders are carried for a short time on the 
mother's back; about 114 American species. 

Key to the genera of Lycosidae here described : 

Oi Labium longer than broad. 
hx Posterior spinnerets not longer than the anterior or but slightly bo. 

Ci Cephalothorax highest in tiie cephalic region 1. Ltgosa 

Ct Cephalothorax highest in the middle 2. Tbochosa 

5, Posterior spinnerets half again as long as the anterior 4. Pibata 

o. Labium at least as broad as long. 3. Paboosa 

* See "New England Lycosldae/* by J. H. Emerton, Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. 6, p. 
481, 1886. "Canadian Spiders," by same, ibid., VoL 9. 1895. "DescriptionB of North 
American Araneae of the Families Lycosidae and Pisanridae," by T. H. Montgomery, 
Proc. Acad. Nat Sd., Phila., 1904, p. 261. 


1. Ltooba Latreille. Head very high and with sloping sides; 
labium longer than broad; hinder 2 pairs of eyes not on the margin 
of the head ; legs usually long and with long spines : about 50 American 

L. hellno Walckenaer (L. nidicola Emerton). Length 18 mm.; long- 
est legs 25 mm.; eolor dull yellow or greenish-brown, with 3 narrow 
yellow stripes on the cephalothorax and a pointed stripe on the front 
half of the abdomen : common under stones in moist meadows and woods ; 
the female is seen with her cocoon in early summer. 

L. avida Walck. (L. communis Em.) (Fig. 682). Length 10 mm.; 
longest legs 18 mm. ; color from gray to black, with 3 light stripes on the 
eephalothorax and a pair of broad median stripes meeting behind on the 

abdomen: common in pastures, the female is carry- 
ing her cocoon in early summer. 

L. rabida Walck. (L. scutulata Hentz). Length 
13 mm.; longest legs 26 mm.; cephalothorax dark 
gray in color, with 3 light stripes; abdomen with a 
wide median stripe and several light and dark lines 
at each side. 

L. carolinensis Walck. One of our largest 

spiders, sometimes over 35 mm. long with legs 

^ spreading 75 nmi. ; body covered with thick hidr and 

/brown above and black beneath in color: on the 
ground or in its hole, a deep cylindrical pit, in which 
the eggs are hidden. 

^ia^l^wton^ ^ ^^^^ ^^" (^- f^^^^^ola Scudder). Sand 

spiders. Length 18 mm. ; color of male gray or sand 
color, with a spot in the middle of the abdomen, female gray or slate 
color, with a broad, serrate band on the abdomen: the female lives in 
a hole 10 inches deep, around the mouth of which is sometimes a low 
turret of sticks. 

2. Troohosa Koch. Legs quite short; first row of eyes about as 
long as the second, which is not quite as long as the third row: 4 
American species. 

T. cinerea (Fabricius). Length 12 mm.; body gray or sand color 
with small spots : common on beaches and in sandy fields. 

3. Pabdoba Koch. Slender spiders with long legs; labium at least 
as broad as long; front row of eyes shorter than the second; second and 
third pair of eyes large and near the lateral margin of the head: 30 
American species. 

P. nigropalpis Emerton. Length 6 mm.; color black with a wide, 
irregular median area; pedipalps of male black: on the ground. 



bUU . 

Fig. 683 — Pirata 
piraiica (Emerton). 
A, dorsal aspect; B, 
front view, showing 
the eyes. 

4. PzBATA Sundevall. Labium longer than broad; first row of eyes 

as broad as the second: beneath stones and in the grass near the water 

over the surface of which they may freely run; 16 American species. 

P. piratica (Clerck) (P. marxi Stone) (Fig. 683). Length 6 mm.; 

color pale yellow with gray or black markings; 

eyes of the second row about half their diameter 

Familt 15. ATTIDAE.^ 

^^^ ^SM Jumping spiders. Eyes in 3 rows, the front 

row usually curved and composed of 4 large eyes, 
the second row of 2 very small eyes, the third row 
far back on the head and composed of 2 laige eyes 
which are usually turned a little backward; cepha- 
lothoraz large and wide in front; legs strong and 
short and with 2 terminal claws on each; body cov- 
ered with hairs or scales: no web made, but some 
species make silk bag-like retreats on plants and 

under stones; the spiders run and jump sidewards and backwards as well 

as forwards; about 213 American species. 

Key to the genera of Attidae here described : 

a, Body not shaped like an ant. 
hi Abdomen not longer than the hind legs. 
Oi Body not noticeably flattened. 
di Front row of eyes not touching one another. 

ei Eye area broader than long, body short and wide 1. Attus 

e^ Eye area not broader than long. 

fi Eye area somewhat wider behind than in front 2. Phidipfus 

/, Eye area quadrangular 3. Dendbyfhantes 

di Eyes of front row touch one another 4. Salticus 

Os Body noticeably flattened 5. Mabfissa 

hi Abdomen longer than hind legs 6. Htctia 

0, Body like an ant in shape 7. Stnemostna 

1. Atttts Walckenaer. Eye area broader than long; 
first leg with 2 rows of spines on distal half; third leg 
shorter than the fourth: about 6 American species. 

A. palostris Peckham (Fig. 684). Length 6 nun.; 
color brown or gray, with a median white line on the 
cephalothorax ; abdomen with white spots and markings: 
on plants, with nests among the leaves. 

2. PHZDZPPmi Koch. Cephalothorax high; eye area wider behind 
than in front; first leg thick and long; third leg shorter than the fourth: 
about 50 American species. 

* See "Attidae of North America," by O. W. and B. O. Peckham, Trans. Wis. 
Acad. Sci., Vol. 7, 1888. "New England Spiders of the Family Attidae," by J. H. 
JBmerton, Trans. Conn« Acad., VoL 6, p. 220, 1891. 

Big. 684— At- 

ius palustri9 



F. podlgronu Hentz (P. mtiUiformis Emerton) (Fig. 685). Length 
8 mm.; males black, with white and orai^e markings on the abdomen; 
female brown, mixed with black, white, and yellow, 
there being 3 or 4 paits of white spots on the abdo- 
men of both sezes : very common on plants, with hag- 
like neats among the leaves. 

?. sndaz Hents. Length 12 mm.; color black, 
with 3 large, white spots on the abdomen and several 
smaller ones: common onder stones and sticks where 
it has a nest. 

3. DxwsBTFKAvm Koch. Second and third 

rows of eyes both small; eye area forma a quadrangle; 

cephalothorax rather high and short; 

third leg shorter than fourth: about 

^ American species. Big. 689 — PMdip- 

— . IT. , P"' podagroia» 

a, capitatna (Hentz) (£>. ceattva- lEmertoD). 

lu Peckham). Length 5 mm.; legs 
ringed; color variable, in male dark brown with a white 
stripe on each side, in female %ht yellow with 4 pairs 
of brown spots on the abdomen: common on bushes. 

4. SALTlcrtTfl Latreille (Sptblemum 
Hentz). Eyes of front row touching one 
Pit esq Barn another; mandibles of male very long and 
?Hmert™)* projecting in front of bead: 4 American 
8. BcenicoB (Clerck) (Fig. 686). Length 6 mm.; gray 
in color with 2 pairs of oblique, white spots on the abdo- 
men and 2 white spots on the cephalothorax: one of 
the commonest jumping spiders, on houses and fences; 
also in Europe. 

6. MaBWBBA Koch [Marptuaa Tborell). Cephalo- 
thorax and abdomen both widened in the middle and of 
about the same size; l^s long and thick: 6 American 

H. familiuis (Hentz). Length 12 mm.; body flat- 
tened, gray in color; cephalothorax with a dark brown 
band along each side; abdomen with a broad, irregular, 
yellowish-white median band : common on houses and ~^ ^^ 
fences. Huctia pux 

6. Htotia Simon. Abdomen long and slender and 
narrower than the cephalothorax; front legs much lai^r than the others: 
2 American species. 


H. pikal PeckbKtn (Fig. 087). Body 8 mm. long and very slender, 
with the abdomen twice as long as the cephalotborax and longer than the 
hind legs; ahdomen with a very broad, black stripe having 3 notches on 
each side; rest of the body whitish; front legs brown, others white: 
common on sand and grass, on which it often lies with the l^s p&rallei 
to the body, so that it wonld be seen with difficulty. 

7, Stvzhostha Hentz. Cephalothorax and abdomen each with a 
deep dorsal depression; middle of the body slender, front middle eyes 
large, the rest small : 1 species. 

S. formica Hentz. AnMike spider (Fig. 68S). Body 6 mm. long 

and very slender; cephalothoraz narrowed behind and the abdomen in 

front, and each has a deep dorsal depression in the middle; 

color black with yellowish mailings: the spider resembles 

an ant in shape and method of walking. 

Order 8. AOABINA.* 

The mites. Small arachnids, in which eephalothonz 
and abdomen are nnsegmented and so jomed that the short, 
thick body is more or less ovoid or globose in shape. In 
some forms a suturo separates the forward part of the body 
with two pairs of legs from the hinder part with the two 
hinder pairs; in a few also the abdomen is elongated and 
annnlated, althougji not segmented. The «x pairs of ap- 
«v^>«tiia«v<H> pondages are well developed and consist of the mandibles 
(^mertoD). ""^ pedipalps and four pairs of legs, except in the £no- 
phyidae, which have but two purs. The mandibles may be 
chelate or formed for piercing and sacking. The pedipalps are usually 
more or less leg-like, with five joints or less, and in some forms they 
are chelate or subchelste ; the basal joints may form plates called 
the maxillae, or they may unite to form a lip or labium. Accessory 
mouth parts are often present, as a hypostome or under lip and tongue, 
and an upper lip or epistome; the latter may be united with the 
lip below to form a tube called the rostrum, from which the man- 
dibles protrude. The legs are osually 5-jointed and end each with two 
claws. The estemal surface of the body is more or less covered with 
tactile hairs or with scales. Eyes are either present or absent. The 

• S«e «A Tr««tlBe on tbe Acariua or Hltei," by Nathan Banks, Proe. U. B. Kat. 
Hoa.. Vol. 28, p. 1, 1905. 'A Catalogup of the Apnrlna or MItea of the United 
Btatea." by Natban Bcnks, name. Vol. 32, p. tlSG, IBOT. "Th« Life History and 
BlnomlcB of Some North American Ticks," tay W. A. Hooker iDd others. Ball. 106, 
Bur. Ent., V. S. Dept. Ag., 1QI2. "New Mites," by U. E. Ewing, Bull. Am. Has. 
Nat. HUt, Vol. 32, p. 93, 1813. "The Acarina," by N. Banki, Bep. lOB, Bur. Ent, 


anas is at the hinder end of the body; the genital pore lies in front 
of it. 

The internal structure is characterized by its compactness. The 
digestive tract is well developed. Two Malpighian tubules, if any, are 
present. Many forms have no special respiratory system; others have 
tracheae, which open to the outside through a pair of spiracles situated 
either at the base of the mandibles or near the hind l^s. 

The nerve ganglia are all united into a single mass, which is pierced 
by the OBSophagus. Mites are unisexual animals. The young animal is 
usually bom as a larva with six legs (Fig. 713, C) ; after feeding awhile 
it passes into a resting stage, from which it emerges as a so-called 
nymph, which has eight legs but no genital orifice; at the end of the 
nymphal stage it again becomes quiescent and develops into the adult. 
In some forms the development is abbreviated and the young animal is 
bom as a nymph, or even as an adult. The six-legged larval stage has 
been observed in certain species to be preceded by an eight-legged embry- 
onic stage, which seems to indicate that the former condition is not a 
primitive one. 

Most mites are land animals and about half the species are parasitic, 
many, as the itch and mange mites and the ticks, being among the most 
troublesome and even dangerous parasites infecting man and his domestic 
animals. Many are parasitic on insects, especially on beetles and ants. 
A few are entoparasites, Halarackne, living in the trachea of seals, and 
Pneumonysstis, in the lungs of a monkey. The non-parasitic forms eat 
small animals, including each other, and also decaying plant or animal 
matter, and are found on plants and the ground, under bark or dead 
leaves, while some form galls on plants. The Hydracknidae and Halaca- 
ridae are aquatic, the former living in fresh and the latter in salt water. 
They are, however, very little modified for swimming, and possess no gills. 
The order contains about 3,000 species, about 500 being known in this 
country. These are grouped in about 26 families. 

Key to the families of Acarina here described : 

Ox Body elongate and worm-like, the hinder part ringed ; animals minute. 

&i Gall mites ; but 4 legs present 1. Bhiophtidas 

5, Eight legs present ; mammalian parasites 2. Demodicidae 

o. Body not worm-like. 
\ No spiracles or trachea present ; minute mites. 
Ox On mammals or birds. 
dx Itch and mange mites ; parasites in the skin of mammals. .3. Sabcoptidak 

d. Bird mites ; among the feathers of birds 4. ANALOBsroAE 

c^ In fruit, grain, cheese, etc., and in certain plants 5. Ttboglypuidae 

ba Spiracles and tracheae usually present 
Cx Homy mites ; a pair of usually club-shaped bristles on cephalothorax. 

6. Obibatidab 
c. No such bristles. 



di Each spiracle in a stigmal plate (Fig. 700, G) near the fourth pair of legs. 
Ci Stigmai plate in front of fourth leg. 

fx Not on birds (except the genus DermanyMus) 7. GAiCASiDiJE 

/a Parasitic on birds 8. Argasxdak 

€b Stigmai plate behind fourth leg 9. Ixodidak 

di Spiracles not in stigmai plates, but at the base of the mandibles or near 
the fourth pair of legs. 
e^ Aquatic mites. 

A Fresh-water mites 10. Htdbachiodab 

/, Salt-water mites 11. Halacabidae 

e. Not aquatic. 

ft Mandibles long and snout-like 12. Bdeludab 

/, Mandibles not so ; body often red. 

Qx Mandibles chelate ; eyes stalked 13. Tbombidiidak 

gt Mandibles piercing ; eyes sessile. 
hi Mid-dorsal line present; not web-spinning. . . .14. Rhtncholophidae 
h^ No mid-dorsal line ; web-spinning 15. Tetranychidae 

Familt 1. EBIOPHYIDAE.^ (Phttoptidak.) 

Oall mites. Body minute and worm-like, the hinder 
part being greatly prolonged and ringed ; eyes and tracheae 
absent; but 2 pairs of legs present, the hinder 2 parts being 
represented by wart-like projections or by hairs; pedipalps 
leg-like and 3-jointed, and holding between them the ros- 
trum, in which lie the needle-like mandibles; anus at the 
hinder end. The animals feed on plant juices and are the 
cause of galls, fuzzy spots, and other deformed structures 
on plants. The gall always has an opening (differing in 
this respect from those of the Hymenoptera and the Dip- 
tera, but not the Homoptera) and vary much in form 
among the different species. A fuzzy spot or erineum is a 
dense mass of twisted hairs, among which the mites live. 
Some of these mites live in buds and kill them, others cause 
the edge or surface of a leaf to curl or fold, while still 
others produce abnormal growths on twigs. The family 
contains about 227 species, 27 species being American. 

Ebiophyes von Siebold {Phytoptus Dujardin). 
Number of rin^ about the same on upper and under sides 
of the body: about 144 species, 22 American. 
E. P3nri (Pagenstecker). Pear-leaf blister. Length .19 mm.; width 

.05 mm.: causes round, red spots on pear leaves, the opening being on 

the under side; the animals winter in the leaf buds. 

* See "The Pbytopt! and Other Injurious Plant Mites/* by H. Garmsn, Twelfth 
Rep. of St. Ent. Illinois, 1883, p. 23. "Eriophyldae/* by A. Nalepa, Das Tlerrelch, 
1898. "Galls and Insects Producing Them,*' by M. 8. Cook, Ohio Nat., Vol. 2, p. 293 ; 
Vol. 3, p. 419 ; and Vol. 4, p. 125, 1902-04. "The Brtophyidae, Part I, The Apple and 
Pear Mites," by P. J. Parrott, H. B. Hodgkins and W. J. Scboener, Bull. 283, N. Y. 
Ag. Bz. St., 1906. 

Fig. 689 


ACAniNA 439 

E. Tttii (Laudois) (Fig. 689). Prodoces an erineum on the under 
side of ^ape leaves, which causes a swelling on the upper sidej length 
.16 nun.; width .032 mm. 

£. gnadrlpea (Shimer). Prodnces round galls on 
leaves of the soft maple. 

Paioli 2. DEMODICIDAE.* 

Body minste and worm-like, the hinder part being 
greatly prolonged and ringed; eyes and tracheae abeent; 
4 paira of 3-jointed lege; pedipalps close against the to»- 
tnim; anns just back of the hind l^s: 1 genus with about 
6 species. 

Dexosuc Owen. With the characters given above: 
several species, which live in sebaceous glands and hair 
follicles of man and the domestic animals. 

D. foUicnlonim Simon (Fig. 690). Length A mm. or less; width 
.05 nun.: in the skin of the human face, supposed to be the cause of 
"blackheads"; also in eattle and h(%s. 

D. boria Stiles. Length .25 nun.; width .064 nun.: in the skin of 
cattle, causing swellings of the size of a pea in the hide. 

Pakilt 3. 8AEC0PTIDAE." 
Itch mites. Body minute, globular, or ovoid in shape, finely striated 
on the surface and with a few long bristles; eyes and tracheae absent; 
legs short, each ending in 1 or 2 claws or a stalked or sessile sucker or a 

of female ; B, ventral aspect 

bristle; pedipalps close against the rostrum; mandibles usually chelate: 
in the skin of mammals and a few birds, causing itch and mange. The 
female burrows through the skin, feeding on the tissues, and leavii^ a 
row of e^s behind her, and finally dies at the end of her burrow. Tb« 
■ See "Demodlddae tt Sareoptldae," Dm Tiemlcb, 18M. 



Fig. 692 

P9<Hropte9 OVi9 — 

female (Banks). 

young female on being fertilized starts a burrow and thus a host 
becomes infested in patches. About 100 species, 13 species beiifg^ 

1. SAmooPTBS Latreille. The first two pairs of legs end with 
stalked suckers and in the male the fourth pair also; the others end 

each with a long bristle ; mandibles chelate : in mammals, 
burrowing in the skin; about 14 species, 6 American. 
8. BCabiei (DeGeer) {8, hominis Hering). Itch mite 
(Fig. 691). Length of female .45 mm.; width .35 mm.; 
male half as large; egg .14 mm. long: causes itch in 
man and mange in hogs. 

8. canis Qerlach. Mange mite. Length of female 
.48 mm.; width .35 mm.; egg .17 mm. long: Gau£|^ 
mange in dogs, also in man« 

8. cati Hering. Mange mite. Length of female 
.25 mm.; width .2 mm.; egg .1 mm. long: causes mange 
in cats. 

2. PsoROPTXB Gervais. Mandibles adapted for 
piercing and not burrowing; stalks of leg suckers jointed: on the 
surface of the skin of mammals, where they suck blood; 5 speeiea 

P. OYis Hering. Scab mite (Fig. 692). Length of 
female .60 mm.; width .40 mm.; egg 2 mm. long: on 
sheep, cattle, and horses, causing scab; the eggs hatch 
in 2 or 3 days and the young mature in 15 days; the 
females hve several weeks, laying numerous eggs; an 
infection thus spreads very rapidly and may cause the 
death of the host; commoo in the west. 

3. Chobioptsb Gervais. Females with suckers on 
the fourth pair of legs: on the surface of the skin of 
mammals, being restricted to certain parts of the 
animal; 2 species. 

0. commnnis Ziim. Length of female .42 mm.; width .27 mm.: 
causes local inflammation in the ears of dogs, cats, and rabbits. 

4. OvEiaDOOOFTSB Fiirst. Female without suckers on any of the 
legs; mandibles chelate: on birds; 2 American species. 

0. mntans Robin (Fig. 693). Length of female .45 mm.; width .35 
mm. : the itch mite of fowls, causing scaly leg, but also appearing among 
the feathers. 



Family 4. ANALGESIDAE. (Debmalxichidax.) 

Bird mites. Minute mites with an elongated body, a transversely 
striated integument and often a transverse suture between the front 2 


and tbe back 2 pairs of legs; maadibtes uBually chelate and beneath an 
epistome; legs with 5 jointe and with a terminal sucker; in some genera 
the male has a pair of clasping suckers and copnlator; legs; abdomen 
often bilobed behind: 31 genera and 400 species, whieh live npon birds, 
feeding on the feathers, epidermal scales, etc., and usually not parasites; 
24 American epecies. 

1. AjfALd'is NitzBch {Dermaleichus Koch). Body elongate, with the 
hinder end rounded or pointed, and 

□ever deeply bilobed; spines on the 
first pair of Ic^; third pair of l^ia 
of male larger than the others and 
endii^ with claws and not suckers; 
,basal joint of first and second leg with 
a backward projection: on singing 
birds; 23 species, American, 

A. pauerinns (L.) (Fig. 694). 
Length .45 mm. ; third pair of legs of 
male enormously enlarged and used as 
claspen: a European mito, found on 

, . , 1.-1 PlR. 694 — Analgt* pautritmi IB*aU). 

several species of Amenoan birds. a, male; B, femtle. 

2. IbsKuru, Berlese. Third pair 

of 1^^ much larger than the fourth, with long spines on the terminal 
joint; end of abdomen deeply bilobed in male: 42 species, 6 American. 
IL colttinbae Buebholz. Length .33 mm.; each abdominal lobe in 
male with 2 long and several small bristles; space between the lobes 
filled in by a membrane: on domestic pigeons and other birds. 


Uinnte mites witb an elongated body and a smooth integument; legs 
alike in the two sexes; mandibles usually chelate; eyes and tracheae 
absent; pedipalps close again^tt the mouth parts; young bom with 3 
pairs of legs, in most forms passing through a stage called the hypopus, 
in which it has 8 legs, but no month uid no distinct mouth parts, but 
with suckers on the under surface, which enable it to attach itself to 
some insect or other animal which will transport it to some new local- 
ity, where it completes its metamorphosis : about 47 species, 37 species 
being American; they are not parasitic, but live on dried or decaying 
animal and plant substances, but are often a pest to housekeepers, gar- 
deners, and grocers, especially as the hypopus is often spread by 
house flies. 


1. Ttrooltvkvb Latreille. Body elliptical, with a suture between 
the second and third pairs of legs ; male with 2 suckers on each side of 

the genital pore; mandibles chelate; a sucker at the 
top of each foot : about 8 species. 

T. Biro (L.). Cheese mite. Length .6 mm.; 
width .3 mm.; color whitish: in old cheese and sim- 
ilar substances. 

T. farinae (DeGeer) (Fig. 695). Length of 
male .5 mm. ; of female .3 nun. ; color whitish : in flour, 
grain, and stored foods; cosmopolitan; often a pest. 
T. lintezni Osbom. Similar to the above, but 
p. 695 smaller and with very long bristles extending baek- 

Tyroirl^Mi^ /oHnae wards from the body: in mushrooms. 

2. Rhizooltpkits Claparede. Suture between 
the second and third pair of legs; mandibles chelate; male with ventral 
suckers; feet short, with stout claws and spines: 2 species. 

B. hyadnthi (Boisduval). Bulb mite. Length .75 mm.: burrows 
into the bulbs of cultivated plants, giving entrance to fungi and bac- 
teria; often a pest in hot and green houses. 

Family 6. OBIBATIDAE.^ 

Homy or beetle mites. Body minute and divided into 2 parts by a 
transverse suture; integument hard, with few hairs; a bristle, which is 
often long, prominent, and club-shaped, and is called the pseudostig- 
matic organ, arises from a depression near the hinder margin of the 
cephalothorax on each side (Fig. 696, 1) ; mouth parts and pedipalps 
small and hidden beneath the head; mandibles chelate; claws 1 or 3; 
the young are often very bizarre in shape: about 20 genera with over 
300 species, which feed principally on vegetable or decaying animal mat- 
ter and are not parasitic, but live in moss, grass, among decaying leaves, 
in crevices of bark, etc. 

Key to the genera of Orihatidae here described: 

Oi AbdomcD with a pair of wins-like expansions 1. Galumka 

Oa No such expnnsioDB. 
hx Cephalothorax with a pair of dorso-lateral rid^os. 

Oi Body smooth 2. IjIAGasus 

c^ Body rough ; cephalothorax and abdomen not distinctly separated. 


^ No such ridges ; 3 claws on each leg. 

dx Body flat, often rectanin^ilar 4. Nothkus 

d. Abdomen very high with concentric rings 5. Nboliodes 

• See "On the Oribatoldea of tbe United States/* by N. Banks, Trans. Am. Knt 
Boc., Vol. 22, p. 1, 1S95. "Oribatidae," by A. D. Michael, Das Tierreich, 1898. ''New 
Orlbatldae from tbe United States," by N. Banks, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sol., Pblla., 1900. 
p. 490. 



Fig. 696 — Liaearu9 nitidu9 
(Banks) ; pseudostiginatlc organ. 

1. Oalvwka Heyden {Orihata Michael). Body shining blaok or 
brown in color, with a pair of horizontal wing-)ike expansions at the side 
of the abdomen and with 3 daws on each foot: 21 American species; in 
moss or on trees. 

O. pratensia Banks. Length .7 mm.; yellowish-brown in color: often 
common in meadows. 

O. emarginata Banks. Body dark 
reddish-brown in color and .9 mm. long; 
wing emarginate below: often common 
in moss, or on the ground. 

2. liZAOAmuB Michael. Body smooth, 
last 3 pairs of legs inserted under the 
body, each ending with 3 claws : 9 Amer- 
ican species. 

L. nitidna Banks (Fig. 696). Body 1 mm. long, subspherieal, shining 
dark reddish-brown or black: under fallen leaves, stones, etc.; common. 

3. SoirroVEBTEZ Michael. Divisions between cephalothoraz and 
abdomen not very distinct; body tough and sculptured: 2 American 

8. marinua Banks. Paired bristles on cephalothorax wanting: on 
the rocks between tide marks on the Atlantic seashore. 

4. KoTHSim Koch. Body rough and more or 
less rectangular; back flat or concave; legs short, 
thick, and rough, ending with 3 claws: 20 species, 
which live in moss, on bark of trees, or on rocks, 7 

K. ezdBiui Banks. Length .7 mm.; most of the 
hairs serrated: on the bark of spruce trees; New 
York state. 

K. mgnloBiu Banks. Body dark brown and 
very rough, appearing like a piece of dirt: common 
under loose bark. 
5. Kboliodsb Berlese. Abdomen convex and very high, with con- 
centric rings; feet with 3 claws: 3 species. 

N. concentrica (Say) (Fig. 697). Body black, 1.5 mm. long; color 
brown: on bark of trees; Europe. 

Fig. 697 — NeoUode* 



Family 7. OAMASIDAE. 

Scavenger mites. Body broad, with short l^s; eyes absent; man- 
dibles usually chelate, and beneath them is a bifid hypostome; pedipalps 
5- jointed and prominent; legs 6- jointed and ending with 2 claws or with 
a sucker; tracheae present, a pair of spiracles being located above the 


fourth legBy each being surrounded by a chitinous ring called the stig- 
mal plate or peritreme, which usually extends forwards a long distance; 
the young mostly bom with 3 pairs of legs : numerous species and about 
18 American genera, some of the sf>ecies being parasitic on insects, espe- 
cially beetles, and on vertebrates, while many species use insects for 
transportation; some lead a free life in moss and on the ground. 
Key to the genera of Gamasidae here described: 

0} Free-living or attached to insects and rarely to vertebrates. 
&t First pair of legs inserted on one side of the mouth opening. 

Ci Leg with one claw : female genital plate triangular 1. GAiCAaus 

Ct Jjtg 1 without claws ; leg 2 thickened 2. Macbochelbs 

6, First pair of legs inserted in the same opening as the mouth parts. 

4. Ubofoda 
Oa Parasitic on birds 3. Debmantssus 

1. Qamasub Latreille. Body usually flattened, with or without a 
transverse dorsal suture; female genital plate triangular; male genital 
pore on anterior margin of sternal plate: about 10 American species, 
which live on the ground, among fallen leaves, etc., or on insects. 

G. ooleoptomm (L.). Length .6 mm.; transverse dorsal suture pres- 
ent; 4 large spines projecting from the hinder end; anterior end trian- 
gular; first pair of legs with sucking discs: on beetles. 

2. Haoboohslbs Latreille. Body elongate, with 
no transverse dorsal suture; second leg enlarged, in 
male curved and armed with teeth; mandibles very 
thick; male genital pore on anterior margin of 
sternal plate; first pair of legs without claws: 
several species. 

M. mflBStna Banks. Body reddish-brown and 1 
mm. long, with 8 rows of clavate hairs above and a 
few on the hinder margin: common in ants' nests. 

3. DBBMAUYBSim Dug^. Bird mites. Body 
elongate and not distinctly constricted; hind legs 

^^' aSS^Sunae^^* ^^^ reaching the hinder end; mandibles chelate in 
(Banks). male, long and piercing in female: parasitic on birds, 

especially domesticated ones; 1 American species. 

D. gallinae (DeGeer). Chicken mite (Fig. 698). Body .7 mm. 
long, .4 mm. wide, pear-shaped and flat and reddish in color: the mites hide 
during the day in the coop and at night attack the fowls and suck their 
blood, and are often a serious pest; they frequently attack dogs, cats, 
and horses, as well as man. 

4. Ubomba Latreille. Body ovoid, with depressions on the under 
side for the reception of the legs; mandibles very long and slender, and 
chelate : on beetles, ants, and other insects ; some are parasitic, but most 


of the qtecies lue the insects only for tranBport&tion, heing young ani- 
mals in the nymphal st^e which attach themaelves by a pedicel of 
ezerement: as adults they live on the ground among fallen leaves, and 
in similar places; several species. 

6. V. v«git«u (DeOeer) (Fig. 699). Body 
arched, smooth, browniah in color, abont 1 mm. 
long: common. 


Ticks. No scutum, as in the Ixodidae; stigmal 
plate between legs 3 and 4: 16 American species, ^JS^siX)? 
vhich are nocturnal parasites of domestic birds. 

AasAfl Latreille. With the characters of the family: abont 10 

A. porsicas Fischer (A. mintatua Koch). The Uiana bug. Body 
ova) in shape, 5 mm. long in the male and 10 mm. in the female and 
brown in color : often a dangerous parasite of chickens from Florida to 
California; cosmopolitan; in western Asia it bites persons and is much 

Fauilt 9. IXODIDAE.* 

Ticks. Body often large, and covered with a leathery integument 
capable of great distention in the female, with prominent, slender legs 
and beak-like mouth parts; anterior dorsal surface covered with a homy 
shield, the scutum (Fig. 700, B], which in the male extends over the 
entire back; articulating with the anterior margin of this is the head or 
eapitulum, on which in the female are 2 pitted spots; head bears the 
short, thick, 3 or 4-jointed pedipalps at the sides and in the middle, 
the elongated beak or rostrum, which is made up of the 2 mandibular 
sheaths above, and the toothed bypostome or under lip beneath, with 
the 2 mandibles between, the latter organs being toothed at the tip; 
eyes present or not; tracheae present, the spiracles being just behind 
the last pair of legs, each surrounded by a stigmal plate or peritreme 
(Fig. 700, C); legs 6-jointed, ending with 2 claws and a pad, the foot 
of first pair also bearing a sense oi^n called Haller's organ: paraaitio 
on mammals, birds, and reptiles; the female, when gorged with blood, 
falls to the ground to lay her ^gs; the young ticks, which have but 
6 legs at first, nsnally ascend some plant and are brushed off by a 
passing vertebrate which can set as a host; 250 species, about 35 

• See "Tlie Cattle Ticks of tbe Cnlted StatM," by D. C. Silmoo and C. W. Saie«, 
Rep. Bureau ot .^a. Ind., U. 8. Dept. of As-. 1002, p. 360. "Iiodldae," br L. O. 
NenmaD, I>ai Tiettelcb, toil. 


Key to the genera of Ixodidae here described : 

Oi Pedipalps much longer than broad. 

bi Eyes absent 1. Ixodes 

&, Eyes present 2. Ambltomma 

Oa Pedipalps very short and thick. 

&i Stigmal plate round 3. Mabqabopus 

5, Stigmal plate comma-shaped 4. Debmacehtob 

1. Ixodes Latreille. Eyes absent; pedipalps and beak long and of 
the same length; anal groove surrounds anus anteriorly and is open pos- 
teriorly : over 50 species, about 14 in America. 

1. ricinus (L.). The castor bean tick. Body oval, in male 3.5 mm. 
long and 2 mm. broad and high ; in female 4 mm. to 11 mm. long, accord- 
ing to the amount of blood it has sucked, and brown or yellow in color; 

at the base of the 
first pair of legs in 

« f xtBJRiiLtew ^^^ female is a 

strong median 
spine: cosmopoli- 

4<.-i'.>7 C ^^^SSfl ^°' often common 

3 V*/ ^^ on domestic ani- 

A X ^ ^*' ^ mals, rabbits, etc, 

Fig. 7W>—Amhlyommaameric<inum (Hooker). A. dorsal ^^ on man. 
aspect of female; B, the scutum; C, stigmal plate. 1, » .^....i.-a- 

first leg ; 2, pedipalps ; 3, rostrnm. a. SCap VlariS 

Say. Body 3 to 6 

mm. long and 2 mm. broad, with a dark brown shield: common in the 

southern states on all kinds of wild animals, dogs, and cattle. 

2. Ambltoioia Koch. Eyes present; anal groove surrounds anus 
posteriorly and is open anteriorly; pedipalps and beak long: 86 spedes, 
4 American. 

A. americanum (L.). Lone star tick (Fig. 700). Body 4 mm. long, 
3 mm. wide; the gravid female may measure 12 mm. in length and 8 
mm. breadth; color of male brown, of female bluish, with a brown 
scutum, the hinder end of which has a conspicuous yellowish spot, 
which gives the animal its popular name: often common on cattle, also 
on man. 

3. MABaASOPVS Karsch (BoopMlua Curtice). Eyes present, often 
indistinct; pedipalps short and broad, with the second and third joints 
extended laterally into sharp points; spiracles round: 2 spedes, 1 

M. annulatns'i' (Say) (M. hovis Riley). Texas cattle tick (Fig. 701). 
Body oval and 2.30 nun. long, and brown in color in male, and elliptical 

• See "Texas Fever," etc., br J. R. Mohler. Bull. 78, Bur. Animal Industry, 
Dept. Ag. 1905. 



or more or less rectangular and np to 13 mm. long and yellowish or 
alate-color in the female: southern states, on cattle, often very common, 
causing the destructive Texas fever, the disease being caused by the 
inoculation of the cattle by the tick of Babesia higenUna, a sporozoan 
blood parasite (see page 47). 

4. Dbbxaoshtob Koch. Eyes present; pedipalps short and broad; 
stigmal plate comma^shaped ; scutum partially white or yellow: 20 
species, about 4 American. 

D. variabilis (Say) {D. electus Koch). Dog tick (Fig. 702). Body 
oval or rectangular; scutum reddish-brown with white spots; stigmal 

Fig. 701 

Fig. 702 

ing. 701 — Margaropus annulaiuB (Banks). A, female; B» male. Fig. 702 — Derma^ 

center voiiaoilfo — male (Banks). 

plate finely punctate; color brown, variegated; length iii replete female 
15 mm.; breadth 9 mm.: on domestic animals and man, often abundant 
in the eastern and central states, being the tick that often attaches to 
persons in the woods. 

D. yeniutas* Banks. The Rocky Mountain spotted-fever tick. Body 
an elongated oval and 2 to 6 mm. long in the male and about 15 mm. 
long in the female and reddish-brown in color: the northwestern states; 
the larvae live on small mammals and the adults on the larger domestic 
animals and man ; the cause of a very dangerous fever which is the result 
of the inoculation by the tick of a sporozoan blood parasite, Babesia 
homims (see page 47). 

Family 10. HYDBACUN IDAE.f 

Fresh-water mites. Body usually ovoid or spherical and sometimes 
of large size, and often brightly colored; 1 or 2 pairs of eyes present; 

* See "A Zoological Inyestlgatlon Into the Cause, Transmission, and Source of 
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever," by C. W. Stiles, Bull. No. 20, Hyg. Lab., Treasury 
Department, Washington, 1905. 

t See "Nordamerikanlsche Hydrachniden," by F. Koenike, Abh. d. natnr. Ver. zu 
Bremen, Vol. 13, p. 167, 1895. "Deutschlands Hydrachniden," by R. Piersig, Blbl. 
Zool. No. 22, 1897 to 1900. "Hydrachnidae und Halacaridae," by R. Piersig und 


mandibles with a temiinal claw; pedipalps 5-jointed and nsnally long, 
the terminal claw being sometimes bent down to form a grasping organ; 
legs usually 5-jointed, with or without swimming hairsi and joined to 
body by prominent coxal plates (Fig. 705, 1) ; a pair of spiracles on the 
dorsal side of the rostrum; genital pore surrounded by a plate and 
usually near the center of the body; numerous minute suckers often on 
each side of the genital pore; eggs laid on plants, stones, etc; yoong 
bom with 6 legs and usually go through a complex metamorphosis, often 
attaching themselves to aquatic insects : about 70 genera and 500 species, 
most of which live in fresh water, a few being found in brackish water 
or in the sea, and the genus Unionicola being parasitic in mollusks; about 
100 American speeies; 5 subfamilies. 

Key to the subfamilies of Hydrachnidae : 

Hi Large red mites with 4 eyes close together on a plate. 

ht Eye plate long and narrow 1. LiMNoCHAmRAK 

fta E3ye plate short, broad and paired 2. Etlainab 

a. Eyes not close together on a plate, but far apart. 
5i Pedipalps chelate. 

Ci Mandibles 1-jointed, straight and needle-like 3. Hydrachninab 

0^ Mandibles 2- jointed, the terminal joint a curved hook. 4. Htdbyphantinae 
fts Pedipalps not chelate 5. Htgbobatinas 


Body very soft, variable in form, red in color; eyes 4, near together 
on a long lanceolate plate : 2 genera. 

IiZKHOOHARES Latreille. Body rectangular; legs without swimming 
hairs, but with spines, and in 2 widely separated groups of 2 each : the 
animals do not swim but walk slowly over the mud and plants in the 
water; 2 species. 

L. aqnatica (L.) (Fig. 703). Body red, 4 mm. long: on the bottom 
of ponds; cosmopolitan and common; larvae attached to water skaters 
{Eydrometridae ) . 

Subfamily 2. ETLAINAE. 

Body soft, regular in outline, red in color; eyes 4, near together on a 
paired plate: 2 genera. 

Etlais Latreille. Body oval, legs long, with swimming hairs, 
rather close together; genital pore between the first 2 pairs: 35 species, 
the larvae of which have been found on mosquitoes; 3 American speeies, 
which are rapid swimmers. 

H. Lohmann, Das Tlerreich, 1901. *'A Review of the Genera of the Water Mites.** by 
I R. TT. Wolcott, Trans. Am. Mic. Soc., Vol. 26, p. 161, 1905. "Die Sasswasserfaona 

I DentBchlands, Heft 12, Araneae und Acarina," by F. Koenike, 1909. 



E. eactendeiiM (O. F. Miiller) (Fig. 704). Body red, 4 mm. long: in 
ponds; cosmopolitan and common. 

Subfamily 3. HYDBAGHNINAE. 

Body soft, sometimes with ehitinons plates; 4 eyes, 2 on each side 
and sometimes another in the middle; rostrum usually elongate, forming 
a snout, at the end of which is the mouth; mandibles 1-jointed, long and 
needle-like; pedipalps chelate: 2 genera. 

Htdsaohna O. F. Miiller. Body oval or round; legs rather short, 
the last 3 pairs with swimming hairs; genital pore between the last 2 

Fig. 703 ng. 704 FJg. 705 

Fig. 703 — Limnocharet aquatioa (Banks). A, ventral aspect; B, dorsal eye plate. 
Fig. 704 — ^Biflais extendens (Wolcott). A, ventral aspect; B, dorsal eye plate. Fig. 
705 — Hy6raehna geograpMoa (Wolcott). 1, coxal plates; 2, genital plate. 

pairs of legs; the larvae attach themselves to aquatic insects: about 33 
epecies, 8 American. 

H. geographica (Miill.) (Fig. 705). Body oval, arched, dark red in 
color with dark spots on the back; length 7 mm.: often common; 


Body soft, sometimes with chitinous plates, and red or brownish in 
color; 1 or 2 eyes on each side and sometimes a median eye; coxal plates 
in 4 groups : the larva leaves the water and is parasitic on aerial insects, 
returning to the water to complete its transformation; 13 genera. 

Key to the genera of Hydryphantinae here described : 

Ox One eye on each side contained In a chitiiioas capsule, and a median eye. 

5i Swimming hairs on legs 1. Htdbythantes 

\ No swimming hairs 2. Thtas 

Os Two eyes on each side and do median eye 3. Diplodontus 

1. Eydetfkavtbs Koch. Swimming hairs on the last 3 pairs of 
legs; median eye surrounded by a chitinous plate, but no other chitinous 
plates on the dorsal surface: 17 species. 

H. ruler (DeGeer) (Fig. 706). Body 2 mm. long, red in color, often